Smart cities, and the digital technology behind them, hold much promise and offer interesting opportunities for new markets, services and practices to the cities’ stakeholders. Using a broad range of digital project models of various scales and exploring the different themes surrounding smart cities, this report looks at the issues facing urban centers that are increasingly seen as areas of open innovation.

• Beyond trends, what role does digital technology actually perform in the changing strategies of cities?
• How do the three key interconnected tiers of physical architecture, information systems and applications fit together?
• How should information systems evolve to meet the dual challenge of achieving better interoperability and dealing with increasing volumes of data?
• How will the various functions of the digital city be taken into account: governance, the environment, mobility, the economy and quality of life?
• How will this new market be structured around the key stakeholders: equipment manufacturers, IT & IT services, telco operators, utility providers?

Table Of Contents


Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary 7
2. Methodology 9
3. The "city" behind the development issue 10
3.1. An urbanized global population 10
3.2. The smart city as a response to the challenges of urban development. 11
3.3. Institutional support for digital and smart city development . 13
3.3.1. Smart cities in the European Commission's support programs . 13
3.3.2. Sustainable and digital cities in France's support programs 14
3.4. Digital city, sustainable city, new city. how do cities communicate the concept of
the smart city? 16
3.4.1. The digital city 17
3.4.2. The sustainable city. 19
3.4.3. The new city 20
3.5. How does digital technology contribute to a smart city? 21
4. A technical backbone that encourages distribution of application services22
4.1. Physical architecture 23
4.1.1. The convergence of telecommunications networks . 23
4.1.2. Data centers: Essential link for responding to the growth of cloud services and
extending services to local businesses 24
4.1.3. Sensors: Invisible yet everywhere . 25
4.1.4. Urban property becoming service interfaces . 26
4.2. Information systems . 28
4.2.1. Toward urban operating systems 28
4.2.2. The proliferation of interfaces 30
5. The applications used to create value in smart cities. 32
5.1. Smart governance: Modernization of the political system 33
5.1.1. Modernization of city administration 33
5.1.2. Public involvement in the decision-making process. 35
5.1.3. Open data 36
5.2. Smart environment: Better conservation and protection of the living environment37
5.2.1. Digital technology in energy management. 38
5.2.2. A means of conserving water resources 39
5.2.3. Producing less waste and better waste collection . 40
5.3. Smart mobility: Facilitating urban transport 40
5.3.1. Promotion of public transport and alternative modes of transport 41
5.3.2. Minimizing congestion in real time. 42
5.3.3. Facilitating parking. 43
5.4. Smart economy: Attracting and developing services . 44
5.4.1. Initiatives for attracting businesses from the IT sector. 44
5.4.2. Facilitating decentralization of activities. 44Smart cities: Digital technology behind the smart city
5.4.3. E-commerce accessible everywhere via mobile services 46
5.4.4. Enhanced and personalized shopping with digital technology. 47
5.5. Smart quality of life: Improving living conditions in cities . 49
5.5.1. The growth of telehealth: Improving efficiency in the health chain. 49
5.5.2. Digital technology for tourism and cultural activities in cities . 50
5.5.3. Developing new educational approaches 52
5.5.4. Improving public security . 53
6. The emergence of a new market around the smart city 55
6.1. Industrial presence on the smart city market . 55
6.1.1. An emerging market for major equipment suppliers, particularly with regard to the
sustainable city concept 55
6.1.2. IT manufacturers who can profit from new opportunities by using digital
technology in urban areas . 59
6.1.3. Telco operators seeking to add value from offerings other than infrastructural
services . 62
6.1.4. Utility providers expanding on their range of services . 63
6.1.5. The smart city as a concept that brings new stakeholders into play 65
6.2. Experimental smart cities and pilot programs: A laboratory of innovations for
businesses . 67
7. What can we learn from observing the movement toward smart cities? 69Smart cities: Digital technology behind the smart city

Tables

Table1: The ICT for "Smart" Cities project. 13

Figures

Figure 1: The smart city model and technical backbone 8
Figure 2: The city of 2050 11
Figure 3: Priorities of the NYC Digital plan. 17
Figure 4: The portal for the Digital Birmingham strategy 18
Figure 5: An objective is shown for each of the projects that aims to reduce carbon emissions in
Amsterdam . 19
Figure 6: Future bird's-eye view of KAEC (King Abdullah Economic City). 20
Figure 7: The smart city model and technical backbone 22
Figure 8: A HotCity access point 24
Figure 9: Traffic measurement system using sensors 26
Figure 10: Augmented reality interactive panel ("nAutreville" project) 27
Figure 11: Poster with QR Code in Carnaby Street, London . 27
Figure 12: Rio de Janeiro's operations center 29
Figure 13: Scope of the U-Life Management Center 30
Figure 14: A connected car dashboard 31
Figure 15: ICT and its application within smart cities . 32
Figure 16: New York's NYC 311 smartphone application 33
Figure 17: Bordeaux's participatory website 35
Figure 18: Some datasets available on the San Francisco Data website 36
Figure 19: Open data initiatives in several key countries as of mid-2011 37
Figure 20: A wind powered street light used as part of Malaga's Smartcity project . 38
Figure 21: The Smart Yard program for residents of Petaluma (California) . 39
Figure 22: Diagram of a stationary vacuum collection system . 40
Figure 23: The Seoul Personal Travel Assistant 41
Figure 24: Gantry used for congestion charges in Singapore 42
Figure 25: An example of a parking sensor . 43
Figure 26: Amsterdam Bright City, one of Amsterdam's first Smart Work Centers 45
Figure 27: The Tesco Homeplus service in a Seoul bus shelter 46
Figure 28: Paying for a bus ticket by NFC in Oulu (Finland) 47
Figure 29: An i-Concierge Kiosk in Hong Kong 48
Figure 30: Example of a Personal Teller machine . 48
Figure 31: The Belgium Heart Failure platform 49
Figure 32: The VisitBrussels trip planner . 51
Figure 33: Screenshots from the Paris Avant application 51
Figure 34: New York's tourist office of the future . 52
Figure 35 : Szolnok's Visuland project portal 53
Figure 36: San Francisco's Crimespotting map . 54
Figure 37: Schneider Electric's comprehensive service offering on its shared website with Telvent56
Figure 38: General Electric's Sustainable Cities program 57
Figure 39: Alstom's smart grid projects 57
Figure 40: Hitachi's vision of a smart city. 58Smart cities: Digital technology behind the smart city
Figure 41: The scope of Siemens' proposed sustainable city solutions . 58
Figure 42: Components of IBM's Smarter City solution . 60
Figure 43: Cisco's Smart + Connected Communities architecture vision. 60
Figure 44: Overview of Oracle's Smart Cities solution . 61
Figure 45: Orange's Smart Cities program. 62
Figure 46: BT's Smart Cities vision 63
Figure 47: Veolia Eau's water consumption monitoring portal . 64
Figure 48: The smartphone application Urban Pulse, launched by Veolia. 64
Figure 49: La Poste's interactive mailbox. 65
Figure 50: The PlanIT Valley new city project 66
Figure 51 : The T-City Friedrichschafen portal 68

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