REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

This report provides:

• An overview of markets outside North America for produced water treatment equipment
• Analyses of market trends, with data from 2011, estimates for 2012, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2017
• Review and comparison of treatment technologies for removing salts and other inorganic compounds, including membrane processes, ion exchange, and thermal distillation; and removing oil, grease, and other organic compounds, including mechanical separation, flotation, and adsorption
• Discussion of regulatory and other market drivers in oil- and gas-producing regions
• Examination of produced water contaminants and waste types most in need of treatment
• Company profiles of leading produced water treatment equipment manufacturers.


REPORT SCOPE

INTRODUCTION

Until renewable, sustainable sources are fully developed, the demand for fossil fuels will continue to grow. According to the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) most recent World Energy Outlook, the production of conventional crude oil, the largest single component of the global oil supply, will remain at current levels before declining slightly, to 68 million barrels per day, by 2035. To offset declining production at existing fields, 47 million barrels per day of additional gross capacity are required. This volume is twice the current total oil production of all Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in the Middle East. A growing share of this output (10 million barrels per day) will come from unconventional sources.

The IEA forecasts a bright future, even a golden age, for natural gas, especially for so-called unconventional gas such as shale gas and coal bed methane. Unconventional gas now accounts for 50% of the estimated natural gas resource base. By 2035, unconventional gas is predicted to rise to 20% of total gas production, although the pace of development will vary considerably by region. The growth in output also will depend on the gas industry dealing successfully with the environmental challenges. “A golden age of gas,” says the IEA, “will require golden standards for production.”

The demand for carbon-based energy is a major market driver for products and services used to treat the water produced during oil and gas exploration and production (E&P). Produced water, the effluent that rises to the surface during E&P, includes naturally occurring water in energy deposits and water injected into formations during drilling processes.

Produced water comprises approximately 98% of the total waste volume generated by the industry. Current global E&P activities generate more than 115 billion barrels per year of produced water. For every barrel of oil, an average of three barrels of water is produced. In the U.S., the water-to-oil ratio (WOR) averages eight barrels of water to one of oil. On average, for every barrel of oil currently recovered, eight barrels of wastewater are also generated. During the next 15 years, the water to oil ratio is forecast to increase from 8:1 to 12:1. In the worst cases, the WOR reaches 50:1. To dispose of produced water, energy companies pay from $3 per barrel to as much as $12 per barrel. With the need to manage such large water volumes, the oil and gas production industry has become as much about water as it is about energy.

In addition to large water volumes and high disposal costs, energy developers using traditional produced water practices are facing increased opposition from environmental activists, local and state governments, and the public. These groups are concerned that the water is leaking from traditional containment pits and entering groundwater and surface water bodies. Historically, produced water has been contained temporarily in pits, and then either transported to treatment plants or evaporated.

During a producing oil well’s lifecycle, it initially produces oil along with a small amount of water; but, over time, the percentage of water increases. Throughout the well’s service life, the produced water must be separated from the oil it contains. Following treatment, the water may be handled via one of three methods: safely discharged (used mainly in offshore applications), re-injected into the hydrocarbon formation (used in onshore, coastal, or environmentally-sensitive areas) or reused (either to maintain reservoir pressure and enhance heavy oil production or in other beneficial applications). In most world regions and for all of the end uses/disposal options, treated water quality must meet certain standards including low toxicity, high biodegradability, and low potential for bioaccumulation in the food chain.

A number of water treatment technologies and equipment types are commercially available for use at the oil or gas production site. These processes can reduce the cost, inefficiency, and risk associated with treatment pits and the transport of toxic water. The treatment technologies include methods for de-oiling, de-sanding, desalinating, and disinfecting produced water. Numerous systems types are on the market. Among the choices are separators; hydrocyclones; distillation-, ion exchange-, adsorbent- and membrane-based units; as well as proprietary equipment and combinations of equipment.

Some of these products and technologies enable the treatment of produced water to a quality suitable for beneficial reuse. Presently, most of the water reused is employed for reinjection in enhanced oil recovery operations. However, there is also future potential for recycling the water in agriculture or a new source of municipal or industrial water supply, especially where water scarcity is an issue.


STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This report is intended to provide an in-depth analysis of the market for produced water treatment equipment. The study examines market value by world region, by equipment type, and by offshore versus onshore use. The world regions discussed are: the Americas, North America (the U.S., Canada, and Mexico), and Central and South America; Europe, the Asia-Pacific region; and the Middle East and Africa.

The market evaluation by equipment type looks at produced water treatment systems within three broad categories: primary and secondary treatment oil separation equipment (minimizes oil in water content to 25 parts per million [ppm] to 30 ppm), tertiary treatment equipment (further reduces oil in water to less than 10 ppm), and advanced treatment (processes for desalinating produced water and enabling zero liquid discharge).

In the market analysis by hydrocarbon resource, value and growth are evaluated for equipment used in treating produced water from conventional oil and gas production and the development of unconventional resources, such as tight oil, oil sands bitumen, shale gas, and coal bed methane. (For the purposes of this report, tight gas, natural gas that is difficult to access because of the nature of the rock and sand surrounding the deposit, is included in conventional resources.)

Because regulations governing offshore versus onshore produced water discharge differ, the equipment market also is evaluated by that parameter. In addition, the two markets are growing at different rates and are propelled by somewhat different drivers.

Technical and market drivers are considered in evaluating the current value of the technologies and in forecasting growth and trends over the next five years. The conclusions are illustrated with a wealth of statistical information on markets, applications, industry structure, and dynamics along with technological developments.

Because of the diverse and somewhat fragmented nature of the produced water treatment industry, it is difficult to find studies that gather such extensive data from such far-flung resources into one comprehensive document. This report contains a unique collection of information, analyses, forecasts and conclusions that are very hard or impossible to find elsewhere.


REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Global population growth and economic expansion are driving energy demand, while simultaneously driving significant increases in the demand for water. The challenge of meeting these demands is intensified by the nexus between water and energy. Large volumes of water are consumed to produce and generate energy, while vast amounts of energy are used to treat and distribute clean water. Furthermore, there is growing competition for water from the municipal, agricultural, and industrial sectors, which exacerbates the mounting problem of global water scarcity. These issues pose a significant business risk to oil and gas companies seeking to achieve sustainable growth.

Major water-related challenges facing the oil and gas sector are mature oilfields that increasingly require water-based enhanced oil recovery methods and produce more water over time; growing exploration and production complexity due to emerging unconventional hydrocarbon resources, with their large water needs; and greater environmental and regulatory pressures related to water management and scarcity.

For these reasons, oil and gas companies must view reevaluate water as a strategic element in their value chain. Water no longer is solely an environmental issue, but is increasingly tied to production growth and cost. As a result, it must be handled through a strategy that recognizes its status as a critical component to ongoing viability in the oil and gas sector.


INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is designed to be of value to a wide array of readers. Those expected to have the greatest interest are players already active in oil and gas production and/or produced water treatment. The study will be of value to startup companies with novel water treatment technology, especially for the hydraulic fracturing sector, since that market is still emerging and has no dominant players. Oilfield services businesses should find the report useful for its overview of treatment technologies, which include performance data, as well as capital and operating cost information.
It should be of interest to venture investors, entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurial companies interested in entering or expanding into the produced water treatment sector. Other public and private sector interest groups, market analysts, and general readers wishing to gain broader knowledge of the dynamics of the produced water treatment equipment market also are expected to find the report worthwhile.


SCOPE OF REPORT

The scope of this report is focused on global produced water treatment equipment for the oil and gas industry. The market is broken down by several different parameters, including world region, equipment type, and produced water source; and offshore/onshore application.

There are a number of expenses related to produced water management, including expenditures for services and equipment for downhole water minimization, for lifting water to the surface, for treatment, for reinjection, and for hauling and offsite disposal. This report will evaluate only oil and gas sector purchases for treatment equipment.
The study covers the industry on a worldwide basis in terms of the manufacture and deployment of treatment systems. BCC examines government roles in support of global markets, including regulatory support, government requirements, and promotional incentives for various technologies as relevant and available.


METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. Research for this technical/marketing report began with an analysis of available technical and business literature related to sludge treatment. Conversations with industry experts and company representatives provide the backbone for the analysis.
Capital equipment expenditure estimates are based on anticipated future treatment capacity, existing and expected regulatory standards, and alterna¬tives for disposing of oil and gas field wastewater.
Both primary and secondary research methods were used in this research study. Internet, literature and patent searches were undertaken, and key industry participants were queried. Growth rates for each market were calculated based on expected revenues from sales of process equipment during the forecast period. Values and forecasts are given in current U.S. dollars. Construction, engineering and design costs are excluded from market size calculations.


ANALYST CREDENTIALS

During the past 16 years, Susan Hanft has authored more than 35 market research reports for BCC Research in the fields of membrane technology, water and wastewater treatment, and separations used in food and beverage manufacture, medicine, and biotechnology.

Table Of Contents


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC PUBLICATIONS 4
BCC ONLINE SERVICES 4
DISCLAIMER 4
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY TABLE THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,
BY OIL OR GAS APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, BY OIL OR GAS APPLICATION, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 8
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10
WATER AND WASTEWATER AT UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS SITES 10
STORMWATER RUNOFF OF DISTURBED LAND 10
FRAC FLUIDS AND FLOWBACK 11
PRODUCED WATER 11
WHAT IS PRODUCED WATER? 11
CONSTITUENTS IN PRODUCED WATER 12
Components in Produced Water from Conventional Oil and Gas Production 12
Oil 12
Chemical Additives 13
Produced Solids 13
Mineral Scales 14
Microorganisms 14
Metals 14
Sulfates 14
NORM 14
TABLE 1 TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCED WATER 15
Constituents in Produced Waters from CBM Production 15
TDS 15
Sodium 16
Other Constituents 16
TABLE 2 CBM PRODUCED WATER CHARACTERISTICS (POWDER RIVER BASIN) 16
HOW MUCH PRODUCED WATER IS GENERATED? 16
TABLE 3 GLOBAL ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES, THROUGH
2017 (1,000 BBL/D) 17
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES, 2000-2017
(1,000 BBL/D) 17
TABLE 4 FATE OF PRODUCED WATER, BY END USE/DISPOSAL ROUTE 2012 VS. 2017 (1,000
BBL/D, %) 18
FIGURE 2 FATE OF PRODUCED WATER, 2012 VS. 2017 (1,000 BBL/D) 18
COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT 18
TABLE 5 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY PROCESS
STEP (%) 19
FIGURE 3 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY PROCESS
STEP (%) 19
TABLE 6 PRODUCED WATER DISPOSAL COSTS FOR OFFSITE COMMERCIAL FACILITIES, BY
OPTION ($) 20
Well Life Cycle Costs 20
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS 20
PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 21
Minimization 21
Mechanical Blocking Devices 21
Packers 21
Plugs 22
Cement 22
Water Shut Off Chemicals 22
Downhole Separation 22
Downhole Oil/Water Separation 22
Downhole Gas/Water Separation 23
Bypass Tools 23
Modified Plunger Rod Pumps 23
ESPs 23
Progressive Cavity Pumps 23
Downhole Water Sink 24
Sea Floor Separation 24
Subsea Separation and Injection System (SUBSIS) 24
Recycle/Reuse 25
Injection for Recovering More Oil 25
Treatment Prior to Injection 26
Injection for Future Use 26
Aquifer Storage and Recovery 26
Injection for Hydrological Purposes 26
Subsidence Control 27
Salt Water Intrusion 27
Flow Augmentation 27
Agricultural Use 27
Crop Irrigation 28
Subsurface Irrigation 28
Livestock and Wildlife Watering 28
Aquaculture and Hydroponics 28
Managed Wetlands 29
Industrial Use 29
Use in Drilling Fluids or Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids 29
Cooling Water Makeup 29
Dust Control 30
Other 30
Drinking Water and Other Domestic Uses 30
CHAPTER 4 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 32
CURRENT PRACTICES 32
REINJECTION 32
TABLE 7 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,
2008-2010 (%) 33
FIGURE 4 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,
2008-2010 (%) 33
TABLE 8 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED ONSHORE, BY REGION,
2008-2010 (%) 34
FIGURE 5 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED ONSHORE, BY REGION,
2008-2010 (%) 34
PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT STAGES 35
TABLE 9 EQUIPMENT SELECTION BASED ON SIZE OF PARTICLES REMOVED (MICRON) 35
TABLE 10 TYPICAL WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY 36
TREATMENT FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGED THROUGH UNDERGROUND
INJECTION 37
TREATMENT FOR PRODUCED WATER REUSED IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 37
TREATMENT FOR PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED TO SURFACE WATER OR
REUSED FOR IRRIGATION 38
COST CONSIDERATIONS 38
PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT CHALLENGES 38
TABLE 11 PRODUCED WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL REQUIREMENTS AND SUITABLE
TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 39
DE-OILING 39
TABLE 12 DE-OILING TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 39
PHYSICAL SEPARATION 41
Gravity Separators 41
API Separators 41
Inclined Plate Separator 42
Flat Corrugated Plate Separators 42
Hydrocyclones 42
Centrifuges 43
Voraxial Separators 43
Media Filtration 44
Further Specifications 44
Granular Media 44
Further Specifications 44
Biological Aerated Filtration 45
System Performance 45
Further Specifications 45
COALESCENCE 45
FLOTATION 46
System Performance 46
Further Specifications 46
ADSORPTION 47
Organoclay 47
Activated Carbon 48
Zeolites 48
MyCelyx 48
COMBINED PHYSICAL AND EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY 49
SOLVENT EXTRACTION 49
OIL IN WATER DISCHARGES IN ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE APPLICATIONS 49
TABLE 13 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGES, ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE,
2004-2010 (MG/L) 50
FIGURE 6 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGES, ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE,
2004-2010 (MG/L) 50
TABLE 14 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,
2008-2010 (MG/L) 50
FIGURE 7 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,
2008-2010 (MG/L) 51
TABLE 15 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED ONSHORE, BY REGION,
2008-2010 (MG/L) 51
FIGURE 8 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED ONSHORE, BY REGION,
2008-2010 (MG/L) 51
DESALINATION 52
TABLE 16 DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 53
TABLE 17 PRESSURE DRIVEN MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT 55
MICROFILTRATION, ULTRAFILTRATION 56
MF 56
UF 56
Ceramic MF, UF 57
Polymeric MF, UF 57
NF 58
Vibratory Shear Enhanced Processing (VSEP) 59
System Performance 59
Costs 59
Further Specifications 60
TABLE 18 VSEP INSTALLATIONS FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 60
RO 60
High Efficiency RO (HERO) 60
System Performance 61
Costs 61
Further Specifications 61
Slurry Precipitation and Recycling RO (SPARRO) 62
Costs 62
Further Specifications 62
Double Pass Preferential Precipitation RO (DP3RO) 63
System Performance 63
Further Specifications 63
Dual-pass RO with Chemical Precipitation 63
System Performance 63
Further Specifications 64
CDM Smith Produced Water Technology 64
Further Specifications 65
Optimized Pretreatment and Separation Technology (OPUS) 65
System Performance 66
Further Specifications 66
GeoPure Advanced Hydro Treatment 66
System Performance 67
Costs 67
Further Specifications 67
Brine Concentrate 67
Concentrate Management 68
FORWARD OSMOSIS (FO) 68
System Performance 69
Further Specifications 69
Hybrid FO/RO 70
Further Specifications 70
ED/EDR 71
High Efficiency ED (HEED) 72
Further Specifications 72
MEMBRANE DISTILLATION (MD) 73
System Performance 73
Costs 74
Further Specifications 74
ION EXCHANGE 74
EMIT Higgins Loop 74
System Performance 75
Further Specifications 75
Drake Continuous Selective IX 75
System Performance 76
Further Specifications 76
Recoflo Compressed-bed IX 76
System Performance 77
Catalyx/RGBL IX 77
CAPACITIVE DEIONIZATION 77
ELECTROCOAGULATION 78
THERMAL DISTILLATION 78
VC 78
System Performance 79
Costs 79
Further Specifications 79
MSF 80
System Performance 80
Costs 80
Further Specifications 80
MED 81
System Performance 81
Costs 81
Further Specifications 82
Other 82
Hybrid MED-VC 82
Freeze-Thaw Evaporation (FTE) 82
System Performance 82
Costs 83
Further Specifications 83
Dewvaporation 83
System Performance 84
Costs 84
Further Specifications 84
Enhanced Distillation/Evaporation 84
GE MVC 84
System Performance 85
Costs 85
Further Specifications 86
Aquatech MVC 86
Aquapure MVR 86
System Performance 87
Further Specifications 87
212 Resources MVR 87
System Performance 88
Further Specifications 88
Intevras EVRAS 88
System Performance 89
Further Specifications 89
AGV Wiped Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) 89
System Performance 90
Costs 90
Further Specifications 90
DISINFECTION 90
TABLE 19 DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 91
Ozonation 91
Ozonix 91
System Performance 92
Ultraviolet Light (UV) Disinfection 92
System Performance 92
Further Specifications 93
CHAPTER 5 WORLD OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 95
TABLE 20 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED BY WORLD REGION, 2011 AND 2012, (NO. OF
WELLS, % SHARE) 95
FIGURE 9 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED BY WORLD REGION, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF
WELLS) 95
MARKET DRIVERS 96
ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS 96
Onshore Regulations 96
Offshore Regulations 97
TABLE 21 OIL-IN-WATER LIMITS BY COUNTRY 97
CONVENTIONAL OIL PRODUCTION 99
Offshore Production 99
Onshore Production 100

EOR 100
TABLE 22 PEAK OIL PRODUCTION AT WORLD’S LARGEST OILFIELDS 100
Global EOR-Based Oil Production 101
TABLE 23 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY REGION/COUNTRY, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 101
FIGURE 10 TOTAL GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY REGION/COUNTRY, 2010
(BBL/D, %) 102
TABLE 24 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 103
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 103
TABLE 25 EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION BY REGION AND TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (%
SHARE) 104
FIGURE 12 EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION BY REGION AND TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (%) 104
Steam Flooding 105
'Smart' Waterflooding 105
CONVENTIONAL GAS PRODUCTION 105
UNCONVENTIONAL HYDROCARBONS PRODUCTION 106
Unconventional Oil 106
FIGURE 13 WORLD LIQUIDS SUPPLY BY TYPE IN THE NEW POLICY SCENARIO, 1990-2035
(MILLION BBL/D) 106
Tight Oil 107
Hydraulic Fracturing 107
Environmental Concerns Related to Fracking 108
Oil Sands 108
Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) 109
Unconventional Gas 109
Shale Gas 109
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL SHALE GAS RESERVES 110
Coalbed Methane (CBM) 110
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL CBM RESERVES 111
TABLE 26 CBM RESERVES BY COUNTRY (TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 111
FIGURE 16 CBM RESERVES BY COUNTRY (TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 111
BENEFICIAL REUSE 112
GLOBAL OIL-LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION 113
OPEC PROJECTIONS 113
NON-OPEC PROJECTIONS 114
PROVEN GLOBAL OIL RESERVES 114
TABLE 27 WORLD PROVED OIL RESERVES BY COUNTRY AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION
BARRELS, % OF TOTAL) 115
TABLE 28 WORLD PROVEN OIL RESERVES BY REGION, AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION
BARRELS, %) 115
FIGURE 17 WORLD PROVEN OIL RESERVES BY REGION, AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION
BARRELS) 116
GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION 116
TABLE 29 GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY 116
TABLE 30 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF OIL WELLS, 2008 119
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF OIL WELLS, 2008 120
Oil Production Forecasts 120
TABLE 31 NON-OPEC OIL PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO, 2010-2035
(MILLION BBL/D) 120
TABLE 32 OPEC OIL PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO, 2010-2035 (MB/D) 121
GLOBAL NATURAL GAS RESERVES 122
TABLE 33 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011 (TRILLION
CUBIC FEET) 122
FIGURE 19 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION, AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011
(TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 122
TABLE 34 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY COUNTRY AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011
(TRILLION CUBIC FEET,%) 123
FIGURE 20 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY COUNTRY AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011
(TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 124
GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION 124
TABLE 35 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY (CUBIC METERS) 124
NATURAL GAS PROJECTIONS 126
TABLE 36 PRIMARY NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO,
2009-2035 (MB/D) 127
UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PROJECTIONS 128
TABLE 37 WORLD NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION/COUNTRY, CONVENTIONAL
VERSUS UNCONVENTIONAL, THROUGH 2035 (TRILLION CUBIC METERS) 129
GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 131
BY EQUIPMENT TYPE 132
Primary and Secondary Treatment Equipment 132
Tertiary Treatment 133
Advanced Treatment 133
TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY
EQUIPMENT TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 135
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY
EQUIPMENT TYPE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 135
Centralized Treatment 135
ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE 136
TABLE 39 DISTRIBUTION OF ONSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2012, BY WORLD
REGION (NO. AND % SHARE) 136
FIGURE 22 DISTRIBUTION OF ONSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2012, BY WORLD
REGION (% SHARE) 136
TABLE 40 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2012, BY WORLD REGION (NO. AND
% SHARE) 138
FIGURE 23 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2012, BY WORLD REGION (%
SHARE) 138
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 139
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, ONSHORE VS.
OFFSHORE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 139
BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE 139
Conventional Oil 140
EOR 140
Tight Oil 141
Oil Sands 141
Conventional Gas 142
Shale Gas 142
Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Development 143
TABLE 42 GLOBAL HYDRAULIC FRACTURING TREATMENTS, BREAKDOWN BY WELL TYPE (%) 144

FIGURE 25 GLOBAL HYDRAULIC FRACTURING TREATMENTS, BREAKDOWN BY WELL TYPE
(%) 144
Frac Water Treatment 145
CBM 146
TABLE 43 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 147
FIGURE 26 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 148
BY WORLD REGION 148
TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY
REGION, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 149
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY
REGION, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 149
TABLE 45 WORLD BANK ESTIMATES FOR REAL GDP GROWTH, 2012-2014 (%) 150
CHAPTER 6 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA 152
INTRODUCTION 152
TABLE 46 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, 2011 AND
2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 152
FIGURE 28 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, 2011 AND
2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 153
OIL PRODUCTION 153
GAS PRODUCTION 153
CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT 154
BY EQUIPMENT TYPE 154
Primary and Secondary Treatment Equipment 154
Central and South American Regulatory Requirements 154
Tertiary and Advanced Treatment Equipment 155
TABLE 47 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED
WATER TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 155
FIGURE 29 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED
WATER TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 155
ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE 156
TABLE 48 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, ONSHORE
VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO OF WELLS/%) 156
FIGURE 30 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, ONSHORE
VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 156
TABLE 49 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED
WATER TREATMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 157
FIGURE 31 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED
WATER TREATMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 157
BY HYDROCARBON SOURCE 158
Conventional Oil 158
TABLE 50 NON-OPEC CRUDE OIL AND LIQUID FUELS SUPPLY, 2010-2013 (BBL/D) 159
FIGURE 32 NON-OPEC CRUDE OIL AND LIQUID FUELS SUPPLY, 2010-2013 (BBL/D) 159
EOR 160
Tight Oil 160
Oil Sands 161
Conventional Gas 161
Shale Gas 162
Argentina 162
Brazil 162
Colombia 163
CBM 163
TABLE 51 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED
WATER TREATMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 164
FIGURE 33 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED
WATER TREATMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 164
CHAPTER 7 EUROPE 166
TABLE 52 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 166
FIGURE 34 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 167
TABLE 53 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF
WELLS) 167
FIGURE 35 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF
WELLS) 167
OECD EUROPE 168
OIL PRODUCTION 168
GAS PRODUCTION 169
FIGURE 36 OECD EUROPE NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, 1990-2035 (TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 169
NON-OECD EUROPE AND EURASIA 170
OIL PRODUCTION 170
GAS PRODUCTION 171
FIGURE 37 NON-OECD EUROPE AND EURASIA NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, 1992-2035
(TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 172
EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT 173
BY EQUIPMENT TYPE 173
Primary and Secondary Treatment Equipment 173
European Regulatory Requirements 174
OSPAR Convention 174
North Sea-Norway 174
HELCOM Convention (Baltic) 175
Barcelona Convention (Mediterranean) 175
Anticipated Frac Water Legislation 176
Tertiary and Advanced Treatment Equipment 176
TABLE 54 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 176
FIGURE 38 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, BY TYPE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 176
ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE 177
TABLE 55 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011
AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS/%) 177
FIGURE 39 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011
AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 177
TABLE 56 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 179
FIGURE 40 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 179
BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE 179
Conventional Oil 180
Russia 180
Kazakhstan 180
Tight Oil 180
Oil Sands 181
Russian Tax Incentives 181
Conventional Natural Gas 182
Shale Gas 182
OECD Western Europe 183
OECD Central and Eastern Europe 183
Non-OECD Europe 184
CBM 184
TABLE 57 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 185
FIGURE 41 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 185
CHAPTER 8 ASIA-PACIFIC 187
OECD ASIA-PACIFIC 187
OIL PRODUCTION 187
TABLE 58 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2011 AND 2012 (NO.
OF WELLS) 188
FIGURE 42 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2011 AND 2012
(NO. OF WELLS) 188
TABLE 59 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2011
AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 189
FIGURE 43 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2011
AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 189
GAS PRODUCTION 190
Australia 190
NON-OECD ASIA 191
OIL PRODUCTION 191
GAS PRODUCTION 192
THE ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 193
BY EQUIPMENT TYPE 193
Primary and Secondary Treatment 193
Regulatory Requirements 193
Australia 194
China 194
India 194
Tertiary and Advanced Treatment 195
TABLE 60 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,
BY TYPE, IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 195
FIGURE 44 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,
BY TYPE, IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 195
ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE 196
TABLE 61 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, ONSHORE VERSUS
OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS/%) 196
FIGURE 45 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, ONSHORE
VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 196
TABLE 62 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,
ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 198
FIGURE 46 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,
ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 198
BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE 198
Conventional Oil 198
Tight Oil 199
Oil Sands 200
Conventional Gas 200
Shale Gas 200
China 200
Australia 201
India 201
Indonesia 201
CBM 202
Other Countries 202
TABLE 63 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 203
FIGURE 47 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 203
CHAPTER 9 MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 206
NON-OECD MIDDLE EAST 206
TABLE 64 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 2011 AND 2012
(NO. OF WELLS) 206
FIGURE 48 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 2011 AND
2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 206
TABLE 65 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA,
2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 207
OIL PRODUCTION 208
TABLE 66 MENA SHARE OF GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION, 2010 (%) 208
FIGURE 49 MENA SHARE OF GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION, 2010 (%) 208
TABLE 67 NON-OECD MIDDLE EAST OIL PRODUCERS AND OUTPUT, 2010 (1,000 BBL/D) 209
FIGURE 50 NON-OECD MIDDLE EAST OIL PRODUCERS AND OUTPUT, 2010 (1,000 BBL/D) 209
GAS PRODUCTION 211
FIGURE 51 MIDDLE EAST NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, 1990-2035 (MILLION CUBIC FEET) 211
NON-OECD AFRICA 212
OIL PRODUCTION 212
GAS PRODUCTION 213
FIGURE 52 AFRICA NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, 1990-2035 (MILLION CUBIC FEET) 214
MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 214
BY EQUIPMENT TYPE 215
Primary and Secondary Treatment Equipment 215
Regulatory Requirements 215
Middle East 215
Africa 216
Tertiary and Advanced Treatment 216
TABLE 68 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,
BY TYPE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 217
FIGURE 53 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,
BY TYPE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 217
ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE 218
TABLE 69 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, ONSHORE
VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 218
FIGURE 54 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, ONSHORE
VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 219
TABLE 70 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,
ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 220
FIGURE 55 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,
ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 220
BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE 220
Conventional Oil 221
EOR 221
Oman 222
Tight Oil 222
Oil Sands 222
Conventional Gas 223
Shale Gas 223
CBM 223
TABLE 71 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,
BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS)
224
FIGURE 56 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,
BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 224
CHAPTER 10 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 226
CAPITAL EQUIPMENT SPENDING 227
TABLE 72 GLOBAL CAPITAL SPENDING IN THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY,
2000-2012 ($BILLIONS) 228
FIGURE 57 GLOBAL CAPITAL SPENDING IN THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY,
2000-2012 ($ BILLIONS) 228
TABLE 73 CAPITAL SPENDING BY THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY, BY REGION,
2011 AND 2012 ($ BILLIONS) 228
FIGURE 58 CAPITAL SPENDING BY THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY, BY REGION,
2011 AND 2012 ($ BILLIONS) 229
TABLE 74 PERCENTAGE BREAKDOWN OF CAPITAL SPENDING BY THE UPSTREAM OIL AND
GAS INDUSTRY, BY REGION, 2012 (%) 230
TABLE 75 OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY INVESTMENT, BY COMPANY, 2010 AND 2011
($BILLIONS/%) 230
FUTURE INVESTMENT 231
CONSIDERATIONS FOR VENDORS SUPPLYING WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 232
COMPANY PROFILES 233
212 RESOURCES 233
AVG TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 233
AKER SOLUTIONS 233
ALTELA, INC. 234
AMCOL INTERNATIONAL CORP. 234
AQUA EWP 235
AQUA-PURE VENTURES 235
AQUATECH 236
AUXSOL, INC. 236
CAMERON INTERNATIONAL CORP. 237
DRAKE WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 237
ECOSPHERE TECHNOLOGIES 238
ECO-TEC 239
EPROCESS TECHNOLOGIES PTY. LTD. 239
EXTERRAN 240
FLSMIDTH 240
FMC TECHNOLOGIES (CDS) 241
FILTERBOXX PACKAGED WATER SOLUTIONS, INC. 241
GE WATER and PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES 241
GEO-PROCESSORS PTY. LTD. 242
GEOPURE HYDROTECHNOLOGIES 242
GLOBAL PROCESS SYSTEMS (GPS) 243
GRADEK ENERGY, INC. 243
HALLIBURTON 243
HAMWORTHY 244
HYDRATION TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION (HTI) 244
LAYNE CHRISTENSEN 245
MYCELYX TECHNOLOGIES CORP. 246
NOV MISSION PRODUCTS 246
NEW LOGIC RESEARCH 247
OVIVO 247
PROCESS GROUP INTERNATIONAL (PGI) 248
PROSEP INC. 248
DPS GLOBAL 249
SAIPEM 249
SCHLUMBERGER 249
SET CORP. 250
SEVERN TRENT 251
SIEMENS WATER TECHNOLOGIES 251
VEOLIA WATER SOLUTIONS and TECHNOLOGIES 252
VME PROCESS, INC. 253
WASTEWATER RESOURCES, INC. (WRI) 253
WATER STANDARD CO. 253
WATERTECTONICS 254
WATER and POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (WPT) 254


LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,
BY OIL OR GAS APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 8
TABLE 1 TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCED WATER 15
TABLE 2 CBM PRODUCED WATER CHARACTERISTICS (POWDER RIVER BASIN) 16
TABLE 3 GLOBAL ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES, THROUGH 2017
(1,000 BBL/D) 17
TABLE 4 FATE OF PRODUCED WATER, BY END USE/DISPOSAL ROUTE 2012 VS. 2017 (1,000
BBL/D, %) 18
TABLE 5 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY PROCESS
STEP (%) 19
TABLE 6 PRODUCED WATER DISPOSAL COSTS FOR OFFSITE COMMERCIAL FACILITIES, BY
OPTION ($) 20
TABLE 7 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,
2008-2010 (%) 33
TABLE 8 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED ONSHORE, BY REGION,
2008-2010 (%) 34
TABLE 9 EQUIPMENT SELECTION BASED ON SIZE OF PARTICLES REMOVED (MICRON) 35
TABLE 10 TYPICAL WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY 36
TABLE 11 PRODUCED WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL REQUIREMENTS AND SUITABLE
TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 39
TABLE 12 DE-OILING TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 39
TABLE 13 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGES, ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE,
2004-2010 (MG/L) 50
TABLE 14 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,
2008-2010 (MG/L) 50
TABLE 15 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED ONSHORE, BY REGION,
2008-2010 (MG/L) 51
TABLE 16 DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 53
TABLE 17 PRESSURE DRIVEN MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT 55
TABLE 18 VSEP INSTALLATIONS FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 60
TABLE 19 DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 91
TABLE 20 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED BY WORLD REGION, 2011 AND 2012, (NO. OF WELLS,
% SHARE) 95
TABLE 21 OIL-IN-WATER LIMITS BY COUNTRY 97
TABLE 22 PEAK OIL PRODUCTION AT WORLD’S LARGEST OILFIELDS 100
TABLE 23 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY REGION/COUNTRY, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 101
TABLE 24 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 103
TABLE 25 EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION BY REGION AND TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (%
SHARE) 104
TABLE 26 CBM RESERVES BY COUNTRY (TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 111
TABLE 27 WORLD PROVED OIL RESERVES BY COUNTRY AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION
BARRELS, % OF TOTAL) 115
TABLE 28 WORLD PROVEN OIL RESERVES BY REGION, AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION
BARRELS, %) 115
TABLE 29 GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY 116
TABLE 30 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF OIL WELLS, 2008 119
TABLE 31 NON-OPEC OIL PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO, 2010-2035
(MILLION BBL/D) 120
TABLE 32 OPEC OIL PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO, 2010-2035 (MB/D) 121


TABLE HEADING PAGE NO.
TABLE 33 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011 (TRILLION
CUBIC FEET) 122
TABLE 34 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY COUNTRY AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011 (TRILLION
CUBIC FEET,%) 123
TABLE 35 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY (CUBIC METERS) 124
TABLE 36 PRIMARY NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO,
2009-2035 (MB/D) 127
TABLE 37 WORLD NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION/COUNTRY, CONVENTIONAL
VERSUS UNCONVENTIONAL, THROUGH 2035 (TRILLION CUBIC METERS) 129
TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY
EQUIPMENT TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 135
TABLE 39 DISTRIBUTION OF ONSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2012, BY WORLD
REGION (NO. AND % SHARE) 136
TABLE 40 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2012, BY WORLD REGION (NO. AND %
SHARE) 138
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 139
TABLE 42 GLOBAL HYDRAULIC FRACTURING TREATMENTS, BREAKDOWN BY WELL TYPE (%) 144
TABLE 43 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 147
TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY
REGION, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 149
TABLE 45 WORLD BANK ESTIMATES FOR REAL GDP GROWTH, 2012-2014 (%) 150
TABLE 46 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, 2011 AND 2012
(NO. OF WELLS) 152
TABLE 47 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED
WATER TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 155
TABLE 48 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, ONSHORE
VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO OF WELLS/%) 156
TABLE 49 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED
WATER TREATMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 157
TABLE 50 NON-OPEC CRUDE OIL AND LIQUID FUELS SUPPLY, 2010-2013 (BBL/D) 159
TABLE 51 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED
WATER TREATMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 164
TABLE 52 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 166
TABLE 53 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF
WELLS) 167
TABLE 54 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 176
TABLE 55 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011
AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS/%) 177
TABLE 56 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 179
TABLE 57 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 185
TABLE 58 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2011 AND 2012 (NO.
OF WELLS) 188
TABLE 59 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2011 AND
2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 189
TABLE 60 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT, BY
TYPE, IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 195
TABLE HEADING PAGE NO.
TABLE 61 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, ONSHORE VERSUS
OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS/%) 196
TABLE 62 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,
ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 198
TABLE 63 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 203
TABLE 64 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 2011 AND 2012
(NO. OF WELLS) 206
TABLE 65 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 2011
AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 207
TABLE 66 MENA SHARE OF GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION, 2010 (%) 208
TABLE 67 NON-OECD MIDDLE EAST OIL PRODUCERS AND OUTPUT, 2010 (1,000 BBL/D) 209
TABLE 68 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT, BY
TYPE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFR

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