INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALs AND OBJECTIVES

Worldwide, natural gas reserves far exceed oil reserves. Indeed, at current consumption rates, the earth has about a 45-year supply of oil, compared with a nearly 1,000-year supply of natural gas. In many locales, though, natural gas is “stranded” and thus suppliers have limited markets. A key objective of gas suppliers is the development of processing and conversion technologies, such as gas to liquids, that would enable entry to the multitrillion-dollar market for chemicals and liquid fuels.

The gas-to-liquids (GTL) business is involved in the chemical conversion of stranded natural gas feedstocks to liquid products such as transportation fuels and chemicals. Insofar as beneficial processing of the world’s huge resource base of stranded natural gas is concerned, GTL processing is a relatively recent research and development (R&D) focus of the petrochemical industry. Development of commercial-scale GTL plants, utilizing stranded natural gas, is a relatively recent development, too. Hence, the need for this BCC Research report.

Liquid GTL products are primarily transportation fuels (and are defined as synthetic fuels, or synthetic fuels) and chemical feedstocks such as methanol, hydrogen, and other petrochemicals. As the terms are presently used in the petrochemical industry, “GTL” and “GTL products” refer mainly to the output of plants (or refineries) that utilize stranded natural gas as feedstock. For that reason, conventional production of chemicals, including high-volume methanol, typically via steam methane reforming (SMR) of nonstranded natural gas, is not a principal focus of this report.

The objective of this BCC Research report is to provide an up-to-date and critical evaluation of the most dynamic and pathbreaking aspects of GTL technology and describe how recent breakthroughs in conversion technology have made GTL products competitive with products refined from crude oil. This report discusses the use of GTL processes to produce ultraclean diesel fuels and high-quality chemical products such as waxes. BCC assesses the role of GTL as an enabling technology for the production of clean transportation fuels.

A principal focus of the report is individual company initiatives and their R&D focus. Discussed as well is the status of all major GTL projects around the world that utilize stranded gas. Included are descriptions of technologies and products, and a forecast of the GTL market through 2017. The report quantifies demand for GTL by type of output, application, and production technology. A significant component of this report analyzes competitive synfuel concepts, as the commercial success of competitive synfuel concepts will weigh heavily on the ultimate trajectory of the GTL business. These competitive fuels include those derived from coal-to-liquids (CTL) and biomass-to-liquids (BTL).

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

A significant amount of the world’s natural gas resources are stranded, far from existing markets. In the U.S. market, the recent substantial increase in natural gas reserves creates a technical and market opportunity for lower cost conversion to liquid fuels and chemicals. GTL technologies can economically convert these resources into high-quality, ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels that can be transported to consumers or used in remote locations.

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processing of synthesis gas (synthesis gas) has undergone significant improvements in reactor design and product recovery and is no longer limited to large-scale commercial demonstrations. The process creates liquid fuel from synthesis gas, either gasified from hydrocarbon sources or natural gas, but not crude oil. FT processing has allowed South Africa, for instance, to reduce its dependency on foreign crude after World War II.

Technically, GTL fuel production is in a relatively advanced stage of development, with commercial production well demonstrated in, for example, Qatar, Malaysia, and South Africa. Although synthetic fuels can be produced from a range of feedstocks—biomass, coal, and natural gas—the GTL process is at the most advanced stage of commercial development. In addition, GTL utilizes gas resources that are either flared or currently unmarketable. Synfuel production via GTL processing of stranded gas is approximately 100 mbbl/d (thousand barrels per day), and it is estimated that as many as 10 large-scale GTL plants will be in operation over the next decade, producing as much as 300 mbbl/d of GTL products.

Many major oil companies have announced plans to investigate producing synthetic diesel fuel via a GTL process. However, a handful of companies, such as established GTL companies Sasol, Shell, Syntroleum and Rentech, are the dominant producers. As discussed in this report, though, there are numerous “second-tier” companies that have sizable GTL support operations in engineering, design, plant construction, ancillaries, and related activities. Generally, R&D is improving the efficiency and economics of GTL production as well as quantifying the costs and benefits of production and use of GTL fuel in vehicles.

GTL-derived fuels do have competition in the alternatives market, and these competitors include low-grade and synthetic petroleum (e.g., from tar sands in Canada), compressed natural gas (CNG), CTL, biofuels, electric vehicles (EVs), and hydrogen. Although liquid fuels could be increasingly supplied by low-quality and synthetic petroleum, such as tar sands, due to the sheer size of readily accessible resources and the available technologies to turn such resources into liquid fuel, those fuels have much higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than conventional petroleum, as well as GTL. BCC predicts this will be a highly significant negative factor in terms of product demand. Currently, production capacity for fossil-based “alternative” fuels is about 2.5 mbbl/d, of which the largest portion is tar sands and extra-heavy oil production. This, of course, far exceeds present GTL output.

These fossil-based alternative fuels now account for only 3% of global oil production but could double within the next five years. However, environmental mandates could be a significant force behind growing utilization of GTL for chemical and energy production. Higher-purity transportation fuels, such as ULSD, will become mandatory in most jurisdictions. GTL will offer both petroleum refiners and automakers flexibility to meet international agreements. In addition, GTL-derived fuel may have a slight GHG emission advantage.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

With its broad scope and in-depth analyses, this study will prove to be a valuable resource, particularly for anyone involved with or interested in the synthetic transportation fuels market. It will be particularly useful for researchers; laboratory and government personnel working in research or company settings; as well as business professionals, such as marketing managers, strategic planners, forecasters, and new product and business developers, who are involved with most aspects of the liquids fuels industry. It also will be of value to potential investors and members of the general public who are interested in acquiring a business-oriented view of GTL and the synthetic fuels business. The projections, forecasts, and trend analyses found in this report will provide readers with the necessary data and information for decision making.

SCOPE OF REPORT

In preparing this report, an overall study of the GTL market was undertaken. All areas of the GTL market are addressed, including identification of current and future technologies, product types, and market segments/end markets. Legislation and government and regulatory agency involvement are analyzed. The producing companies are discussed in light of technological strengths and weaknesses, market shares, marketing strengths, and innovative marketing practices.

This report, which is divided into seven sections, assesses and evaluates the demand and costs of GTL in the chemical and energy production markets. It begins with an overview that describes the importance of the GTL industry in relation to the overall U.S. economy, including a brief history and important indications for the GTL industry. Major products and applications are reviewed, and key findings from the study are presented.

Environmental and energy regulations as they apply to GTL are discussed. The structure of the GTL industry and competitive aspects are analyzed, including the driving forces of the industry. Key strategies for staying competitive and important shifts in the industry are assessed. GTL industry trade practices and the impact of GTL on the oil industry are covered.

GTL markets by product type are evaluated, including synthetic fuels and chemicals. These are quantified with forecasts through 2014. Competing markets for gas are discussed including liquefied natural gas (LNG) and natural gas liquid (NGL). GTL technology is presented by covering patents and markets and investments by technology type. These technology types include Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis (SMDS), Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate (SSPD), Exxon Mobil’s Advanced Gas Conversion for the 21st Century (AGC-21), Syntroleum process (SP), and Rentech. International GTL aspects also are considered, and major overseas companies involved in GTL processes and their activities are assessed.

INFORMATION SOURCES

Data for this study were collected using both primary and secondary data research techniques. A literature search was conducted covering scientific, business and technical documents as well as patents. Since some segments of the GTL market are not routinely measured, BCC derived estimates from a variety of sources. Whenever market estimates are derived, they are fully noted. All forecasts are in current (nominal) dollars, unadjusted for inflation. Information sources include trade data (national and international), company literature, conference reports, world trade technical journals, and interviews with company representatives.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

Research analyst Kevin Gainer is the former managing editor of the BCC Research quarterly publication Energy Magazine. He holds both a bachelor’s degree and a master’s degree in quantitative economic analysis, and has 28 years of economics and market research experience including nine years as an energy analyst at American Electric Power Corp. He is the author of five published books and dozens of technical papers, analyses, and studies published in conference proceedings and

many unpublished within corporations. He has worked as research editor at BCC and has authored many BCC technology market research reports.

Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC PUBLICATIONS 5
BCC ON-LINE SERVICES 5
DISCLAIMER 6
CHAPTER TWO: SUMMARY 7
MAJOR FINDINGS 7
KEY FINDINGS OF THIS STUDY 8
KEY FINDINGS OF THIS STUDY (CONTINUED) 9
SUMMARY TABLE MARKET VALUE FORECAST OF PRODUCTS
PRODUCED VIA GTL WITH COMPARISONS TO CTL AND BTL,
THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 10
SUMMARY FIGURE MARKET VALUE FORECAST OF PRODUCTS
PRODUCED VIA GTL WITH COMPARISONS TO CTL AND BTL,
2010-2017 ($ BILLIONS) 10
CHAPTER THREE: OVERVIEW 11
NATURAL GAS AND GTL IN THE TRANSPORTATION SECTOR 11
MAGNITUDE AND LOCATION OF STRANDED GAS 12
TABLE 1 DISTRIBUTION OF WORLD STRANDED NATURAL GAS
RESOURCES BY REGION, 2012 (% DISTRIBUTION) 12
TABLE 2 ESTIMATED VOLUMES OF FLARED GAS FROM
SATELLITE DATA, 2005-2008 (VOLUMES IN BCM) 13
INVESTMENT SITUATION 13
CARBON REGULATIONS AND GTL MARKET PROSPECTS 14
FACTORS DRIVING ADOPTION OF GTL PROCESSES 15
OVERVIEW OF RECENT ACTIVITY 16
TABLE 3 KEY EXAMPLES OF GTL DEMONSTRATION PLANTS 17
OFFSHORE GTL AT PETROBRAS REFINERY 17
SASOL 18
RENTECH 18
SYNTROLEUM CORPORATION 19
MODEC 20
WORLD GTL 21
BHP BILLITON 21
EXXON MOBIL 21
SHELL 22
QATAR AND EGYPT: MAJOR FOCUS FOR GTL PROJECTS 23
QATAR 23
PROJECT LIST 24
TABLE 4 PRINCIPAL GTL PLANTS AROUND THE WORLD 25
HISTORY OF THE GTL INDUSTRY 26
FIGURE 1 GTL PRODUCTION OPTIONS, TRANSPORTATION FUELS,
AND CHEMICALS 26
TABLE 5 CURRENT WORLD COMMERCIAL SYNFUEL CAPACITY
(BBL/D) 27
TABLE 6 COMPARATIVE MERITS AND DRAWBACKS OF FT 28
SHELL SMDS 28
Shell SMDS (Continued) 29
SASOL GTL PROCESSES 30
Sasol GTL Processes (Continued) 31
SASOL CTL PLANTS 32
STATOIL AND PETROSA 33
RENTECH 34
Rentech (Continued) 35
EXXON MOBIL’S ADVANCED GAS CONVERSION 36
SYNTROLEUM CORPORATION 37
Syntroleum Corporation (Continued) 38
BP PILOT PLANT IN ALASKA 39
CHOREN INDUSTRIES 40
SYNTHETIC FUELS INTERNATIONAL 40
CANMETENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER—CETC
SUPERCETANE TECHNOLOGY 41
Canmetenergy Technology Center (Continued) 42
Canmetenergy Technology Center (Continued) 43
COMPACTGTL 44
CompactGTL (Continued) 45
LNG MARKETS AND CTL 46
LNG MARKETS AND CTL (CONTINUED) 47
COAL TO LIQUIDS 48
SRI INTERNATIONAL ALTERNATIVE TO FISCHERTROPSCH
49
NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY STUDY 49
BAARD ENERGY CTL PLANT 50
TABLE 7 OPERATING AND PLANNED LARGE COAL
GASIFICATION/ CTL PLANTS STATUS, AS OF 2012 50
TABLE 7 (CONTINUED) 51
TABLE 7 (CONTINUED) 52
TABLE 7 (CONTINUED) 53
GTL TECHNOLOGIES 54
INTRODUCTION 54
TECHNOLOGIES AND PRODUCTION COSTS 54
GTL PLANT SCALES 55
GTL Plant Scales (Continued) 56
GTL Plant Scales (Continued) 57
GTL OUTPUTS 58
GTL Outputs (Continued) 59
REFORMING 60
Adiabatic Prereforming 61
Tubular Reforming 62
Advanced Reforming 62
Sulfur-Passivated Reforming 62
Catalytic Partial Oxidation 63
Two-Step Reforming 63
Heat Exchange Reforming 63
Catalyst Developments 64
HYDROGEN SHIFT CONVERSION AND METHANATION 65
SHIFT CONVERSION 66
METHANATION 66
CHAPTER FOUR: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE
DEVELOPMENTS 67
TIER 1—LARGE DEVELOPERS / PATENT HOLDERS 67
BHP BILLITON 67
BP 68
CHEVRON CORP 68
CONOCOPHILLIPS CO 69
EXXON MOBIL CORP 70
GTL F1 AG 71
IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES 71
IVANHOE ENERGY 72
LINC ENERGY LTD 73
MARATHON OIL CORP 74
METHANEX CORP 75
PETROSA 76
RENTECH INC 76
REPSOL 77
ROYAL DUTCH SHELL PLC 78
SASOL CHEVRON 79
SASOL SYNTHETIC FUELS INTERNATIONAL 79
STATOIL 80
SYNTROLEUM CORP 81
TOTAL 82
Total (Continued) 83
TIER 2—COMPONENT AND ENGINEERING SERVICES
SUPPLIERS 84
ABB LUMMUS GLOBAL GMBH 84
AIR LIQUIDE GROUP 84
AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS INC 85
AMEC PROCESS AND ENERGY LTD 86
AXENS 86
BASF CORP 87
BLACK and VEATCH HOLDING CO 87
CHICAGO BRIDGE and IRON CO 88
Chicago Bridge and Iron Co (Continued) 89
CRYOMECH INC 90
DELTA HUDSON ENGINEERING LTD 90
DESCON ENGINEERING CO INC 90
DOW CHEMICAL CO 91
ELTRON RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT INC 91
FLUOR CORP 92
FMC TECHNOLOGIES 93
FOSTER WHEELER CORP 94
HALDOR TOPSØE A/S 95
INTEGRATED CONCEPTS AND RESEARCH CORPORATION 96
JAPAN OIL, GAS, AND METALS NATIONAL CORPORATION 97
JOHNSON MATTHEY CATALYSTS 98
KINETICS TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL CORP INC 98
THE LINDE GROUP 99
LURGI AG 100
MITSUI OCEAN DEVELOPMENT and ENGINEERING CO
LTD 101
NIPPON STEEL CORP 101
OXFORD CATALYSTS 102
Oxford Catalysts (Continued) 103
PALL CORP 104
PRAXAIR INC 105
SIEMENS AG 106
STORK BV 106
SYNTHETIC FUELS INTERNATIONAL INC 107
TECHNIP 108
UOP LLC 108
UOP LLC (Continued) 109
TIER 3—DEVELOPMENT STAGE COMPANIES 110
ACCELERGY CORPORATION 110
ANELLOTECH INC 110
BAARD ENERGY LLC 111
BLUEFIRE RENEWABLES INC 111
CARBON SCIENCES INC 112
COMPACTGTL PLC 113
CompactGTL PLC 114
GAS REACTION TECHNOLOGIES INC 115
HYDROGENICS CORP 116
PRIMUS GREEN ENERGY 116
SILURIA TECHNOLOGIES INC 117
SYNTHESIS ENERGY SYSTEMS INC 117
THERMOCHEM RECOVERY INTERNATIONAL 118
VIRENT 119
WORLD GTL 120
SCIENTIFIC, GOVERNMENT AND EDUCATION ORGANIZATIONS 120
ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE 120
ALASKA NATURAL RESOURCES TO LIQUIDS LLC 121
ALLIANCE FOR SYNTHETIC FUELS IN EUROPE 121
ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 122
CANMETENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER 122
IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY 123
INSTITUT FRANÇAIS DU PÉTROLE 123
LEHIGH UNIVERSITY 123
NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY 124
NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 125
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY 125
OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY 125
UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON 126
UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY 126
CHAPTER FIVE: GTL PRODUCT DEMAND FORECASTS 127
PRODUCT OVERVIEW 127
TABLE 8 MARKET VALUE FORECAST OF PRODUCTS PRODUCED
VIA GTL WITH COMPARISONS TO CTL AND BTL, THROUGH 2017
($ BILLIONS) 128
TOTAL UNCONVENTIONAL FUELS MARKET 128
TABLE 9 PROJECTED WORLD UNCONVENTIONAL LIQUID FUELS
MARKET, THROUGH 2017 (MBBL/D) 129
FT GTL FUEL DEMAND BY PRODUCT TYPE 129
DIESEL 129
GASOLINE 129
OTHER GTL PRODUCTS 130
TABLE 10 PROJECTED MARKET VALUE OF FT GTL
TRANSPORTATION FUELS BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2017
($ BILLIONS) 130
FT GTL CHEMICALS DEMAND BY PRODUCT TYPE 130
TABLE 11 PROJECTED MARKET VALUE OF FT GTL CHEMICALS BY
PRODUCT, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 131
GTL CHEMICALS PROCESSING 132
THE METHANOL MARKET 132
METHANOL-TO-GASOLINE PROCESS 133
Methanol-to-Gasoline … (Continued) 134
GTL PRODUCTS—WAXES 135
GTL PRODUCTS—WAXES (CONTINUED) 136
GTL PRODUCTS—WAXES (CONTINUED) 137
FUELS THAT WILL COMPETE WITH GTL 138
GTL COMPETITORS 138
GROWING GLOBAL LNG DEMAND 139
CHANGING LNG PROJECT ECONOMICS 139
WORLDWIDE DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS 140
RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT POLICIES—EFFECT ON SUPPLY
FOR GTL PLANTS 141
COAL-TO-LIQUIDS 142
COAL-TO-LIQUIDS (CONTINUED) 143
COAL-TO-LIQUIDS (CONTINUED) 144
FIGURE 2 FLOW CHART: TWO APPROACHES TO PRODUCING
LIQUID FUELS FROM COALS 145
CTL PROJECT ECONOMICS 145
BIOMASS-TO-LIQUIDS DEVELOPMENTS 146
OVERVIEW 146
TABLE 12 COMMERCIAL BIOMASS-BASED GASIFICATION
PLANTS, 2012 146
TABLE 12 (CONTINUED) 147
PETROCHEMICALS FROM BIOMASS 147
BTL GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY 148
BIOFUELS AND RENEWABLE BIOFUELS 149
ETHANOL 150
BIODIESEL 151
OTHER SYNTHETIC CRUDE OILS 152
OIL SANDS 152
EXTRA-HEAVY OIL 153
SHALE OIL 154
Shale Oil (Continued) 155
CHAPTER SIX: REGULATORY DRIVERS—THE MACRO ENVIRONMENT 156
EARLY SYNTHETIC FUEL LEGISLATION 156
EARLY SYNTHETIC FUEL LEGISLATION (CONTINUED) 157
2007 TO 2012 DEVELOPMENTS AND TAX INCENTIVES 158
2007 TO 2012 DEVELOPMENTS …(CONTINUED) 159
GHGS WILL BECOME A PRIORITY IN LAW AND REGULATION 160
STATE INITIATIVES RELATIVE TO FUELS CARBON DIOXIDE
EMISSIONS 161
FUEL STANDARDS ARE DRIVING THE ADOPTION OF GTL 162
EARLIER INITIATIVES 163
EARLIER INITIATIVES (CONTINUED) 164
GOVERNMENT FUNDING FOR GTL RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT 165
GOVERNMENT FUNDING FOR GTL (CONTINUED) 166
SNYGAS RESEARCH FUNDING VIA THE HYDROGEN FUEL
INITIATIVE 167
SNYGAS RESEARCH FUNDING (CONTINUED) 168
CHAPTER SEVEN: RECENT SIGNIFICANT PATENT ACTIVITY 169
OVERVIEW 169
TABLE 13 COMPANIES ASSIGNED MULTIPLE U S PATENTS
RELATING TO GTL PRODUCTION DURING THE PERIOD 2008-
2012 (NUMBER) 170
NOTEWORTHY PATENTS 170
ISOLATION AND SUBSEQUENT UTILIZATION OF
SATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND ALPHA-OLEFINS IN
THE PRODUCTION OF ESTER-BASED BIOLUBRICANTS 170
PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYBRID CATALYSTS
FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS AND HYBRID
CATALYST PRODUCED ACCORDING TO SAID PROCESS 171
SYSTEMS, METHODS, AND COMPOSITIONS FOR
PRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC HYDROCARBON
COMPOUNDS 171
CATALYSTS FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS ON
COBALT/ PHOSPHORUS-ALUMINUM OXIDE AND
PREPARATION METHODS THEREOF 172
COBALT-BASED CATALYST FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH
SYNTHESIS 173
BUBBLE COLUMN-TYPE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS
SLURRY BED REACTION SYSTEM 173
FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST 174
LOW-PRESSURE FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS 174
ACID TREATMENT OF A FISCHER-TROPSCH DERIVED
HYDROCARBON STREAM 175
PROCESS FOR CONVERTING GASEOUS ALKANES TO
OLEFINS AND LIQUID HYDROCARBONS 175
PROCESS FOR THE PURIFICATION OF AN AQUEOUS
STREAM COMING FROM THE FISCHER-TROPSCH
REACTION 176
PROCESS FOR STABILIZING THE PERFORMANCES OF A
CATALYST FOR FISCHER TROPSCH REACTION 176
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REGENERATING AN
IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST 177
FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX COMPOSITION AND METHOD OF
TRANSPORT 177
PRODUCTION OF LOW SULFUR, MODERATELY
AROMATIC DISTILLATE FUELS BY HYDROCRACKING
OF COMBINED FISCHER-TROPSCH AND PETROLEUM
STREAMS 178
ZEOLITE SUPPORTED COBALT HYBRID FISCHERTROPSCH
CATALYST 178
MICRO SCALE FISCHER-TROPSCH AND OXYGENATE
SYNTHESIS PROCESS STARTUP UNIT 179
DEVICE FOR PRODUCING LIQUID HYDROCARBONS BY
FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A THREE-PHASE
BED REACTOR 179
ELECTROMECHANICAL FILTER FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH
SYNTHESIS 180
PROCESS FOR IMPROVING THE LUBRICATING
PROPERTIES OF BASE OILS USING A FISCHERTROPSCH
DERIVED BOTTOMS 180
APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF
AMMONIA AND FISCHER-TROPSCH LIQUIDS 181
METHOD TO TRANSFORM BULK MATERIAL 181
FINISHED LUBRICANT WITH IMPROVED RUST
INHIBITION MADE USING FISCHER-TROPSCH BASE
OIL 182
FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST 182
PROCESS FOR MAKING FISCHER-TROPSCH OLEFINIC
NAPHTHA AND HYDROGENATED DISTILLATES 182
PRODUCTION OF HYDROCARBONS FROM NATURAL GAS 183
FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS AND REACTOR ASSEMBLY 183
PROCESS TO BLEND A MINERAL AND A FISCHERTROPSCH
DERIVED PRODUCT ONBOARD A MARINE
VESSEL 184
APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF
AMMONIA AND FISCHER-TROPSCH LIQUIDS 184
MULTI STAGE FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS 185
PROCESS TO PREPARE A FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS
PRODUCT 185
FISCHER-TROPSCH DERIVED TURBINE FUEL AND
PROCESS FOR MAKING SAME 186
FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS PROCESS WITH
IMPROVED REGULATION 186
INTERNAL EXCHANGER FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID
REACTOR FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS 187
PROCESS TO PREPARE A FISCHER-TROPSCH PRODUCT 187
FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS INCORPORATING
PROMOTER FOR INCREASING YIELDS OF C5
HYDROCARBONS AND METHODS FOR MAKING AND
USING SAME 188
DUAL CATALYST SYSTEM FOR HYDROISOMERIZATION
OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX AND WAXY RAFFINATE 188
METHOD FOR THE PRODUCTION OF MIDDLE
DISTILLATES BY HYDROISOMERISATION AND
HYDROCRACKING OF CHARGES ARISING FROM THE
FISCHER-TROPSCH METHOD 189
CATALYST STRUCTURE AND METHOD OF FISCHERTROPSCH
SYNTHESIS 190
METHOD FOR ACTIVATING AN IRON-BASED FISCHERTROPSCH
CATALYST 190
PROCESS OF FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS BY
CONTROL OF THE PARTIAL PRESSURE OF WATER IN
THE REACTION ZONE 190
PROCESS FOR PRODUCING MIDDLE DISTILLATES BY
HYDROISOMERIZING AND HYDROCRACKING FEEDS
FROM THE FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS USING A
MULTIFUNCTIONAL GUARD BED 191
PROCESS FOR PRODUCING MIDDLE DISTILLATES BY
HYDROISOMERIZING AND HYDROCRACKING FEEDS
FROM THE FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS USING A
DOPED CATALYST BASED ON MESOPOROUS
ALUMINA-SILICA WITH A CONTROLLED MACROPORE
CONTENT 191
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF PROPYLENE AND
ETHYLENE FROM A FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS
PRODUCT 192
METHOD FOR PROVIDING AUXILIARY POWER TO AN
ELECTRIC POWER PLANT USING FISCHER-TROPSCH
TECHNOLOGY 192
EXPANDED BED REACTOR SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR
HYDROPROCESSING WAX PRODUCED BY FISCHERTROPSCH
REACTION AND CONTAMINATED WITH
SOLIDS 193
CONVERSION PROCESS 193
HIGH SURFACE AREA, SMALL CRYSTALLITE SIZE
CATALYST FOR FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS 194
PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOLS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS 194
AMMONIA PLANT CONFIGURATION AND METHODS 195
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING PRODUCTS
FROM NATURAL GAS INCLUDING HELIUM AND
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS 195
METHOD OF GENERATING HYDROCARBON REAGENTS
FROM DIESEL, NATURAL GAS, AND OTHER
LOGISTICAL FUELS 196
PROCESS FOR SYNTHESIZING HYDROCARBONS 196
HIGH PURITY OLEFINIC NAPHTHAS FOR THE
PRODUCTION OF ETHYLENE AND PROPYLENE 197
PROCESS FOR IMPROVING PREREFORMING AND
REFORMING OF NATURAL GAS CONTAINING HIGHER
HYDROCARBONS ALONG WITH METHANE 197
SYNTHESIS GAS AND CARBON DIOXIDE GENERATION
METHOD 198
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF A SUPPORTED
CATALYST 198
PROCESS AND SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING SYNTHETIC
LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS 199
PREPARATION OF TITANIA AND COBALT ALUMINATE
CATALYST SUPPORTS AND THEIR USE IN FISCHERTROPSCH
SYNTHESIS 199
PROCESS FOR REMOVING ALUMINUM CONTAMINANTS
FROM FISCHER-TROPSCH FEED STREAMS USING
DICARBOXYLIC ACID 200
HYDROGEN RECOVERY FROM HYDROCARBON
SYNTHESIS PROCESSES 200
PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF MIDDLE
DISTILLATES BY HYDROISOMERISATION AND
HYDROCRACKING FEEDS FROM THE FISCHERTROPSCH
PROCESS 201
STABILIZED TRANSITION ALUMINA CATALYST SUPPORT
FROM BOEHMITE AND CATALYSTS MADE
THEREFROM 201
RECOVERY OF ALCOHOLS FROM FISCHER-TROPSCH
NAPHTHA AND DISTILLATE FUELS CONTAINING THE
SAME 202
PRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC TRANSPORTATION FUELS
FROM CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL USING SELFSUSTAINED
HYDRO-GASIFICATION 202
PROCESS FOR PRODUCING SYNTHESIS GAS FOR THE
FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS AND PRODUCING
APPARATUS THEREOF 203
LOW SULPHUR DIESEL FUEL AND AVIATION TURBINE
FUEL 204
PROCESSES FOR MAKING LUBRICANT BLENDS WITH
LOW BROOKFIELD VISCOSITIES 204
PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF
USEFUL PRODUCTS FROM CARBONACEOUS
FEEDSTOCK 205
PRODUCTION OF LOW SULFUR, MODERATELY
AROMATIC DISTILLATE FUELS BY HYDROCRACKING
OF COMBINED FISCHER-TROPSCH AND PETROLEUM
STREAMS 205
CATALYSTS 206
FISCHER-TROPSCH COMPOSITION AND PROCESS 206
SUPPORTED CATALYST 207
FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST PRODUCTION 207
PROCESS TO PREPARE A HEAVY AND A LIGHT
LUBRICATING BASE OIL 208
HYDROPROCESSING METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR
USE IN THE PREPARATION OF LIQUID
HYDROCARBONS 208
SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF IMPROVING DIESEL FUEL
PERFORMANCE IN COLD CLIMATES 209
METHOD FOR PRODUCING LONG-CHAIN
HYDROCARBONS FROM NATURAL GAS 209
FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST, PREPARATION, AND USE
THEREOF 210
HOMOGENEOUS MODIFIED-ALUMINA FISCHERTROPSCH
CATALYST SUPPORTS 210
BLENDING FOR DENSITY SPECIFICATIONS USING
FISCHER-TROPSCH DIESEL FUEL 211
OXYGENATE TREATMENT OF DEWAXING CATALYST FOR
GREATER YIELD OF DEWAXED PRODUCT 211
PROCESS FOR REMOVING CONTAMINANTS FROM
FISCHER-TROPSCH FEED STREAMS 212
PROCESS TO PREPARE A WAXY RAFFINATE 212
PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF MIDDLE
DISTILLATES BY HYDROISOMERISATION AND
HYDROCRACKING FEEDS FROM THE FISCHERTROPSCH
PROCESS 213
RECEPTION, PROCESSING, HANDLING, AND
DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROCARBONS AND OTHER
FLUIDS 213
PRODUCTION OF HYDROCARBONS 214
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REGENERATING AN
IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST 214
PROCESS FOR CONVERTING GASEOUS ALKANES TO
LIQUID HYDROCARBONS 215
INTEGRATED PROCESSING OF NATURAL GAS INTO
LIQUID PRODUCTS 215
GAS-TO-LIQUIDS FACILITY FOR FIXED OFFSHORE
HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION PLATFORMS 216
MODIFICATION OF A METHANOL PLANT FOR
CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO LIQUID
HYDROCARBONS 216
PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF OIL FROM A NATURAL
OIL RESERVOIR 217
APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING HIGH MOLECULAR
WEIGHT LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM METHANE
AND/OR NATURAL GAS 217
MANAGING HYDROGEN IN A GAS TO LIQUID PLANT 218
METHOD FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO LIQUID
HYDROCARBONS 218
Method for Converting (Continued) 219

View This Report »

Find all the market research you need - instantly, in one place.

+1.2 Million Research Documents & Statistics +200,000 Trusted Public Sources 350 Industries With Global Coverage

24/7 Customer Support

Talk to Louis

+1 718 618 4302

Purchase Reports From Reputable Market Research Publishers

Transportation Forecast: Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

Transportation Forecast: Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

  • $ 6 500
  • Industry report
  • June 2014
  • by Navigant Research

Medium and Heavy Duty Hybrid Electric, Plug-In Hybrid Electric, Battery Electric, Natural Gas, Propane Autogas, Fuel Cell, and Conventional Vehicles: Global Market Forecasts, 2014-2035 The global medium ...

Transportation Forecast: Global Fuel Consumption

Transportation Forecast: Global Fuel Consumption

  • $ 6 500
  • Industry report
  • July 2014
  • by Navigant Research

Road Transportation Sector Consumption of Gasoline, Diesel, Biofuels, Natural Gas, Liquefied Petroleum Gas, Electricity, and Hydrogen: Global Market Forecasts, 2014-2035 Reducing the transportation sector's ...

Analysis of the Southeast Asia and Australia-New Zealand Process Safety Systems Market

Analysis of the Southeast Asia and Australia-New Zealand Process Safety Systems Market

  • $ 6 000
  • Industry report
  • July 2014
  • by Frost & Sullivan

Mandatory Regulations Will Drive the Uptake of Safety Systems This research service analyzes the safety systems used in process industries in Southeast Asia and Australia-New Zealand. End users include ...


ReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution that finds, filters and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - quickly, in one place.