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This BCC Research report provides an in-depth analysis of the market for produced water treatment equipment. The study examines market value by world region, equipment type and offshore versus onshore use. Includes forecasts through 2020.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

The North American market for produced water treatment equipment reached $1.0 billion in 2014. This market is expected to reach $1.1 billion in 2015 and $1.6 billion in 2020, increasing at a compound annual growth (CAGR) of 8.2% over the next five years.

This report provides:

- An in-depth analysis of the market for produced water treatment equipment.
- Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of CAGRs through 2020.
- Examination of market values by world region, equipment type, and offshore versus onshore use.
- A wealth of statistical information on markets, applications, industry structure and dynamics along with technological developments.
- A look at government roles in support of global markets, including regulatory support, government.
- Requirements and promotional incentives for various technologies.
- Analysis of the market's dynamics, specifically growth drivers, inhibitors, and opportunities.

SCOPE OF REPORT

This report analyzes the market for PWTE. The global market is discussed when relevant, although the report focuses on North America. Produced water, for purposes of this report, is the water produced from oil and gas production, including water that is present naturally in the reservoir (also called formation water or connate water), water previously injected into the reservoir (floodwater), and condensed water from gas production.
North American PWTE market data is provided in dollar value for 2014 and 2015, with projections given through 2020. Numbers are broken down by application (oil fields, gas fields), treatment stages (primary/secondary, tertiary, enhanced), location (onshore, offshore) and hydrocarbon resource (conventional oil, oil sands, conventional gas, coal-bed methane, tight oil and shale gas).

This report does not include equipment used to produce or process hydrocarbons or to process water generated from oil and gas processing operations. It also does not include any water produced outside of the oil and gas industries.

Table Of Contents

The North American Market for Produced Water Treatment Equipment
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 3
RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 4
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY TABLE A NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 6
SUMMARY FIGURE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY APPLICATION, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 6
SHALE GAS PRODUCTION IN THE U.S. 7
SUMMARY TABLE B SUMMARY TABLE B SHALE GAS PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.,
2008-2013 (BILLION CUBIC FEET) 7
HYDRAULIC FRACTURING IN PWTE MARKET 8
REDUCE, RECYCLE, REUSE MECHANISMS 8
SUMMARY TABLE C SUMMARY TABLE C APPLICATIONS FOR RECYCLING AND REUSE
OF PRODUCED WATER 8
CHAPTER 3 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 11
WORLD OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY 11
OIL AND GAS TREATMENT STAGES OF PRODUCTION 13
PRIMARY 13
SECONDARY 13
TERTIARY 13
Thermal Recovery 13
Miscible Injection 14
Chemical Flooding 14
TYPES OF OIL AND GAS RESOURCES 14
CONVENTIONAL OIL 15
OIL SANDS 15
Open-Pit Mining 15
In-situ Recovery 15
SHALE OIL OR TIGHT OIL 16
CONVENTIONAL GAS 16
SHALE GAS 16
TABLE 1 TDS CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER FROM MARCELLUS SHALE WELLS
OVER A PERIOD OF 90 DAYS (MILLIGRAMS PER LITER/%) 17
COAL-BED METHANE 17
OIL AND GAS RESERVES AROUND THE WORLD 18
TABLE 2 GLOBAL PETROLEUM RESERVES BY REGION, 2014 (BILLION BARRELS) 18
TABLE 3 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION, 2014 (TRILLION CUBIC
FEET) 18
OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION AROUND THE WORLD 19
TABLE 4 GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION FOR TOP 100 OIL PRODUCING COUNTRIES,
2009-2013 (THOUSAND BARRELS PER DAY) 19
TABLE 5 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION FOR TOP 100 GROSS NATURAL GAS
PRODUCING COUNTRIES, 2009-2012 (BILLION CUBIC FEET) 21
PRODUCED WATER 24
PRODUCED WATER VOLUME 24
TABLE 6 U.S. PRODUCED WATER VOLUME BY STATE, 2007 AND 2012 (THOUSAND
BARRELS PER YEAR/%) 26
PRODUCED WATER INGREDIENTS 27
SALINITY 27
SUSPENDED SOLIDS 28
OIL AND GREASE, AND OTHER NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER 28
TABLE 7 OIL CONTENT OF GLOBAL DISCHARGED PRODUCED WATER IN ONSHORE
APPLICATIONS BY REGION, 2013 (MILLIGRAMS PER LITER OF PRODUCED WATER) 29
DISSOLVED GASES AND VOLATILE COMPOUNDS 29
TRACE METALS 29
RADIONUCLIDES 29
TABLE 8 TENORM RADIATION LEVELS BY WASTE TYPE (PICOCURIE PER GRAM) 30
ADDITIVES AND CHEMICALS 30
IRON AND MANGANESE 30
BARIUM AND STRONTIUM 31
BORON AND BROMIDE 31
TABLE 9 COMMON ELEMENTS FOUND IN PRODUCED WATER 31
PRODUCED WATER QUALITY 32
TABLE 10 PRODUCED WATER QUALITY BASED ON TDS BY WATER TYPE
(MILLIGRAMS PER LITER) 32
TABLE 11 PRODUCED WATER VOLUME AND QUALITY REQUIREMENTS BY
PRODUCTION TYPE 33
USES FOR PRODUCED WATER 34
TABLE 12 USES FOR PRODUCED WATER 34
RE-INJECTION 35
TABLE 13 PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL PRODUCED WATER RE-INJECTED ONSHORE BY
REGION, 2013 (%) 36
TABLE 14 PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL PRODUCED WATER RE-INJECTED OFFSHORE
BY REGION, 2013 (%) 36
PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT FOR REINJECTION 36
TREATMENT FOR REUSE IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 37
REDUCE, RECYCLE, REUSE AND THEN DISPOSE 37
REDUCING PRODUCED WATER 38
TABLE 15 SUITABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES 38
WATER RECYCLING AND REUSE 38
TABLE 16 APPLICATIONS FOR RECYCLING AND REUSE OF PRODUCED WATER 39
DISPOSAL 40
TABLE 17 SUITABLE DISPOSAL METHODS FOR PRODUCED WATER 41
CHAPTER 4 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 43
PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT STAGES 43
TABLE 18 TYPICAL WATER TREATMENT STAGES OF PRODUCED WATER IN THE OIL
AND GAS INDUSTRY 43
CHOOSING PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 44
TABLE 19 EQUIPMENT SELECTION BASED ON SIZE OF PARTICLES REMOVED
(MICRONS) 44
PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 45
TABLE 20 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER 45
MEMBRANE PROCESSES 46
TABLE 21 BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES 47
MICROFILTRATION AND ULTRAFILTRATION 47
Microfiltration 48
Ultrafiltration 48
Ceramic Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration 48
Polymeric Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration 49
NANOFILTRATION AND REVERSE OSMOSIS 50
Nanofiltration 50
Reverse Osmosis 51
High Efficiency RO (HERO) 52
Slurry Precipitation and Recycling RO (SPARRO) 53
Double Pass Preferential Precipitation RO 54
Dual-pass RO with Chemical Precipitation 54
FORWARD OSMOSIS 55
MEMBRANE DISTILLATION 56
Vibratory Shear Enhanced Processing (VSEP) 58
Optimized Pretreatment and Separation Technology (OPUS) 59
GeoPure AdvancedHydro Treatment 60
CDM Smith Produced Water Technology 60
ELECTRODIALYSIS AND ELECTRODIALYSIS REVERSAL 62
High Efficiency Electrodialysis 63
HYBRID FO/RO 64
THERMAL TREATMENT 65
TABLE 22 BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF THERMAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 65
EVAPORATION 65
Vapor Compression 66
Multi-stage Flash 67
Multi-effect Distillation 68
Hybrid MED-VC 69
Freeze-Thaw Evaporation 69
Dewvaporation 70
Enhanced Distillation/Evaporation 72
GE MVC 72
Aquatech MVC 73
Aqua-Pure MVR 73
212 Resources' MVR 75
Evaporative Reduction and Solidification 76
AGV Wiped Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) 77
CRYSTALLIZATION 78
ION EXCHANGE 78
TABLE 23 BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY 78
EMIT HIGGINS LOOP 78
DRAKE CONTINUOUS SELECTIVE IX 79
RECOFLO COMPRESSED-BED IX 80
CATALYX/RGBL IX 81
CAPACITIVE DEIONIZATION 81
PHYSICAL SEPARATION 82
TABLE 24 BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES 82
SETTLING PONDS 83
GRAVITY SEPARATORS 83
API Separators 83
Inclined Plate Separator/Plate Settler 84
Flat Corrugated Plate Separators 84
HYDROCYCLONES 84
CENTRIFUGES 86
Voraxial Separators 86
MEDIA FILTRATION 86
Cartridge Filters 87
Granular Media Filters 87
BIOLOGICAL AERATED FILTRATION 87
COALESCENCE 88
TABLE 25 BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF COALESCENCE TECHNOLOGY 88
FLOTATION 89
TABLE 26 BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF FLOTATION TECHNOLOGIES 89
DISSOLVED GAS FLOTATION AND INDUCED GAS FLOTATION 89
ELECTROCOAGULATION AND ELECTROFLOTATION 90
SOLVENT EXTRACTION 91
ADSORPTION 92
TABLE 27 BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF ADSORPTION TECHNOLOGIES 92
ORGANOCLAY 93
ACTIVATED CARBON 93
ZEOLITES 94
MyCelx 94
COMBINED PHYSICAL AND EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY 94
ELECTROCOAGULATION 95
BIOREACTORS 95
USES AND THEIR TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 96
REMOVAL OF DISSOLVED ORGANICS 96
TABLE 28 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USED FOR THE REMOVAL OF DISSOLVED
ORGANICS 96
REMOVAL OF METALS 97
TABLE 29 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USED FOR THE REMOVAL OF METALS 97
REMOVAL OF SUSPENDED SOLIDS 97
TABLE 30 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USED FOR THE REMOVAL OF SUSPENDED
SOLIDS 97
REMOVAL OF OIL AND GREASE 97
TABLE 31 DE-OILING TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 98
DESALINATION 99
TABLE 32 DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 100
DISINFECTION 102
TABLE 33 DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 102
Ozonation 102
Ozonix 103
Ultraviolet Light Disinfection 103
Brine Concentrate 104
CHAPTER 5 FACTORS IN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH 107
POPULATION GROWTH INSPIRES NEED FOR WATER CONSERVATION 107
TABLE 34 HISTORICAL GLOBAL POPULATION AND POPULATION GROWTH,
1950-2014 107
TABLE 35 PROJECTED GLOBAL POPULATION AND POPULATION GROWTH RATE,
2014 TO 2100 107
WATER AND AGRICULTURE 108
TABLE 36 WATER FOOTPRINT OF SELECTED FOOD PRODUCTS, 2015 (LITERS) 108
WATER AND ENERGY 108
TABLE 37 GLOBAL PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION, 1980-2015 (QUADRILLION
BTU) 109
WATER BECOMING MORE PRECIOUS 109
FRESHWATER RESOURCES DIMINISHING 109
WATER POLLUTION 110
WATER SCARCITY AND WATER STRESS 111
WATER SCARCITY 111
WATER STRESS 111
TABLE 38 TOP TWENTY COUNTRIES UNDER MOST STRESS (% OF LAND AREA) 112
WATER RESOURCES VARY DRAMATICALLY AROUND THE WORLD 113
TABLE 39 GLOBAL RENEWABLE WATER RESOURCES PER CAPITA BY COUNTRY,
1992-2017 (CUBIC METERS/INHABITANT/YEAR) 114
GLOBAL WATER CONSUMPTION INCREASING 119
PERCENT OF FRESHWATER WITHDRAWALS VARIES CONSIDERABLY 120
TABLE 40 100 COUNTRIES THAT WITHDRAW THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGE OF THEIR
RENEWABLE FRESHWATER RESOURCES (%) 120
OIL AND GAS PRODUCERS NOT ALWAYS WATER RICH 123
TABLE 41 TOP 25 GLOBAL OIL PRODUCERS AND THEIR WATER RESOURCES, 2013
AND 2014 (M3/INHABITANTS/YEAR AND BILLION FT3 and %) 123
TABLE 42 TOP 25 GLOBAL GAS PRODUCERS AND THEIR WATER RESOURCES, 2012
AND 2014 (M3/INHABITANTS/YEAR AND BILLION FT3) 125
TYPE OF WATER USAGE DIRECTS WATER NEEDS 126
TABLE 43 TOP 25 OIL PRODUCING COUNTRIES AND THEIR WATER WITHDRAWAL
USAGE, 2013 (109 M3/YR. AND '000 B/D) 127
TABLE 44 TOP 25 GAS PRODUCING COUNTRIES AND THEIR WATER WITHDRAWAL
USAGE, 2012 (109 M3/YR. AND BILLION FT3) 128
PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES COMPARED TO OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION 129
TABLE 45 U.S. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION AND WATER PRODUCED BY STATE, 2007
('000 BL/YR. AND BILLION FT3/YR.) 129
TABLE 46 U.S. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION AND PRODUCED WATER BY STATE, 2012
('000 BL/YR. AND BILLION FT3/YR.) 130
TABLE 47 U.S. PRODUCED WATER BY STATE, 2007 AND 2012 ('000 BL PER YR.
AND %) 131
TABLE 48 INCREASE OR DECREASE IN U.S. PRODUCED WATER COMPARED WITH
OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION BY STATE, 2007 AND 2012 (%) 132
CLIMATE CHANGE AND DROUGHT GUIDE PWTE MARKET 133
INDIVIDUALS INVESTED IN PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT 135
TABLE 49 INDIVIDUALS INVESTED IN PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT 135
MORE STRINGENT REGULATIONS SPUR GROWTH IN PWTE MARKET 136
TABLE 50 CONSEQUENCES FOR FAILING TO MEET REGULATIONS 136
U.S. REGULATORY GLIMPSE 137
Federal Regulation for the Underground Injection Control (UIC)
Program 138
Enhanced Recovery Wells 138
Disposal Wells 139
Hydrocarbon Storage Wells 139
WATER VOLUME INCREASES AS WELLS AGE 139
SUPPORT FOR PWTE 139
LIABILITIES ASSOCIATED WITH PWTE INSTILL FEAR 141
FRACKING UNDER SCRUTINY 141
TABLE 51 CHEMICALS USED IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 143
FRACKING AND SEISMIC CONCERNS 146
U.S. 147
Oklahoma 147
Texas 147
Colorado and New Mexico 147
Arkansas 148
Ohio 148
California 148
TABLE 52 NUMBER OF ACTIVE AND NEW WASTEWATER INJECTION WELLS IN
CALIFORNIA OVER THE LAST 200 YEARS 148
SHALE GAS BOOM 149
TABLE 53 RECOVERABLE SHALE OIL RESOURCES FOR TOP 10 COUNTRIES, 2013
(BILLION BARRELS) 149
TABLE 54 RECOVERABLE SHALE GAS RESOURCES FOR TOP 10 COUNTRIES, 2013
(TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 150
FIGURE 1 BASINS WITH SHALE OIL AND SHALE GAS FORMATIONS, 2013 150
SHALE GAS IN THE U.S. 150
TABLE 55 SHALE GAS RESERVES IN THE U.S. BY STATE, 2013 (BILLION CUBIC FEET
PER DAY/%) 151
TABLE 56 SHALE GAS PRODUCTION IN THE U.S., 2008-2013 (BILLION CUBIC FEET) 151
SHALE GAS RESOURCES IN CANADA 151
SHALE GAS PRODUCED WATER TREATMENTS 152
TABLE 57 SHALE GAS PRODUCED WATER TREATMENTS 152
BIG PUSH FOR REDUCE, RECYCLE, REUSE MECHANISMS 152
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS GUIDE RELATED TO PWTE 153
ILLEGAL AND LEGAL DISCHARGES 153
CONCERNS OVER PRODUCED WATER SPILLS 154
LEAK DETECTION TACTICS 155
INJECTION METHODS FAVORED 155
U.S. 155
TABLE 58 NUMBER OF CLASS II UNDERGROUND INJECTION WELLS IN U.S. BY
STATE, 2011 157
TABLE 59 NUMBER OF CLASS II UNDERGROUND INJECTION WELLS IN U.S. BY TRIBE
AND STATE, 2011 158
WATER MEASUREMENT TOOLS FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY 159
COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 160
TABLE 60 COST CONSIDERATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT 160
WATER TRANSPORTATION COSTLY, INSPIRING ON-SITE TREATMENT 160
SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS BODE WELL FOR PWTE INDUSTRY 161
CHAPTER 6 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH 164
FIGURE 2 TYPES OF APPLICATIONS OF NORTH AMERICAN PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT EQUIPMENT MARKET 164
FIGURE 3 TYPES OF TREATMENT STAGES OF NORTH AMERICAN PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT EQUIPMENT MARKET 164
FIGURE 4 TYPES OF LOCATIONS OF NORTH AMERICAN PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT EQUIPMENT MARKET 165
FIGURE 5 TYPES OF HYDROCARBON RESOURCES OF NORTH AMERICAN PRODUCED
WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT MARKET 165
MARKET BY APPLICATION 166
TABLE 61 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 166
FIGURE 6 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT
BY APPLICATION, 2014 AND 2020 (%) 166
OIL FIELDS 167
TABLE 62 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR OIL FIELDS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 167
FIGURE 7 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR OIL FIELDS, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 167
GAS FIELDS 168
TABLE 63 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR GAS FIELDS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 168
FIGURE 8 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR GAS FIELDS, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 168
MARKET BY TREATMENT STAGES 169
TABLE 64 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT BY TREATMENT STAGES, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 169
FIGURE 9 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT BY TREATMENT STAGES, 2014 AND 2020 (%) 170
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY TREATMENT 170
TABLE 65 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY TREATMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS/%) 171
FIGURE 10 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY TREATMENT, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 171
TERTIARY TREATMENT 171
TABLE 66 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR TERTIARY TREATMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 172
FIGURE 11 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR TERTIARY TREATMENT, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 172
ENHANCED TREATMENT 172
TABLE 67 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR ENHANCED TREATMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 173
FIGURE 12 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR ENHANCED TREATMENT, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 173
MARKET BY LOCATION 173
TABLE 68 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT BY TYPE OF LOCATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 174
FIGURE 13 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT BY TYPE OF LOCATION, 2014 AND 2020 (%) 174
ONSHORE LOCATIONS 175
TABLE 69 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR ONSHORE LOCATIONS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 175
FIGURE 14 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR ONSHORE LOCATIONS, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 175
OFFSHORE LOCATIONS 176
TABLE 70 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR OFFSHORE LOCATIONS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 176
FIGURE 15 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR OFFSHORE LOCATIONS, 2014 TO 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 176
MARKET BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE 177
TABLE 71 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT BY TYPE OF HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 177
FIGURE 16 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT BY TYPE OF HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 178
CONVENTIONAL OIL 178
TABLE 72 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL OIL, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 178
FIGURE 17 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL OIL, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 179
OIL SANDS 179
TABLE 73 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR OIL SANDS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 179
FIGURE 18 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR OIL SANDS, 2014 TO 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 179
CONVENTIONAL GAS 180
TABLE 74 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL GAS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 180
FIGURE 19 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL GAS, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 180
COAL-BED METHANE 181
TABLE 75 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR COAL-BED METHANE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 181
FIGURE 20 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR COAL-BED METHANE, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 181
TIGHT OIL 182
TABLE 76 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR TIGHT OIL, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 182
FIGURE 21 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR TIGHT OIL, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 182
SHALE GAS 183
TABLE 77 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR SHALE GAS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 183
FIGURE 22 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR SHALE GAS, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 183
CHAPTER 7 COMPANY PROFILES 186
212 RESOURCES LLC 186
ADVANCED WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES SERVICES INC. 186
AKER SOLUTIONS ASA 187
ALDERLEY PLC 188
ALTELA INC. 188
AMCOL INTERNATIONAL CORP. 189
AQUA EWP LLC 189
AQUA-PURE VENTURES INC. 190
AQUATECH INTERNATIONAL CORP. 191
AVANTECH INC. 191
CAMERON INTERNATIONAL CORP. 192
DPS GLOBAL 193
DRAKE WATER TECHNOLOGIES INC. 194
ECOSPHERE TECHNOLOGIES INC. 195
ECO-TEC INC. 195
ENVIRO-TECH SYSTEMS LLC 196
ENVIROCHEMIE GMBH 197
EPROCESS TECHNOLOGIES PTY. LTD. 198
EXTERRAN HOLDINGS INC. 198
FILTERBOXX WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL CORP. 199
FLSMIDTH and CO. A/S 200
FMC TECHNOLOGIES INC. 200
GE WATER and PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES 201
GENESIS WATER TECHNOLOGIES INC. 202
GEO-PROCESSORS PTY. LTD. 202
GEOPURE HYDROTECHNOLOGIES LLC 203
GLOBAL PROCESS SYSTEMS LLC 203
GRADEK ENERGY INC. 204
HALLIBURTON CO. 204
HAMWORTHY PLC. 205
HYDRATION TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONS LLC 206
LAYNE CHRISTENSEN 207
MYCELX TECHNOLOGIES CORP. 207
NATURE GROUP PLC. 208
NEW LOGIC RESEARCH INC. 208
NATIONAL OILWELL VARCO 209
NUGLOBAL WATER SOLUTIONS LLC 210
OVIVO INC. 210
PETRO TECHNA INTERNATIONAL LTD. 211
PROCESS GROUP INTERNATIONAL LTD. 211
PROSEP INC. 212
PURESTREAM TECHNOLOGY LLC 213
SAIPEM SPA 213
SEVERN TRENT SERVICES 214
SIEMENS WATER SOLUTIONS 215
SOUTHWATER LLC 215
SWACO, M-I 216
TRANSVAC SYSTEMS LTD 217
VEOLIA WATER SOLUTIONS and TECHNOLOGIES 217
VME PROCESS INC. 218
WASTEWATER RESOURCES INC. 219
WATER and POWER TECHNOLOGIES INC. 219
WATER STANDARD CO. 220
WATERTECTONICS INC. 221
ENV014B - The North American Market for Produced Water Treatment Equipment

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE A NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 6
SUMMARY TABLE B SUMMARY TABLE B SHALE GAS PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.,
2008-2013 (BILLION CUBIC FEET) 7
SUMMARY TABLE C SUMMARY TABLE C APPLICATIONS FOR RECYCLING AND REUSE
OF PRODUCED WATER 8
TABLE 1 TDS CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER FROM MARCELLUS SHALE WELLS
OVER A PERIOD OF 90 DAYS (MILLIGRAMS PER LITER/%) 17
TABLE 2 GLOBAL PETROLEUM RESERVES BY REGION, 2014 (BILLION BARRELS) 18
TABLE 3 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION, 2014 (TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 18
TABLE 4 GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION FOR TOP 100 OIL PRODUCING COUNTRIES,
2009-2013 (THOUSAND BARRELS PER DAY) 19
TABLE 5 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION FOR TOP 100 GROSS NATURAL GAS
PRODUCING COUNTRIES, 2009-2012 (BILLION CUBIC FEET) 21
TABLE 6 U.S. PRODUCED WATER VOLUME BY STATE, 2007 AND 2012 (THOUSAND
BARRELS PER YEAR/%) 26
TABLE 7 OIL CONTENT OF GLOBAL DISCHARGED PRODUCED WATER IN ONSHORE
APPLICATIONS BY REGION, 2013 (MILLIGRAMS PER LITER OF PRODUCED WATER) 29
TABLE 8 TENORM RADIATION LEVELS BY WASTE TYPE (PICOCURIE PER GRAM) 30
TABLE 9 COMMON ELEMENTS FOUND IN PRODUCED WATER 31
TABLE 10 PRODUCED WATER QUALITY BASED ON TDS BY WATER TYPE (MILLIGRAMS
PER LITER) 32
TABLE 11 PRODUCED WATER VOLUME AND QUALITY REQUIREMENTS BY
PRODUCTION TYPE 33
TABLE 12 USES FOR PRODUCED WATER 34
TABLE 13 PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL PRODUCED WATER RE-INJECTED ONSHORE BY
REGION, 2013 (%) 36
TABLE 14 PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL PRODUCED WATER RE-INJECTED OFFSHORE BY
REGION, 2013 (%) 36
TABLE 15 SUITABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES 38
TABLE 16 APPLICATIONS FOR RECYCLING AND REUSE OF PRODUCED WATER 39
TABLE 17 SUITABLE DISPOSAL METHODS FOR PRODUCED WATER 41
TABLE 18 TYPICAL WATER TREATMENT STAGES OF PRODUCED WATER IN THE OIL
AND GAS INDUSTRY 43
TABLE 19 EQUIPMENT SELECTION BASED ON SIZE OF PARTICLES REMOVED
(MICRONS) 44
TABLE 20 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER 45
TABLE 21 BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES 47
TABLE 22 BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF THERMAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 65
TABLE 23 BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY 78
TABLE 24 BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES 82
TABLE 25 BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF COALESCENCE TECHNOLOGY 88
TABLE 26 BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF FLOTATION TECHNOLOGIES 89
TABLE 27 BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF ADSORPTION TECHNOLOGIES 92
TABLE 28 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USED FOR THE REMOVAL OF DISSOLVED
ORGANICS 96
TABLE 29 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USED FOR THE REMOVAL OF METALS 97
TABLE 30 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USED FOR THE REMOVAL OF SUSPENDED
SOLIDS 97
TABLE 31 DE-OILING TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 98
TABLE 32 DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 100
TABLE 33 DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 102
TABLE 34 HISTORICAL GLOBAL POPULATION AND POPULATION GROWTH, 1950-2014 107
TABLE 35 PROJECTED GLOBAL POPULATION AND POPULATION GROWTH RATE, 2014
TO 2100 107
TABLE 36 WATER FOOTPRINT OF SELECTED FOOD PRODUCTS, 2015 (LITERS) 108
TABLE 37 GLOBAL PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION, 1980-2015 (QUADRILLION BTU) 109
TABLE 38 TOP TWENTY COUNTRIES UNDER MOST STRESS (% OF LAND AREA) 112
TABLE 39 GLOBAL RENEWABLE WATER RESOURCES PER CAPITA BY COUNTRY,
1992-2017 (CUBIC METERS/INHABITANT/YEAR) 114
TABLE 40 100 COUNTRIES THAT WITHDRAW THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGE OF THEIR
RENEWABLE FRESHWATER RESOURCES (%) 120
TABLE 41 TOP 25 GLOBAL OIL PRODUCERS AND THEIR WATER RESOURCES, 2013
AND 2014 (M3/INHABITANTS/YEAR AND BILLION FT3 and %) 123
TABLE 42 TOP 25 GLOBAL GAS PRODUCERS AND THEIR WATER RESOURCES, 2012
AND 2014 (M3/INHABITANTS/YEAR AND BILLION FT3) 125
TABLE 43 TOP 25 OIL PRODUCING COUNTRIES AND THEIR WATER WITHDRAWAL
USAGE, 2013 (109 M3/YR. AND '000 B/D) 127
TABLE 44 TOP 25 GAS PRODUCING COUNTRIES AND THEIR WATER WITHDRAWAL
USAGE, 2012 (109 M3/YR. AND BILLION FT3) 128
TABLE 45 U.S. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION AND WATER PRODUCED BY STATE, 2007
('000 BL/YR. AND BILLION FT3/YR.) 129
TABLE 46 U.S. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION AND PRODUCED WATER BY STATE, 2012
('000 BL/YR. AND BILLION FT3/YR.) 130
TABLE 47 U.S. PRODUCED WATER BY STATE, 2007 AND 2012 ('000 BL PER YR. AND
%) 131
TABLE 48 INCREASE OR DECREASE IN U.S. PRODUCED WATER COMPARED WITH OIL
AND GAS PRODUCTION BY STATE, 2007 AND 2012 (%) 132
TABLE 49 INDIVIDUALS INVESTED IN PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT 135
TABLE 50 CONSEQUENCES FOR FAILING TO MEET REGULATIONS 136
TABLE 51 CHEMICALS USED IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 143
TABLE 52 NUMBER OF ACTIVE AND NEW WASTEWATER INJECTION WELLS IN
CALIFORNIA OVER THE LAST 200 YEARS 148
TABLE 53 RECOVERABLE SHALE OIL RESOURCES FOR TOP 10 COUNTRIES, 2013
(BILLION BARRELS) 149
TABLE 54 RECOVERABLE SHALE GAS RESOURCES FOR TOP 10 COUNTRIES, 2013
(TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 150
TABLE 55 SHALE GAS RESERVES IN THE U.S. BY STATE, 2013 (BILLION CUBIC FEET
PER DAY/%) 151
TABLE 56 SHALE GAS PRODUCTION IN THE U.S., 2008-2013 (BILLION CUBIC FEET) 151
TABLE 57 SHALE GAS PRODUCED WATER TREATMENTS 152
TABLE 58 NUMBER OF CLASS II UNDERGROUND INJECTION WELLS IN U.S. BY STATE,
2011 157
TABLE 59 NUMBER OF CLASS II UNDERGROUND INJECTION WELLS IN U.S. BY TRIBE
AND STATE, 2011 158
TABLE 60 COST CONSIDERATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT 160
TABLE 61 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 166
TABLE 62 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR OIL FIELDS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 167
TABLE 63 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR GAS FIELDS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 168
TABLE 64 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT BY TREATMENT STAGES, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 169
TABLE 65 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY TREATMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS/%) 171
TABLE 66 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR TERTIARY TREATMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 172
TABLE 67 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR ENHANCED TREATMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 173
TABLE 68 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT BY TYPE OF LOCATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 174
TABLE 69 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR ONSHORE LOCATIONS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 175
TABLE 70 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR OFFSHORE LOCATIONS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 176
TABLE 71 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT BY TYPE OF HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 177
TABLE 72 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL OIL, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 178
TABLE 73 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR OIL SANDS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 179
TABLE 74 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL GAS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 180
TABLE 75 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR COAL-BED METHANE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 181
TABLE 76 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR TIGHT OIL, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 182
TABLE 77 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT FOR SHALE GAS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 183

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