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The future of the Supply Chain Industry in Africa

Framework for Involvement in Rainfed Food Crop Supply Chains Development in West and Central Africa

  • July 2010
  • 97 pages

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  • Segment Coverage

    Food  

    Agriculture  

    Crop Production  

    Agribusiness  

    Logistics And Frei...  

    Supply Chain  

    Supply Chain Risk ...  

  • Geographic Coverage

    Africa  

    Nigeria  

    World  

  • Type of data

    Forecast  

    Supply  

    Demand  

  • Framework for involvement in rainfed food crop supply chains development in West
  • and Central Africa 1
  • Elements of analysis and proposals 1
  • Final document July 2010 1
  • Sommaire 2
  • Overview 5
  • framework for AFD and IFAD involvement in rainfed food crop supply chains in
  • West and 5
  • Increasing production based on good results from dynamic zones 5
  • Reinforcing links between agricultural production and urban food demand 6
  • As the processing sector is one of the main bottlenecks for fully matching
  • supply to demand, it will have to be strengthened if supply chains for African
  • rainfed food crops are to be 6
  • Strengthening funding supply adapted to rural constraints 7
  • Stabilizing the economic environment allowing the investments required for
  • further and faster agricultural growth 7
  • Linking development projects with food crop policies 8
  • 1. Objectives 9
  • Objectives of the framework 9
  • 2. Context 10
  • 3. Geography and supply chains 10
  • 4. Regional policies 10
  • 4.1. In West Africa: ECOWAP and APU 10
  • Regional priorities defined by ECOWAS 11
  • Main policy orientations defined by the Agricultural Policy of the Union 11
  • 4.2. In Central Africa: Common Agricultural Strategy of CEMAC 12
  • Part 1. Supply chains and areas of production 13
  • 1.1. A grain production three times higher 13
  • has multiplied by a factor of five and more, and rice, sorghum, 13
  • 1. Production dynamics 13
  • 1.2. A root and tuber production three times higher, resulting from potato and
  • yam growth 14
  • 1.3. An oleaginous production lagging behind while demand booms 14
  • 1.4. A breakthrough in leguminous production? 15
  • 1.5. An increasing food availability but still inadequate 16
  • 2. Consumption dynamics 17
  • 2.1. Two main diet types 17
  • 2.2. Prevalence of rural consumption and auto-consumption 19
  • 2.3. Rapid development of urban market 19
  • 2.3.1. Structure and value of urban market 19
  • Four-fifth of cities food consumption needs are met by local and regionally
  • traded African 21
  • 2.3.2. The limited importance of food imports 21
  • largely extroverted food diet. 21
  • 2.3.3. Urban markets are more important than agricultural export markets 21
  • 2.3.4. Urban demand could work as a driving-force for the rest of the supply
  • chain 22
  • 3. Supply chain analysis 23
  • 3.1. The rice supply chain 23
  • 3.1.1. Main production areas 23
  • At country level 24
  • At regional level 25
  • 3.1.3. Economic analysis and opportunities 25
  • Rice contribution to calorie availability in West Africa 25
  • Rice self-sufficiency in West Africa 26
  • 3.1.4. Strengths, bottlenecks and progress margins 28
  • Strengths of the supply chain 28
  • Leads for supply chain strengthening 29
  • Bottlenecks 29
  • Possible research/innovation initiatives for the development of rainfed rice
  • supply chains in West and Central Africa 30
  • technical frameworks developed in the late 1990s in the North and South of Ivory
  • Coast as 30
  • on two very complex issues: production potential 30
  • 3.2.2. Intensification dynamics 32
  • growth largely based on a rise in yields and a smaller increase in cultivated 32
  • 3.2.4. Strengths, bottlenecks and progress margins 34
  • Strengths of the supply chain 34
  • Bottlenecks 34
  • Leads for supply chain strengthening 34
  • Possible research/innovation initiatives for the development of corn supply
  • chains in West and Central Africa 35
  • Crop combination is known to be adapted to low mechanized agriculture as well as
  • the risk 35
  • feedstock industry is an important 36
  • 3.3.2. Intensification dynamics 38
  • 3.3.4. Strengths, bottlenecks and progress margins 40
  • Strengths of the supply chain 40
  • Bottlenecks 40
  • Leads for supply chain strengthening 40
  • mainly rely on the dissemination of small mechanic processing equipments to
  • increase labor 41
  • Possible research/innovation initiatives for manioc supply chain in West and
  • Central Africa 42
  • dissemination of varieties (origin IITA) resistant to virus (through
  • micro-cutting) at the village 42
  • production gains could also occurred through an increasing demand for starch and
  • alcohol. 42
  • adapt production to actual demand and to capitalize on the multiple
  • opportunities of the supply 43
  • 3.4. The mille-sorghum supply chain 44
  • 3.4.1. Main production areas 44
  • 3.4.3. Economic analysis and opportunities 45
  • Strengths of the supply chain 46
  • Bottlenecks 47
  • Leads for supply chain strengthening 48
  • Taking into account policies on by-products 48
  • 3.5.2. Intensification dynamics 50
  • 3.5.4. Strengths, bottlenecks and progress margins 51
  • Strengths of the supply chain 51
  • Bottlenecks 51
  • Leads for supply chain strengthening 52
  • this technique in other yam producing countries would reduce constraints linked
  • to exclusively fresh tube-based marketing, and to diversify a supply chain
  • African consumers are very 52
  • 3.6.3. Dynamiques d'intensification 53
  • 4. Transversal comments 55
  • 4.1. Integrating supply chains and cultivation systems interactions 55
  • Fostering knowledge sharing 55
  • 4.2.2. The choice of the area: where to intervene? 55
  • 4.2. Adopting a regional approach of production areas 55
  • 4.2.1. Coordinating actions between regional and national levels 55
  • 4.3. Which stakeholders to support ? 56
  • 4.4. Concluding elements 57
  • 4.4.1. Production: what should be remembered? 57
  • At regional level 57
  • Typology of countries according to production factors 57
  • Production stagnation 57
  • Production increase resulting from yield rise 57
  • Tubers 57
  • Production increase resulting from cultivated areas extension 57
  • Production increase resulting from yield rise 57
  • Production stagnation 58
  • Production increase resulting from yield rise 58
  • Dynamic production areas 58
  • 4.4.2. Consumption: what should be remembered 58
  • yields would have to be multiply by a factor of 4 by 2025 and 6 by 2050. 58
  • first for rice which still has very low average yields. Secondly, improvement of
  • average 58
  • 4.4.3. Evolution scenarios for production; what should be remembered 58
  • Part 2. Relevance of the supply chain approach 60
  • 1. Reinforcing intermediation between agricultural production and food demand 60
  • The intermediation system between agricultural production and food demand is a
  • powerful 60
  • 1.1. A sector dominated by microbusinesses 60
  • 1.1.1. A under-used leverage effect 60
  • 1.1.2. Some characteristics and constraints of small businesses 61
  • 1.2. Leads for agri-food processing activities strengthening 61
  • 1.2.1. Supporting the emergence of professional organizations 61
  • 1.2.2. Improving business environment 61
  • 1.2.4. Developing technical innovations for processing 62
  • 1.2.3. Strengthening sanitary quality product 62
  • 1.2.5. Developing an adapted service supply 63
  • stabilizing the environment and improving market access conditions are paramount
  • challenges 63
  • businesses 63
  • 2. Promoting an enhancing environment 63
  • 2.1. Actions to be taken at regional level 63
  • 2.1.1. Collective elaboration of standards and regulations 64
  • 2.1.2. Supporting information dissemination 64
  • 2.1.3. Developing infrastructures to facilitate trade flows 64
  • 2.1.5. Looking for synergies in agricultural research 65
  • 2.1.6. Other remarks 66
  • 2.2. Actions in partnership with the State 66
  • 2.2.1. Establishing supply chain policies 66
  • 2.2.2. Controling price variability 67
  • Management tools for agricultural price instability: a synthesis 67
  • Price stabilization strategies 67
  • Price stabilization strategies must be different according to the cause of the
  • instability, e.g. 68
  • the objective is the reconstruction and strengthening of household capacity to
  • cope with food insecurity through the development of medium and long- 68
  • Reducing households vulnerability 68
  • 2.2.3. The issue of land 68
  • 2.2.4. Developing infrastructures 69
  • 2.2.5. Strengthening human capital 69
  • Part 3. Some good practices 71
  • 1.1.1. Support to the Federation of farmers from Fouta Djalon (FPFD) Project:
  • the strength of contractualisation 71
  • 1. Financing supply chain operations 71
  • 1.1. Inputs financing 71
  • 1.1.2. Financing through processors: ESOPs 71
  • 1.1.3. Support to inputs providers: the agri-traders development programme
  • (AGRA) 73
  • 1.2. Financing of the agricultural season: the example of PACCEM in Mali 73
  • 1.3. Marketing financing 73
  • 1.3.1. Warrant© credit in Niger 73
  • 1.3.2. Marketing credit; the example of rural credit in Guinea (CRG) 74
  • 1.3.3. Other example of commercial loan: common village granuary (GCV) of CECAMs
  • in Madagascar 75
  • Loan-stocking FAs-MFIs 75
  • 1.4. Agricultural investment financing 76
  • 1.5. Improving credit environment 76
  • 2. Promoting technical innovations, strengthening agricultural research 77
  • dependence 77
  • 2.1. Some interesting examples 77
  • 1.6. Linking credit and marketing 77
  • 2.2. Limits of projects focusing on one technical innovation 78
  • 2.3. No "simple and quick solution" 78
  • 2.4. Adapting technologies to local environment 78
  • 2.5. Recognition and support of dynamics 78
  • 2.6. Innovation process drivers 78
  • 2.7. Supporting the organization of the supply chain participants 79
  • 2.7.1. Supporting inter-professional organizations 79
  • 2.7.2. Contractualization 79
  • development needs of supply chains. Thus, we are still far from the approach
  • adopted for some export supply chains where infrastructure planning and
  • financing are systematically 80
  • 2.7.3. Capital sharing 80
  • 2.7.4. Infrastructure planning 80
  • 2.7.7. Seeking for the financial self-sufficiency of the structures the projects
  • are based on 80
  • 2.7.5. Strengthening supply chain participants 80
  • 2.7.6. Strengthening service providers 80
  • 2.7.8. Balancing support to the different stakeholders 80
  • 3. Transversal remarks 81
  • 3.1. Enhancing the success criteria of programmes 81
  • 3.2. Improving information systems 81
  • 3.3. An agreement between technical and financial partners 81
  • Conclusion 82
  • market embodies an important market opportunity for African food crop products
  • and could be 82
  • Annex 1. Rice demand caracteristics by country 84
  • Rice market caracteristics 84
  • Country 84
  • Annexes 84
  • Annex 2. Price stabilization policies by origin 86
  • Price stabilization in a context of imported instability 86
  • Price stabilization in a context of endogenous instability 86
  • Price stabilization in a context of natural instability 86
  • Annex 3. Analysis framework 88
  • Annex 4. Information sources (non exhaustive) 90
  • in manioc, corn and rice production 91
  • Annex 5. Comparative analysis of Nigeria, Brazil and Thailand competitiveness 91
  • 1.5. Global observations based on value chains analysis 93
  • Opportunities in domestic and regional markets 93
  • A competitiveness based on low production costs 94
  • Small farms have a role to played in African countries competitiveness 94
  • Bibliography 95
  • Évolution des principales productions cĂ©rĂ©alières 13
  • Evolution des productions de manioc et d'igname de la rĂ©gion 14
  • Production de lĂ©gumineuses dans la rĂ©gion 16
  • Starch food needs by 2025 and 2050 For the region in millions of tons (including
  • cities) 16
  • Food availability per product for the 2003-07 period 17
  • Food availability by agro-nutritional category For the sub-region of Cilss
  • countries 18
  • Food availability by agro-nutritional category for Nigeria 19
  • Urban grain consumption share in national food availability (in volumes) 20
  • Value and structure of food market in some West African capitals (2008, in
  • billions FCFA) 21
  • Food product origin in urban markets 21
  • Urban food markets and agricultural export markets (in USD million) 22
  • Urban consumption share in domestic consumption and projected trends 22
  • Systems, areas and yields for rice production in West Africa 23
  • 3.1.2. Intensification dynamics 23
  • Rice production yields by production system in West Africa, 1984, 1999/2003 24
  • Regional production won't be able to cope with booming demand 25
  • Rice imports by country (2004-2007) 27
  • Rice demand projections by 2025 27
  • Expected deficits and surplus according to growth scenario 28
  • 3.2. The corn supply chain 32
  • Expected deficits and surplus according to growth scenario 33
  • 3.2.3. Economic analysis and opportunities 33
  • 3.3. The manioc supply chain 38
  • Expected deficits and surplus according to growth scenarios 39
  • 3.3.3. Economic analysis and opportunities 39
  • 3.4.2. Intensification dynamics 44
  • Expected deficits and surplus according to growth scenario 46
  • 3.4.4. Strengths, bottlenecks and progress margins 46
  • 3.5.3. Economic analysis and opportunities 50
  • 3.5. The yam supply chain 50
  • DĂ©ficits et excĂ©dents prĂ©visibles selon les scĂ©narii de croissance 51
  • 3.6. The peanut and niĂ©bĂ© supply chains 53
  • 3.6.2. The niĂ©bĂ© breakthrough 53
  • Targeting marginalized regions: a bet on the future 56
  • The main constraints faced by these businesses are sum up in the following
  • scheme: 61
  • 2.1.4. Stabilizing prices 65
  • Intervention levels and terms of ESOPs system 72
  • Garantie sur la rĂ©colte (30 Ă  70 % de la 75
  • 1.2. Nigeria competitiveness in manioc production (2007) 91
  • 1.3. Nigeria competitiveness in corn production (2007) 92
  • 1.4. Nigeria competitiveness in rice production (2007) 93

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