Global Electric Vehicles (EVs) Industry

  • November 2012
  • -
  • Global Industry Analysts
  • -
  • 597 pages

This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Electric Vehicles (EVs) in Units by the following Product Segments: Battery Powered Electric Vehicles (BPEVs), Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs). The report provides separate comprehensive analytics for the US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World. Annual estimates and forecasts are provided for the period 2010 through 2018. A six-year historic analysis is also provided for these markets. The report profiles 116 companies including many key and niche players such as AB Volvo Group, Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, Chrysler Group LLC, Daimler AG, Daimler Trucks North America LLC, Fiat SpA, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Honda Motor Co., Ltd., Hyundai Motor Company, Isuzu Motors Ltd, Mazda Motor Corporation, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A, Renault SA, Suzuki Motor Corp., Toyota Motor Corporation, Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd, and Volkswagen AG. Market data and analytics are derived from primary and secondary research. Company profiles are primarily based upon search engine sources in the public domain.

Table Of Contents





I. INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY and PRODUCT DEFINITIONS
Study Reliability and Reporting Limitations I-1
Disclaimers I-2
Data Interpretation and Reporting Level I-2
Quantitative Techniques and Analytics I-3
Product Definitions and Scope of Study I-3
Battery Powered Electric Vehicles (BPEVs) I-3
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) I-3


II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. MARKET SNAPSHOTS II-1

2. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW II-2
Changing Face of Global Vehicle Population II-2
US, EU and Japan Ink Agreement for EV Regulation II-2
HEVs - The Largest Segment II-3
Which EV Type Would be Ultimately Accepted in the Market? II-3
Automakers’ Dilemma II-3
Battery-Powered EVs: The Only Zero Emission Vehicle II-4
Dependence of BEVs on Battery Technology II-4
Hybrid EVs: An Interim Solution to Air Pollution II-4
Fuel Cell EVs: The Promise of Low Emission Levels II-4
Not Enough Electric Cars to Dent CO2 Emissions by 2020 II-5
Key Growth Considerations for Electric Vehicles Market II-5
Table 1: Comparative Lifetime Costs of Conventional Car
versus Electric Cars (Hybrid, Plug-in, and Battery-Powered) II-6
Electric Vehicles: A Historical Overview II-6

3. GLOBAL MARKET SCENARIO II-8
Market Scenario and Outlook II-8
Table 2: Leading Players in the Global EV/HEV Market (2011):
Percentage Breakdown of Volume Sales for Toyota, Ford,
General Motors and Others (includes corresponding
Graph/Chart) II-8

Table 3: Leading Players in the Global EV/HEV Market (2015F):
Percentage Breakdown of Volume Sales for Toyota, Ford,
Nissan, General Motors, Honda and Others (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) II-8

Table 4: Worldwide Electric Vehicles Market: Percentage Share
of Unit Sales by Vehicle Class - Light Duty and Heavy Duty
(includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-9
US, Japan and Western Europe: Leading EV Demand II-9
Europe and Asia: Principal Potential Markets II-9
Asia to Emerge as the Largest Market II-9
Fuel Efficiency Upholds Alternative Fuel Technologies II-10
Market Trends Over the Years II-10
Testing Times for EV Market II-10
Global Crisis Spurs Electric Car Development II-11
Europe II-11
US II-11
Japan II-11
China II-11
Israel II-11
Fleet Managers Increasingly Choose Hybrid Vehicles II-12
Future Contours of Hybrid Car Industry II-12
Gearing Up for the Change in Transportation II-12
Table 5: Electric Vehicle Product Attributes (2012):
Percentage-wise Ratings as Per Importance to Customers
(includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-13
New Initiatives Come to the Fore II-14
Nanotechnology-Based Battery Technology Poised to Make an Impact II-14
Battery Powered Electric Vehicles: A Slowly Developing Segment II-14
Car Markers Embrace Lithium-Ion Battery Technology for Hybrid
Vehicles II-15
Table 6: Global Leading Electric Battery Makers (2010, 2012 and
2018): Percentage Market Share Breakdown for Panasonic JV,
Sanyo, GS Yuasa/JV, Nissan NEC, and Others (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) II-16
Vehicle Cost to Remain a Major Impediment to Penetration II-16
Commercial Recharging Stations Likely to be a Lackluster Affair II-17
EV Charging Equipment Market Gathering Thrust II-17
Growing Acceptance of Hybrid EVs among Consumers II-17
Hybrids Receive Varied Responses II-18
Growing Trend towards Small and Low-Speed Electric Vehicles II-18
Micro-Hybrids to Soar to 41 Million Vehicles by 2018 II-19
Major Factors Influencing the Market II-19
Growing Environmental Concerns II-19
Oil Price Uncertainty II-19
Increasing Regulations II-19
Developments in Battery Technology II-20
Market Restraints II-20
Safety Concerns: A Major Impediment II-20
Performance Predicaments II-20
Maintenance Constraints II-20
High Manufacturing Costs II-21
Under Developed Recharging and New Fuel Infrastructure II-21
Rapid Developments in Conventional Vehicles and Other AFVs II-21
Impact of EV RandD on Other Sectors II-22
High Costs in EV RandD to Affect Research Efforts in
Conventional Vehicles II-22
Impact of EV RandD on Non-Vehicular Applications II-22

4. PRODUCT OVERVIEW II-23
EV Types: By Vehicular Class II-23
EV Types: By Vehicular Technology II-23
Battery Powered Electric Vehicles II-23
Operating Characteristics II-23
Environmental Benefits II-23
Advantages and Disadvantages II-23
Advantages II-23
Disadvantages II-23
Current and Evolving EV Battery Technologies II-24
Lead-Acid Batteries II-24
Lithium/Polymer Batteries II-24
Zinc-Bromine Batteries II-24
Nickel-Cadmium Batteries II-24
Nickel-Zinc Batteries II-25
Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries II-25
Nickel-Iron Batteries II-25
Sodium-Sulfur Batteries II-25
Redox Batteries II-25
Metal-Air Batteries II-25
Zinc-Air Batteries II-26
Aluminum-Air Batteries II-26
High Temperature Lithium Batteries II-26
Sodium-Metal Chloride Batteries II-26
Lithium Metal Sulfide Batteries II-26
Others II-27
Hybrid Electric Vehicles II-27
Operating Characteristics II-27
Propulsion Types II-27
Series Hybrid Configuration II-27
Parallel Hybrid Configuration II-28
Combined Hybrid Configuration II-29
Mechanical Hybrid Configuration II-29
Segments II-29
Charge-Sustaining HEVs II-29
Advantages of Charge-Sustaining Configuration vis-a-vis
Charge-Depleting Configuration II-29
Charge-Depleting HEVs II-30
Advantages of Charge-Depleting Configuration vis-a-vis
Charge-Sustaining Configuration II-30
Full Hybrid Vehicles II-30
Mini Hybrid Vehicles II-30
Environmental Benefits II-31
Advantages and Disadvantages II-31
Advantages II-31
Disadvantages II-31
RandD Trends in HEV Market II-31
Hybrid Car Market Outlook II-32
Other HEV Development Trends II-32
Vehicle Manufacturers Favor Charge-Sustaining Hybrids II-32
Utilities Favor Charge-Depleting Hybrids II-33
Automakers Prefer Diesel/Petrol Technologies over Hybrids II-33
Regional Trends II-33
US: Charge-Sustaining Hybrids Dominate Major Developments II-33
Japan: Developments Reflect Trends in the US II-33
Europe: An Exception II-34
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles II-34
Table 7: Worldwide FCEV Market: Projected Market Shares of
Vehicle Manufacturers by 2020 for GM, Toyota, Honda, Ford,
DCX, Renault/Nissan, Hyundai/Kia, VW, PSA, ROW, Fiat, and BMW
(includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-34
Operating Characteristics II-34
Environmental Benefits II-35
Advantages and Disadvantages II-35
Advantages II-35
Major Disadvantage II-35
Technologies II-35
Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells II-35
Methanol Fuel Cells II-36
Hydrogen Fuel Cells II-36
Evolving EV Technologies II-36
Flywheels II-36
Ultracapacitors II-37
Microturbines II-37
Pulse Power Batteries II-38

5. ENVIRONMENTAL AND REGULATORY SCENARIO II-39
Environmental Issues II-39
Environmental Impact of ICEVs II-39
The Ensuing Health Problems II-39
Electric Vehicles and Environmental Issues II-39
Regulatory and Other Factors II-40
Introduction II-40
Regulatory Requirements II-40

6. MAJOR STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF THE EV MARKET II-42
EV Battery Market II-42
Electric Vehicles: A Major Potential Market for Batteries II-42
Table 8: Worldwide Rechargeable Battery Market (2011):
Percentage Breakdown by Chemistry for Lead Acid, Nickel
Based, Lithium Based, and Others (includes corresponding
Graph/Chart) II-42
Battery Market to Excel II-42
Replacement Sales: The Major Driving Force II-43
EV Battery Power Density and Range: Major Impediments to Growth II-43
EV Battery Charging Market II-43
Battery Charging: An Evolving Service Sector II-43
Under Developed Charging Infrastructure: The Major Constraint II-43
EV Components Market II-44
EV Component Availability: A Major Concern II-44
EV Market Uncertainties Restrain the EV Components Sector II-44

7. OTHER ALTERNATIVE FUELS II-45
Natural Gas II-45
Propane/LPG II-45
Methanol II-46
Ethanol II-46
Biodiesel II-47
Introduction II-47
Sources and Types of Biodiesel II-47
Vehicular Emissions II-47
Table 9: Approximate Emission Variations of B20 Relative to
Conventional Diesel II-48

Table 10: Approximate Emission Variations of B100 Relative
to Conventional Diesel II-48
Performance Characteristics II-48
Dimethyl-Ether (DME) II-49
Properties of DME II-49
Production of DME II-49
Applications of Dimethyl-Ether II-49
DME in Transportation II-50
DME in Fuel Cells II-50

8. PRODUCT INTRODUCTIONS/INNOVATIONS II-51
Kia Launches Kia Ray EV II-51
Mitsubishi to Launch i-MiEV and EVs in the US II-52
Renault to Launch Twizy Z.E. II-52
General Motors to Launch Electric Vehicles in China II-53
Tata Unveils Alternate Fuel Technologies II-53
TMS Launches RAV4 EV II-53
Mitsubishi Motors to Unveil Outlander Plug-in Hybrid and
Mirage Vehicles II-53
National Electric Vehicle Sweden to Introduce Saab Electric Car II-54
Nissan to Unveil e-NV200 II-55
Nissan Motor to Launch Nissan LEAF All-electric Vehicle in
Puerto Rico II-55
Mahindra and Mahindra to Launch Hybrid Vehicle II-55
Mazda Motor to Introduce Electric Vehicle with Rotary Engine II-55
AutoVAZ to Launch EL LADA Electromotive Car II-56
Audi to Introduce Hybrid Vehicles II-56
GreenTech Automotive Launches Low-Cost All-Electric Car II-56
ECOmove Unveils Full-Body Model of QBEAK II-56
Ford Motor to Introduce Ford Focus All-electric Car in Europe II-57
Syarikat Prasarana Negara to Launch Electric Buses II-57
The Suda Group Introduces Battery Electric Vehicle II-57
Balqon Launches Model MX30 Electric Tractor II-58
Toyota Motor to Introduce Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles in China II-58
BYD Automobile to Launch All Electric eBUS Range in Frankfurt II-58
Mitsubishi Motors Unveils Upgraded i-MiEV II-59
car2go to Introduce All-Electric Vehicle Car Rental Fleet in
Amsterdam II-59
Mahindra Reva Electric Vehicles to Launch Reva NXR Electric
Car in India II-60
Mitsubishi Group Unveils PX-MiEV II Plug-in Hybrid Crossover II-60
Daihatsu Rolls Out Zero Emission Concept Cars II-60
SEAT Introduces Leon TwinDrive Ecomotive and Altea XL Electric
Ecomotive II-61
BYD Automobile Unveils "e6 foregoer" II-61
Toyota Launches Aqua II-61
AMP Rolls Out New SUV Model II-62
Holden Launches World’s First Long-Range Electric Car II-62
Volvo Launches Volvo C30 Electric II-62
Mitsubishi Motors Introduces MINICAB-MiEV Commercial Electric
Vehicle II-63
Mazda to Launch Electric Vehicles by 2018 II-63
Renault to Launch Kangoo Maxi Z.E. II-63

9. PRODUCT LAUNCHES IN RECENT PAST - A PERSPECTIVE BUILDER II-65
ZAP Launches ZAP Taxi and Alias Prototype Sports Car II-65
The BMW Group to Unveil Megacity Vehicle II-65
General Motors Rolls Out Chevrolet Volt II-65
Electric Cars Europe Introduces e-C1 Electric Car II-65
Honda Motor Company to Introduce Civic Hybrid, Honda Fit, FUN
model and All- Electric Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles II-66
BMW Rolls Out ActiveHybrid X6 and ActiveHybrid 7 II-66
Ecotricity Launches Nemesis II-66
Toyota Motor Launches Toyota RAV4 EV II-66
Hyundai Motor Introduces BlueOn FSEV II-67
Maruti Suzuki India Introduces Eeco Charge and SX4 Hybrid
Future Technology Cars II-67
Audi Introduces 'Detroit Show Car' e-tron II-68
Motive Introduces Kestrel Bio-composite Electric Car II-68
Envision Motor Company to Unveil New Electric Vehicles II-68
Geely Automobile Holdings to Introduce Electric Vehicles II-69
Hyundai Introduces Tucson/ ix35 Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Electric
Vehicle II-69
Ford to Unveil Electric Vehicles II-69
Ford Motor and Azure Dynamics to Launch Transit Connect Electric II-69
Jaguar to Launch Electric Jaguar XJ II-70
Toyota Introduces Petrol-Electric Hybrid Camry II-70
Reva, M and M, and Tata Motors to Launch Electric Passenger
Carriers and Trucks II-70
Balqon to Launch Nautilus XE20 II-70
Tesla to Release Right-Hand-Drive Roadster Electric Car II-71
Volkswagen to Launch Hybrid Vehicles in Japan II-71
General Motors Develops Lithium-ion Battery II-71
Ford Motor to Roll Out Electric Vehicles in Partnership with
High-Tech Partners II-71
Toyota Motor to Roll-Out New Prius II-72
Mitsubishi Motors and BMW Initiate Trials on Electric Vehicles II-72
Zotye and BYD Automobile to Unveil F3DM II-72
Smith Electric Vehicles Unveils Smith Ampere II-73
Bavina Cars to Roll-Out Electric Car II-73
Shelby SuperCars Unveils Ultimate Aero EV II-73
Nissan Motor to Launch Leaf Electric Car in Canada II-74
Tata Motors to Introduce Indica Electric in India II-74
Chrysler Group Unveils New Electric Vehicles II-74
Renault Unveils Electric Cars II-74
CODA Automotive to Launch Electric Sedan in California II-75
Hyundai to Unveil Hyundai i10 Electric II-75
Opel to Roll Out a Range of Electric Vehicles II-76
Chery Automobile to Introduce Electric Vehicle II-76
Fuji to Roll out Gas-Electric Hybrid Vehicle II-76
Renault to Unveil New Electric Vehicle in Romania II-76
Honda to Roll Out EV-N Retro Electric and CR-Z Hybrid Sports Car II-76
REVA to Unveil New Electric Car Models II-77
Peugeot to Unveil i0n Electric Vehicle II-77
Global Green Cars and Green Star Products Launch EV Raceway
Pace Car II-77
BYD to Unveil e6 Crossover II-77
Honda to Launch Electric Vehicle in US II-77
Toyota to Roll Out IQ Electric Vehicle II-78
Kia Introduces Forte Liquid Petroleum Injection Hybrid II-78
Tomberlin Group Unveils Anvil Electric Vehicle II-78
Volvo to Introduce Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle II-78
BYD Introduces e6 All-Electric Crossover Vehicle II-78
Subaru Commences Testing of ‘Stella’ in Japan II-79
Dodge to Launch Hybrid Ram in 2010 II-79
Holden to Unveil EcoLine Range of Environment-Friendly Vehicles II-79
Lexus Unveils Small and Economical Luxury Car, Lexus HS 250h II-79
Chrysler Plans to Roll Out First All-Electric Sports Car II-80
FEV Plans to Introduce Dodge Caliber-Based ReEV Concept II-80
Maruti Plans to Unveil Electric Vehicles II-81
Chrysler Launches Peapod - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle II-81
Mitsubishi Motors Plans Production of i MiEV for Global Markets II-81
Segway and GM to Unveil Innovative Vehicle Class II-82
Hyundai Debuts Sophisticated Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus II-82
Hyundai Introduces First LPI Powered Hybrid Vehicle, Elantra
LPI HEV II-82
Brilliance Auto to Introduce Electric Car II-83
Tesla Motors Launches a Working Model of S Sedan II-83
GoinGreen Introduces G-Wiz L-ion with Extended Range II-84
Ford to Sell Electric Car II-84
ATCO Electric Introduces First Hybrid Utility Vehicle in Alberta II-84
Toyota Motor to Introduce Hybrid Cars II-85
Honda to Unveil New Honda Insight 2010 Vehicles II-85
Toyota to Introduce Prius in Philippines II-85
Ford to Showcase New Tourneo Connect at Geneva Motor Show II-86
EDAG Introduces Light Car II-86
MandM to Unveil Hybrid and Electric Vehicles II-86
Volkswagen to Exhibit Diesel-Electric Hybrid Golf II-87
Chery Automobile to Launch BEV II-87
ZAP Plans to Unveil Electric Van II-87
Chery Motors Unveils S18 II-88
Ford to Launch All-Electric Vehicle in North America II-88
BYD to Unveil Electric and Hybrid Vehicles in North American
Market II-88
Toyota Plans to Unveil Fully-Electric Car in US II-88
Tesla Launches Roadster Sport II-88
Chrysler Plans to Roll Out Electric Car in Asia and Europe II-89
BMW Expands Hybrid Gas-Electric Vehicle Range with X6
Crossover and 7 Series II-89
Aptera to Launch Electric Cars II-89
REVA Announces First Lithium-ion-Powered Electric Car II-89

10. RECENT INDUSTRY ACTIVITY II-91
Niyato Industries and Green Automotive Enter into Agreement II-91
UQM Obtains Order for Supply of Motors for EVI’s 100 All-
Electric UPS Delivery Vans II-91
Renault-Nissan Enters into JV with Russian Technologies II-92
A123 Systems and VIA Motors Enter into Agreement II-92
Volkswagen to Commence Production of Electric Vehicles in China II-92
TMMC to Enhance RAV4 Manufacturing Capacity II-92
Valence Technology and PVI Extend Supply Agreement II-93
BYD and Yunnan Provincial Investment Holdings Ink Agreement II-93
Boston-Power Inks Multi-Year Agreement with Beijing Electric
Vehicle II-93
ECOtality Forms Joint Venture with Changchun Eco-Power Technology II-94
Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada to Increase Production of
Lexus RX II-94
Kia Motors and SK Innovation Forge Development Deal II-94
Green Automotive Acquires Liberty Electric Cars II-94
YTO Group Enters into Partnership with GE Electric II-95
Gamesa Inks Collaborative Agreement with Toyota Spain II-95
Origin Energy Enters into Partnership with Nissan Motor II-95
Kandi Technologies to Acquire Yongkang Scrou Electric II-96
Coda Acquires Battery Management Technology from EnergyCS II-96
ZAP Acquires Majority Stake in Zhejiang Jonway Automobile II-97
LG Electronics Expands Partnership with General Motors II-97
Audi Initiates Modellregion Elektromobilitat München Project
with Audi A1 e-tron Trial II-97
Mahindra Solar to Create Solar Technology II-98
Toyota and Saitama City Ink Agreement for Promoting Use of
Electric Vehicles II-98
Mitsubishi Inks MoU with CMC, MC and Government of Hsinchu County II-98
SKF Supplies Sophisticated Technological Products and
Solutions to Bollore Group II-98
Sevcon Bags Contract to Supply Drivetrain Control Solutions
Technology for New Vehicle Range II-99
Honda Motor Selects Toshiba Battery for Fit EV II-99
Smith to Build New Manufacturing Plant II-99
Niyato to Promote Converted All-Electric Vehicles II-100
CODA Automotive Enters into EV Charger Contract with GE Energy II-100
FCCC, Enova Join Up for 'Green for Free' Program II-100
SAIC to Develop Electric Vehicles II-100
Bosch Engineering to Impart System Knowledge to Manufacturers II-101
Li-ion Motors Signs Letter Of Intent for 1000 Electric Vehicles II-101
SAIC Inks Agreement with GM II-101
GM Ventures to Invest US$6 M in Proterra II-101
PSA Peugeot Citroën, GE Ink Agreement for Electrical Mobility
Development II-102
FAW Toyota Motor Commences Production of Hybrid Prius Model in
China II-102
Siemens, Volvo Car Ink Electric Mobility Collaboration Agreement II-102
MMC Inks Agreement with PTT II-103
Mitsubishi and Isuzu Ink Agreement with SIM-Drive II-103
Polaris Industries Acquires Goupil Industries II-104
Polaris Industries Takes Over Global Electric Motorcars II-104

11. INDUSTRY ACTIVITY IN RECENT PAST - A PERSPECTIVE BUILDER II-105
Tesla Motors and Toyota Motor Enter Into Partnership to Build
Electric Cars II-105
Daimler and BYD Launch Shenzhen BYD Daimler New Technology
Joint Venture Company II-105
Balqon and Mol Transport Ink Dealer Agreement for Electric
Vehicle Distribution in Europe II-105
Electric Car Company and Liberty Electric Cars Ink Letter Of
Intent Agreement to Produce Pure Electric Vehicles II-106
General Motors to Launch Demonstration Project in South Korea II-106
Penton and Chrysler in Collaboration with US DoE to Supply
PHEV Ram 1500 Trucks to DTE Energy II-107
SEV US to Merge with SEV UK II-107
PSA Peugeot Citroën Inks Cooperation Agreement with Mitsubishi
Motors II-107
Schneider Electric Inks Agreement with Parkeon for Developing
Electric Vehicle Charging System II-107
Sorgenia and Peugeot Italia Sign Letter of Intent for Electric
Cars in Italy II-108
A123 Systems and Navistar International Ink Battery Systems
Production Agreement II-108
Ford Motor and Microsoft Collaborate to Implement Microsoft
Hohm Energy Management Application in Ford EVs II-109
Nissan Motor Becomes Partner Member of Renault-RWE EV Partnership II-109
Electric Car Company Inks Exclusive Distribution and
Manufacturing Agreement with Sunbeam II-109
Raser and HHI Ink MOU to Jointly Develop Electric Vehicles and
Renewable Energy II-110
Leo Motors Acquires Leo BnT II-110
Raser Technologies to Launch an EV Company II-111
CODA Automotive Enters into Partnership with Hertz II-111
UQM Technologies Inks Agreement with Proterra II-111
Tesla and Toyota Ink Deal for Development of Electric Version
of RAV4 II-111
Volkswagen Inks MoU with BMU II-112
Mitsubishi and CCA Ink Collaboration Deal II-112
Nissan Inks Partnership Agreement with the State of Hawaii to
Promote Zero-Emission Mobility II-112
Renault-Nissan Alliance Inks Agreement with Madrid City
Council to Promote Electric Vehicles II-113
Zap Merges with Jonway Automobile II-113
Mahindra and Mahindra Acquires Majority Stake in Reva Electric
Vehicle Company II-114
Jinhao Motor Company Acquires JinHao Power Holdings and Enters
into Securities Purchase Agreement II-114
Smith Electric Vehicles U.S. Corp. to Acquire Smith UK Division II-114
Flux Power and Wheego Electric Cars Ink Storage Systems Supply
Agreement II-114
Remy International Signs Agreement with Advanced Mechanical
Products II-115
Nissan Motors and Hertz Enter Into Partnership II-115
Nissan Signs Agreements with Three US States for Charging
Infrastructure II-115
UQM Technologies Receives Contract from Quantum Fuel II-116
Remy International Unveils Remy Electric Motor Technologies II-116
Verdek-EV Inks Agreement with Venta for Electric Vehicle II-116
Proton Power Systems Ink MoU with Smith Electric Vehicles II-117
Bladon Jets and Jaguar Land Rover Ink Agreement II-117
Hubei Electric Power Inks Agreements with Suizhou and Xiangfan
Governments II-117
Wheego and EVCARCO Ink Dealership and Territory Rights Agreement II-117
GM to Design, Manufacture Electric Motors II-118
LG Chem Inks Agreement with Chang'an Automobile Group II-118
ZAP Inks Agreement with Zhejiang Jonway Automobile II-118
A123 Systems Inks Battery Supply Agreement with Fisker Automotive II-118
Universal Power Inks Battery Distribution Agreement with K2
Energy Solutions II-119
BYD to Sell e6 in North America II-119
Tesla Motors and Panasonic Partner to Develop Battery Cell
Technology II-119
ZAP and Zhejiang Jonway to Manufacture Electric Sport Utility
Vehicle in China II-120
Eltek Valere to Deliver Chargers to THINK City II-120
The Government of Andalusia Inks an Agreement with Renault Spain II-120
Peugeot Signs LoI Agreements with Veolia and Greenwheels II-120
AeroVironment Collaborates with Nissan North America II-120
Hydro-Quebec Inks MoU with Mitsubishi Motor Sales of Canada II-121
Toyota Motor to Commence Marketing of Electric Vehicles II-121
Think Global to Manufacture Vehicles in the US II-121
DTE Energy Installs ChargePoint Networked Charging Stations II-121
General Motors to Build Pure-Electric Vehicle II-121
LS Industrial Systems Inks MoU with CTandT II-122
China Bak Battery to Execute Jilin Hi-Tech Electric Vehicle Order II-122
Valence Technology Inks Exclusive Supply Agreement with
Electric Vehicles International II-122
PSA Peugeot Citroën Enters into Cooperative Agreement with
Mitsubishi Motors II-122
Chrysler Enters into Strategic Alliance with A123Systems II-123
Renault Signs Definitive Agreement with Better Place for First
Passenger Electric Vehicle of Renault II-123
Major Fuel Cell Vehicle Manufacturers Ink Electric Vehicle
Letter of Understanding II-124
CTandT to Form Joint Venture with E-1 Technology and PUES II-124
Vattenfall to Form Joint Venture with Volvo Car to Introduce
Plug-in Hybrids II-125
Daimler Acquires Minority Stake in Tesla Motors II-125
Nissan Enters into Partnership with City of Seattle II-125
ZAP Enters JV with Holley Group to Tap China's EV market II-126
Zotye Holding Group to Manufacture EVs II-126
Electric Car Company and EVPC Enter Agreement II-126
Navistar International Enters JV with Modec II-126
Johnson Controls-Saft to Supply Lithium-ion Battery for Ford
Motor II-126
Nissan Motor to Establish Electric Vehicle Plant in Guangzhou II-127
Nissan Motor and Renault SA to Establish EV Battery Facility
in France II-127
Sanyo Electric and PSA Peugeot Citroën Sign Agreement II-127
BMW Forms a Joint Venture with SGL II-127
KEPCO and Hyundai Motor Group Ink Deal II-127
General Motors India to Collaborate with Reva Electric for EV
Venture II-127
BorgWarner Partners with UQM for Powertrain Products II-128
Hydrogenics Bags Contract from Vision Industries Corporation
for HyPM 16 II-128
Hyundai Mobis and LG Chemicals to Set Up JV for EV Batteries II-128
Keio University, Benesse Corporation Set UP Joint Venture for
E-cars II-128
UQM Technologies Enters into Agreement to Provide Electric
Propulsion Systems II-128
Advanced Battery Technologies Signs Distribution Agreement
with ZAP II-129
Mitsubishi Motors and GS Yuasa to Establish a Plant for
Electric Vehicles Batteries II-129
Dongfeng Motor Enters Into Agreement with Detroit Electric II-129
Smith Electric Collaborates with Altec Industries II-129
Daimler AG Purchases Stake in Tesla II-130
BYD Auto and Volkswagen to Co-Develop EVs II-130
Nissan Motor Partners with Europcar Groupe for Promoting EVs II-130
AG Holdings Acquires Assets of Axeon II-130
evstores Announces Intentions to Build Battery-powered Low
Speed MyCars II-130
Renault-Nissan Alliance Signs an EV Deal with the Chinese MIIT II-130
UAW and Fiat to Acquire Stake in Bailed-Out Chrysler II-131
ECOtality Extends Nissan Partnership for EV Charge Stations in
Maricopa County II-131
Renault-Nissan Ties-up with LeasePlan for Promoting EV Market
in Europe II-132
BC Hydro and Vancouver Sign a Deal to Test Mitsubishi’s
Electric Car II-132
Nissan to Tie-up with China for Promoting Electric Cars II-133
A123 Signs Agreement with Chrysler for Offering Electric
Vehicular Batteries II-133
Renault-Nissan Ties up with Ireland Utility to Develop
Electric Motor Car Network II-133
Mitsubishi to Increase EV Production II-134
Green Star to Develop Electric Vehicles, Announces Strategic
Plans II-134
EV Innovations Plans Merger with General Motors and Chrysler II-135
Peugeot Collaborates with Mitsubishi to Develop EV for Europe II-135
Detroit Electric, Proton Ink Partnership for Pure Electric
Vehicles II-136
Smith Electric Vehicles To Start Assembly of Electric Delivery
Vans II-136
Mitsubishi and Principality of Monaco Sign MoU over i MiEV On-
Road Testing II-137
Renault-Nissan to Implement Zero Emission Mobility in Monaco II-137
Jinzhou Wonder and CTandT Form Joint Venture to Launch Electric Car II-138
GS Yuasa Signs a Joint Venture Deal with Honda II-138
Think to Open New Manufacturing Plant in the US II-138
Nissan Inks Deal with San Diego Gas and Electric II-139
Nissan Collaborates with One North East for Promoting EV Use II-139
Think Teams Up with ElmoNet II-140
Renault Nissan Alliance Joins Hands with ewz II-140
ATandT to Replace Corporate Fleet with Alternative Fuel Vehicles II-140
Mitsubishi and Peugeot Collaborate to Develop EVs for European
Market II-140
Kraft Foods and Honda Motors Become First Users of Hybrid Trucks II-141
ECOtality Partners with Nissan to Unveil Electric Vehicles in
Arizona II-141
Magna Plans to Collaborate with BRUSA over Electric and Hybrid
Cars II-142
Renault-Nissan Collaboration and Elektromotive Sign MoU II-142
Portuguese government Signs Letter of Intent with Nissan II-143
IBM Participates in EDISON Research Project II-143
Hybrid Technologies Changes Name to EV Innovations II-144
Michelin and Valeo Collaborate to Develop EV and Hybrid Vehicles II-144
Volkswagen and Toshiba Collaborate II-144
Smith Electric Vehicles Inks Agreement with Ford Motor II-144
Efficient Drivetrains Establishes Research Center in Dixon II-145
Meridian Inks Joint Venture Agreement with Mitsubishi II-145
Tanfield Establishes Smith Electric Vehicles US II-145
Magna Electronics Takes Over BluWav Systems II-145
Johnson Controls-Saft’s Lithium-Ion Battery Systems to be used
in Ford’s PHEVs II-145
Reliance Digital Collaborates With REVA II-146
SymPowerco to Develop HEV Prototype II-146
Aixam Mega Takes over NICE Car Company II-146
Tesla Motors to Supply Electric Batteries to Daimler's New
Smart Car II-147
Fiat to Take Over Stake in Chrysler II-147
Johnson Controls-Saft Enters into a Supply Agreement with
Azure Dynamics II-147
LG Chem Partners with General Motors for Supplying EV Batteries II-148
Ford and Magna Collaborate to Develop New BEV II-148
SAIC’s Energy Vehicle Joint Venture Starts Operations II-148
Renault-Nissan Inks Deal with California’s Sonoma County II-149

12. FOCUS ON SELECT PLAYERS II-150
AB Volvo Group (Sweden) II-150
Bayerische Motoren Werke G.m.b.H. (Germany) II-150
Chrysler Group LLC (US) II-151
Daimler AG (Germany) II-151
Daimler Trucks North America LLC (US) II-151
Fiat S.p.A (Italy) II-152
Ford Motor Company (US) II-152
General Motors Company (US) II-153
Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Japan) II-154
Hyundai Motor Company (South Korea) II-154
Isuzu Motors Ltd. (Japan) II-154
Mazda Motor Corp. (Japan) II-155
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (Japan) II-155
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (Japan) II-155
PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A (France) II-156
Renault SA (France) II-157
Suzuki Motor Corp. (Japan) II-157
Toyota Motor Corporation (Japan) II-158
Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd (Japan) II-158
Volkswagen AG (Germany) II-158

13. GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE II-160
Table 11: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for
Electric Vehicles by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan,
Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), and Rest of World
Markets Independently Analyzed by Annual Sales Figures in
Units for Years 2009 through 2018 (includes corresponding
Graph/Chart) II-160

Table 12: World 10-Year Perspective for Electric Vehicles by
Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Unit Sales for US,
Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), and
Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2012 and 2018 (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) II-161
World Market for Electric Vehicles by Product Type II-162
Table 13: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for
Battery Powered Electric Vehicles (BPEVs)/Extended Range
Electric Vehicles (EREVs) by Geographic Region - US, Canada,
Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), and Rest of
World Markets Independently Analyzed by Annual Sales Figures
in Units for Years 2009 through 2018 (includes corresponding
Graph/Chart) II-162

Table 14: World 10-Year Perspective for Battery Powered
Electric Vehicles (BPEVs)/Extended Range Electric Vehicles
(EREVs) by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Unit
Sales for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding
Japan), and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2012 and 2018
(includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-163

Table 15: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) by Geographic Region - US,
Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), and
Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed by Annual Sales
Figures in Units for Years 2010 through 2018 (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) II-164

Table 16: World Historic Review for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
(HEVs) by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe,
Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), and Rest of World Markets
Independently Analyzed by Annual Sales Figures in Units for
Years 2004 through 2009 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-165

Table 17: World 10-Year Perspective for Hybrid Electric
Vehicles (HEVs) by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of
Unit Sales for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific
(excluding Japan), and Rest of World Markets for Years 2004,
2011 and 2018 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-166


III. MARKET

1. THE UNITED STATES III-1
A.Market Analysis III-1
Market Scenario and Outlook III-1
An Insight into the US Alternative Fuel Vehicles Market III-1
Electric Vehicles in the US: A Run-Through of Related
Statistics III-2
Table 18: US EV Market Share of Total Vehicle Sales
(2007-2012) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-2
US Government Extends Strong Backing and Funding to Electric
Vehicles Industry III-3
Market Trends III-4
Neighborhood Electric Vehicles Continue to Witness Growth III-4
EV Batteries Demand Gaining Momentum III-4
Mobility Services: An Alternative to Vehicle Ownership III-5
Growing Technological Partnerships and Alliances III-5
Increasing Trend Towards Neighborhood Electric Vehicles III-5
Light Duty Vehicles: The Major Focus of Fuel Cell Developments III-6
Increasing RandD Spending Despite Dismal Sales III-6
Market Segmentation III-6
Battery Powered Electric Vehicle Market III-6
Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market III-7
Table 19: Leading Hybrid Vehicles in the US (2011):
Percentage Breakdown of Unit Sales by Model for Toyota
Prius, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota
Highlander Hybrid, Ford Escape PHEV, Lexus RX 400h, and
Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-7
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Market III-7
Hybrid and Fuel Cell Technologies - Delight of the US Army III-7
BEVs’ Impact on Power Consumption III-8
Impact of ZEV Program on a National Basis III-8
Major Target Markets III-8
Fleets III-8
Retail Markets III-8
Non-Road Uses III-9
Product launches III-9
Strategic Corporate Developments III-10
Key players III-15
B.Market Analytics III-17
Table 20: US Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for
Battery Powered Electric Vehicles Market with Annual Sales
Figures in Units for Years 2009 through 2018 (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) III-17

Table 21: US Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for
Hybrid Electric Vehicles Market with Annual Sales Figures in
Units for Years 2010 through 2018 (includes corresponding
Graph/Chart) III-18

Table 22: US Historic Review for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Market with Annual Sales Figures in Units for Years 2004
through 2009 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-19

2. CANADA III-20
A.Market Analysis III-20
Current and Future Analysis III-20
New Laws to Extend Market for Electric Pick-Up Trucks III-20
Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Major Concern III-20
Influence of Power Generation on EVs III-21
Impact of Cold Weather on EV Performance III-21
Strategic Corporate Developments III-21
B.Market Analytics III-22
Table 23: Canadian Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis
for Battery Powered Electric Vehicles Market with Annual
Sales Figures in Units for Years 2009 through 2018 (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) III-22

Table 24: Canadian Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis
for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Market with Annual Sales
Figures in Units for Years 2010 through 2018 (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) III-23

Table 25: Canadian Historic Review for Hybrid Electric
Vehicles Market with Annual Sales Figures in Units for Years
2004 through 2009 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-24

3. JAPAN III-25
A.Market Analysis III-25
Current and Future Analysis III-25
Passenger Cars Dominate HEV Market III-25
Rising Interest in Electric Cars III-25
Growing Demand for NEVs III-26
Product Launches III-26
Strategic Corporate Developments III-30
Key Players III-30
B.Market Analytics III-34
Table 26: Japanese Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis
for Battery Powered Electric Vehicles Market with Annual
Sales Figures in Units for Years 2009 through 2018 (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) III-34

Table 27: Japanese Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis
for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Market with Annual Sales
Figures in Units for Years 2010 through 2018 (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) III-35

Table 28: Japanese Historic Review for Hybrid Electric
Vehicles Market with Annual Sales Figures in Units for Years
2004 through 2009 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-36

4. EUROPE III-37
A.Market Analysis III-37
EVs in Europe: An Overview III-37
Market Scenario and Outlook III-37
New Models Foray into the Market III-37
Market to Witness Rapid Changes III-38
Manufacturers Gear Up for New Launches III-38
Table 29: European Electric Vehicles Market (2018):
Percentage Market Share Breakdown by OEMs (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) III-39
Small Manufacturers Also Seep In III-39
Coach Builders Welcome Developments in Electric Car Arena III-39
Government Support Vital for Electric Vehicles to Take Off III-40
Competitive Overview III-41
Table 30: Total HEV Passenger Car Market in Europe: Market
Shares of Major Players - Toyota, PSA Group,
Renault-Nissan, Honda, Ford, Volkswagen Group, Fiat,
DaimlerChrysler, Opel, and Others (2000 vs. 2010) (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) III-41

Table 31: Full HEV Passenger Car Market in Europe: Market
Shares of Major Players - Toyota, PSA Group,
Renault-Nissan, Ford, and Others (2000 vs. 2010) (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) III-42

Table 32: Mild HEV Passenger Car Market in Europe: Market
Shares of Major Players - PSA Group, Renault-Nissan, Opel,
Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen Group, Fiat, DaimlerChrysler,
Honda, BMW, and Others (2000 vs. 2010) (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) III-42
Factors Affecting the Market III-42
Higher Oil Prices III-42
Deteriorating Environment with Increasing Vehicle Population III-43
Growing Government Regulations and Public Initiatives III-43
Fast Advancing Battery Technology III-43
Subsidies for AFVs III-43
Market Restraints III-43
High Cost: The Major Barrier III-43
Predicaments in EV Safety III-44
Undeveloped Infrastructure III-44
Emerging Alternatives to EV and Conventional Vehicular
Developments III-44
B.Market Analytics III-45
Table 33: European Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis
for Battery Powered Electric Vehicles by Geographic Region -
France, Germany, Italy, UK, and Rest of Europe Markets
Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in Units
for Years 2009 through 2018 (includes corresponding
Graph/Chart) III-45

Table 34: European 15-Year Perspective for Battery Powered
Electric Vehicles by Geographic Region - Percentage
Breakdown of Unit Sales for France, Germany, Italy, UK and
Rest of Europe Markets for Years 2009, 2012 and 2018 (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) III-46

Table 35: European Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis
for Hybrid Electric Vehicles by Geographic Region - France,
Germany, Italy, UK, and Rest of Europe Markets Independently
Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in Units for Years 2010
through 2018 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-47

Table 36: European Historic Review for Hybrid Electric
Vehicles by Geographic Region - France, Germany, Italy, UK,
and Rest of Europe Markets Independently Analyzed with
Annual Sales Figures in Units for Years 2004 through 2009
(includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-48

Table 37: European 15-Year Perspective for Hybrid Electric
Vehicles by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Unit
Sales for France, Germany, Italy, UK and Rest of Europe
Markets for Years 2004, 2011 and 2018 (includes corresponding
Graph/Chart) III-49

4a. FRANCE III-50
A.Market Analysis III-50
Market Scenario and Outlook III-50
Product launches III-50
Strategic Corporate Developments III-52
Key Players III-53
B.Market Analytics III-55
Table 38: French Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for
Battery Powered Electric Vehicles Market with Annual Sales
Figures in Units for Years 2009 through 2019 (includes
corresponding Graph/Chart) III-55

Table 39: French Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for
Hybrid Electric Vehicles Market with Annual Sales Figures in
Units for Years 2010 through 2018 (includes corresponding
Graph/Chart) III-56

Table 40: French Historic Review for Hybrid Electric
Vehicles Market with Annual Sales Figures in Units for Years
2004 through 2009 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-57

4b. GERMANY III-58
A.Market Analysis III-58
Current and Future Analysis III-58

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