The Global Industrial Gas Business

  • January 2013
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 150 pages

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This study provides a critical view of the global markets for industrial gases, including demand scenarios. It assesses the roles of industrial gases as key factors in almost all major markets that account for more than 50% of the global gross domestic product. It quantifies demands for industrial gases by category, product type, application, purity and technology, as well as the relationships between major consumers and producers.Focus is placed on major challenges to long-term development of the industrial gas economy and various technologies. These include the numerous processing stages and the ways they relate to consumption and demand patterns. Another objective of this report is to provide a critical evaluation of the current status of industrial gas markets and the ways recent environmental legislation and technological breakthroughs will affect them.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

More than three years have passed since BCC published its last analysis of the global industrial gas business. Meanwhile, market conditions have remained in a state of flux, as the world’s major economies have made uneven progress in emerging from the global recession that began in 2008. In addition to macroeconomic trends, some markets that were once considered promising (e.g., hydrogen-powered vehicles) now show less potential. BCC therefore considers it important to update the earlier report’s findings and conclusions regarding the size and structure of the industrial gas market.The key component of industrial gas production involves the separation of air or the generation of synthesis gas (syngas), which is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Carbon dioxide is also the main by-product. Syngas can be produced from any carbon-based feedstock (e.g., hydrocarbons, coal, petroleum coke, biomass), but the lowest-cost routes to syngas are currently based on natural gas. Initially, syngas-generation technology was applied to the conversion of coal-based feedstocks into syngas. Over the years, however, the technology has witnessed significant improvements in reactor design and product recovery, and this has enabled the economic use of natural-gas feedstocks.Industrial gases are also produced as by-products of other manufacturing activities, such as natural-gas processing and steel, cement and lime production. Efficient recovery and recycling are also being practiced for hydrogen and helium. Therefore, the use of industrial gases will continue to grow. They will be used to support greener processes in petrochemicals, agrochemicals and renewable energy production. BCC believes the use of industrial gases will make significant progress over the next five years to 2017 as increasingly stringent environmental legislation is enforced. Keeping the air clean and promoting energy security will be two key priorities for policymakers over this time period. Higher-purity transportation fuels will become mandatory, and harmful chemical emissions will be drastically cut. Industrial gases will offer metals producers, electronic component manufacturers, petroleum refiners, specialty chemical manufacturers and automakers the flexibility to meet international requirements for cleaner products. Therefore, the major reasons for this study are:
- To assess and quantify the current global industrial gas market and its demands.
- To investigate and evaluate future markets for industrial gases in agriculture, mining and oil, gas, electronic-component manufacturing, construction, manufacturing, transportation, utilities, government programs, services and health to show how technological advances will affect global industrial gas demand.
- To determine the extent of the impact of industrial gas developments on the petroleum industry, as well as to identify major trends and shifts in the industry and relate these to future demand for industrial gases.

CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE

This study contributes to the diversity underlying the strength of the industrial gas industry. This helps it withstand economic cycles and enables it to stay ahead of general trends, including economic downturns, by relying on its stronger market segments. Practical realities challenging environmental legislation have resulted from the widespread use of industrial gases in manufacturing. Today, many processes require high-quality industrial gas feed, in some cases, to chemically combine and thus form new products, and in others, to provide a reducing atmosphere to prevent oxidation. More recent developments in fuel cell technology have provided yet another interesting twist to the industrial gas market, now driven by a need for reduced emissions in road transportation. Under these conditions, industrial gases offer the potential for making a significant contribution to the global push for clean fuels while helping industrialized countries to meet international targets. To this end, the study will be useful to:
- Marketing managers.
- Senior petrochemical executives.
- Gas majors.
- Decision makers from international governments.
- Process licensors and engineering contractors.
- Plant and operations directors.
- Engineering and technology manufacturers and providers.
- Process and technology support advisors.
- Petrochemical and refining management specialists.
- Logistical, supply chain and e-business specialists.
- Corporate, project and trade finance specialists.
- Strategic planners and forecasters.
- New product and business developers.
- Decision makers from the chemical and energy industries and end users (e.g., oil, gas, petrochemical, fertilizer, chemical companies).
- Automotive companies.
- Fuel cell developers and government agencies.
- Trade associations.
- Environmental consultants.
- Equipment manufacturers and process designers.
- Hydrogen plant manufacturers and equipment support companies.
- Venture capitalists, those involved in research and development work, and academic institutions.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

This study presents data on supply of and demand for industrial gases by type, technology and application in current U.S. dollars for the major global regions. The report starts with an overview describing the importance of the industrial gas industry in relation to the overall global economy. Major products and applications are then reviewed. The next section contains a detailed description of current and emerging technologies for the production, distribution and end use of industrial gases. The government environmental and energy regulation scene is discussed as it applies to industrial gases, and there are descriptions of environmental regulation changes and the agencies involved.The core of the report is an analysis of the industrial gas market’s size and segmentation for the period from 2011 to 2017. The market is segmented by product type, end–user type, application, production technology, purity grade, region, distribution channel and supply mode (e.g., pipeline, cylinder).The report concludes with an analysis of the structure of the industrial gas industry, including its major players, market shares, and merger and acquisition trends. Patents relating to industrial gases are analyzed, and another chapter contains profiles of companies involved in the industrial gas business.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

The findings and conclusions of this report are based on information gathered from industry sources, including industrial gas manufacturers, distributors and users. Interview data were combined with information gathered through an extensive review of secondary sources, including trade publications, trade associations, company literature and online databases, to produce the projections contained in this report. The base year for analysis and projection is 2011. With that year as a baseline, market projections were developed for 2012 through 2017. These projections are based on a consensus among the primary contacts combined with our understanding of the key market drivers and their impact from a historical and analytical perspective. The analytical methodologies used to generate the market estimates are described in detail in the section on market size and segmentation.All dollar projections presented in this report are in 2011 constant dollars.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

This report is an update of an earlier report prepared by Edward Gobina, a research professor in Chemical and Processing Engineering who has more than 15 years of research and teaching experience in petrochemical reaction engineering, catalysis and membrane technology. Mr. Gobina has published extensively, with more than 80 publications in international scientific journals.The analyst responsible for updating the report is Andrew McWilliams, a partner at 43rd Parallel LLC, a Boston-based international technology and marketing consulting firm. Mr. McWilliams is the author of numerous other BCC reports, including reports on related subjects such as EGY055B Building the Global Hydrogen Economy: Technologies and Opportunities; SMC043C Electronic Chemicals and Materials: The Global Market; SMC064A Semiconductor/ Microelectronics Cleaning; ENV011A The U.S. Market for Clean Technologies; CHM020D Catalysts for Environmental and Energy Applications; and IAS012B Gas Sensors and Gas Metering: Applications and Markets.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

This report provides:
- An overview of the industrial gas business, which includes data on supply of and demand for industrial gases by type, technology, and application in current U.S. dollars for the major global regions.
- Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2011 and 2012, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2017.
- Discussion of the importance of the industrial gas industry to the overall global economy.
- Reviews of major products and applications.
- Descriptions of current and emerging technologies for the production, distribution, and end use of industrial gases.
- Examinations of government environmental and energy regulations as they apply to industrial gases, and descriptions of environmental regulation changes and the agencies involved.
- Identification of market segments by product type, type of end user, application, production technology, purity grade, region, distribution channel, and supply mode (e.g., pipeline, cylinder, etc.).
- Comprehensive company profiles of major players in the industry.

Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 1
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE AND FORMAT 3
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC REPORTS 4
BCC ON-LINE SERVICES 4
DISCLAIMER 5

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT, THROUGH
2017 ($ BILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT, 2011-2017
($ BILLIONS) 7

CHAPTER 3 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 10
IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRIAL GASES 10
PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIAL GAS TYPES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 10
CARBON DIOXIDE 10
HYDROGEN 11
HELIUM 11
NITROGEN 11
OXYGEN 12

CHAPTER 4 TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT 14
INDUSTRIAL GAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 14
REFORMING 14
Adiabatic Prereforming 14
Tubular (Primary) Reforming 15
Advanced Reforming 15
Sulfur-Passivated Reforming 15
Autothermal Reforming 15
Two-Step Reforming or Combined Tubular and Secondary Reforming 16
Heat-Exchange Reforming 16
Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane 16
NONCATALYTIC PARTIAL OXIDATION 17
SHIFT-CONVERSION AND METHANATION TECHNOLOGY 17
Shift Conversion 18
Methanation 18
AIR SEPARATION 18
Oxygen Plant 18
Air Cooling and Purification 18
Cryogenic Distillation 19
Nitrogen Compression 19
Major Plant Equipment 19
Rare Gases Separation 20
TABLE 1 PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR VARIOUS CRYOGENIC INDUSTRIAL
GASES 21
Hydrogen and Helium Liquefaction Technology 21
Hydrogen 21
Helium 22
Noncryogenic 22
Adsorption 22
Membranes 22
NEW PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 22
Modification of Existing Technologies 22
Hydrogen-Production Technologies 22
Thermochemical-Production Technologies 23
Natural Gas Steam Reforming 23
Partial Oxidation and Ceramic Membrane Reactor 23
Plasma Reforming 23
Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis 24
Electrolytic Production Technologies 24
Water Electrolysis 24
Reversible Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers 24
Photolytic Production Technologies 24
Photobiological 24
Photoelectrolysis 25
Emerging Technologies 25
Ceramic Membrane Technology 25
Solar Thermal Production of Syngas 26
DISTRIBUTION TECHNOLOGIES 26
OXYGEN-PRODUCING VACUUM PRESSURE SWING SYSTEMS 27
NITROGEN MEMBRANE SYSTEMS 27
ON-SITE INDUSTRIAL GAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 27
TABLE 2 TECHNICAL-GRADE INDUSTRIAL GAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 28
TABLE 3 AIR-SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON: CRYOGENIC VERSUS
NONCRYOGENIC PROCESSES 28
Cryogenic Processes 28
Oxygen Plants 28
Nitrogen Generators: A Low First-Cost Alternative 29
Oxygen Generators Reduce Costs 29
Noncryogenic Processes 29
PSA System: Only Air is Needed 29
Vacuum Pressure-Swing Adsorption System: Reduced Oxygen Costs 29
Membranes: Nitrogen by Pushing a Button 29
Hydrogen, Syngas and Carbon Dioxide 29
Electrolyzers 29
Steam Reforming 30
Carbon Dioxide 30
BULK LIQUID DELIVERY AND STORAGE 30
MICROBULK GAS-DELIVERY SYSTEM 31
HIGH-PRESSURE GAS DELIVERY AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGY 31
NITROGEN PUMPING UNITS 31
PIPELINES 31
INDUSTRIAL GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY 31
LIQUEFACTION TECHNOLOGY 32
COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY 32
ABOVE-GROUND STORAGE TECHNOLOGY 32
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TECHNOLOGY 32
TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES 33
Compressed Gas Storage Tanks 33
Liquid Storage Tanks 33
Hydrides (High- and Low-Temperature) 34
Zeolites 35
Other Nanostructured Materials 36
END-USER TECHNOLOGIES 36
PETROLEUM PRODUCTION AND REFINING TECHNOLOGY 36
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technology 36
Enhanced Oil Recovery with Carbon Dioxide 37
Storage Capacity of Oil Reservoirs 37
Carbon Dioxide-Enhanced Oil-Recovery Limitations 37
Nitrogen-Enhanced Oil Recovery 37
Petroleum-Refining Technology 38
Hydroprocessing Technologies 38
TABLE 4 HYDROTREATING REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT REFINERY SYSTEMS 39
PRIMARY METALS PRODUCTION AND FABRICATION TECHNOLOGY 39
Primary Metalworking Technology 40
Metal-Forming Technology 41
Welding Technology 41
Oxyacetylene Welding 42
Arc Welding 42
Metal-Cutting Technology 43
Single-Point Tool Operations 43
Drilling and Allied Operations 43
Multipoint Tool Operations: Milling 44
Broaching 44
CHEMICAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 44
ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY 46
Silicon Germanium 46
Copper 46
III-V Semiconductors 47
III-V Consumables 47
Ultrapure Source Chemicals Technology 47
Supply, Handling and Management Technology 48
Bulk-Delivery Systems Technology 49
LASER TECHNOLOGY 49
Laser-Gas Composition 49
Laser-Gas Delivery 50
Laser-Gas Purity 50
FUEL CELLS 50
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 51
HYDROGEN SENSORS 51

CHAPTER 5 MARKETS AND MARKETING 54
SUMMARY 54
TABLE 5 INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 54
FIGURE 1 INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET TRENDS, 2011-2017 ($ BILLIONS) 54
INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END USER TYPE 55
TABLE 6 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT, THROUGH 2017 ($
BILLIONS) 55
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET END-USER SEGMENT SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017
(% OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION) 55
REFINING AND CHEMICAL PROCESSING 57
METAL MANUFACTURING AND FABRICATION 57
MEDICAL 57
FOOD AND BEVERAGE 58
ELECTRONICS 58
PULP AND PAPER 58
OTHER END-USE MARKET SEGMENTS 58
INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY PRODUCT TYPE 59
TABLE 7 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS DEMAND BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 59
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY PRODUCT SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF
TOTAL CONSUMPTION) 59
OXYGEN 61
NITROGEN 61
HYDROGEN 61
ARGON 62
CARBON DIOXIDE 62
ACETYLENE 62
HELIUM 62
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS 63
SYNTHESIS GAS 63
SPECIALTY GASES 63
RARE GASES 64
OTHER 64
INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY APPLICATION 65
NITROGEN 65
TABLE 8 GLOBAL NITROGEN DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 65
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL NITROGEN APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL
NITROGEN DEMAND) 65
Gaseous Nitrogen 67
Chemical Industry 67
Metal Production and Fabrication 67
Food Industry 67
Electrical Industry 67
Plastics Industry 68
Crude Oil Recovery and Refining 68
Research and Health Services 68
Construction 68
Glass Manufacturing 68
Liquid Nitrogen 68
Food Transportation 68
Medical 68
Electronics Industry 69
Oxygen 69
TABLE 9 GLOBAL OXYGEN DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 69
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL OXYGEN APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF OXYGEN DEMAND) 69
Primary Metals Manufacturing 71
Chemical Processing and Gasification 71
Clay, Glass and Concrete Products 71
Petroleum Refining 71
Welding and Cutting 72
Health Sciences 72
Pulp and Paper 72
Utilities 72
Hydrogen 72
TABLE 10 GLOBAL HYDROGEN DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 73
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL HYDROGEN APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL
HYDROGEN DEMAND) 74
Food 75
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Processing 75
Metal Production and Fabrication 75
Aerospace and Transportation 75
Electronics 75
Glass 75
Petroleum Refining 75
Water Treatment 75
Power Generation 76
Laboratory Research and Development 76
Argon 76
TABLE 11 GLOBAL ARGON DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 76
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL ARGON APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL ARGON
DEMAND) 76
Inerting 78
Lighting 78
Electronics Manufacturing 79
Laboratory Research and Development 79
Carbon Dioxide 79
Liquid and Solid Carbon Dioxide 80
TABLE 12 GLOBAL LIQUID AND SOLID CARBON DIOXIDE DEMAND BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 80
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL LIQUID AND SOLID CARBON DIOXIDE APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS.
2017 (% OF TOTAL LIQUID AND SOLID CARBON DIOXIDE DEMAND) 81
Chemical Industry 82
Metal Industry 82
Plastics Industry 83
Food Industry 83
Pharmaceutical Industry 83
Beverage Industry 84
Medicine 84
Cleaning Systems 84
Oil and Gas Recovery 85
Other Industries 85
Gaseous Carbon Dioxide 85
TABLE 13 GLOBAL GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017
($ BILLIONS) 85
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF
TOTAL GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE DEMAND) 85
Firefighting 86
Agriculture 87
Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery 87
SYNTHESIS GAS 87
TABLE 14 GLOBAL SYNTHESIS GAS DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 88
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SYNTHESIS GAS APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL
SYNTHESIS GAS DEMAND) 88
Chemicals and Fuels 89
Iron and Steel Production 89
Power Generation 89
Fischer-Tropsch Liquids 90
ACETYLENE 90
TABLE 15 GLOBAL ACETYLENE DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 90
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL ACETYLENE APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL
ACETYLENE SALES) 90
HELIUM 91
TABLE 16 GLOBAL HELIUM DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 92
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL HELIUM APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL HELIUM
DEMAND) 93
Optical Fibers 94
Shielding and Inerting 94
Drawing Process 94
Cooling Medium 94
Leak Tests 95
Weather Programs 95
Laboratory Research and Development 95
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS 96
TABLE 17 GLOBAL LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017
($ BILLIONS) 96
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (%
OF TOTAL LPG DEMAND) 96
Industrial 98
Auto Fuel 98
Residential and Commercial 98
Chemical and Industrial 98
Other 98
SPECIALTY INDUSTRIAL GASES 98
TABLE 18 GLOBAL SPECIALTY GAS DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 99
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL SPECIALTY GAS APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL
SPECIALTY GAS DEMAND) 99
Electronics 101
Lasers 101
Medical 101
Lighting 101
Laboratory Research and Development 102
RARE GASES 102
TABLE 19 GAS MIXTURES BY APPLICATION 103
TABLE 20 GLOBAL RARE GAS DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 103
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL RARE GAS APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL RARE
GAS DEMAND) 103
Lighting 105
Medical 105
Laboratory Research and Development 105
INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 105
TABLE 21 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS DEMAND BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2017 ($ BILLIONS) 105
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017
(% OF TOTAL INDUSTRIAL GAS DEMAND) 105
CRYOGENIC AIR SEPARATION 107
VACUUM PRESSURE-SWING ADSORPTION 107
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY 107
REFORMING 108
GASIFICATION 108
MANUFACTURING BY-PRODUCTS 108
Cement Production 109
Lime Production 109
Iron and Steel 109
OTHER 110
Chemical Reaction 110
Water Electrolysis 110
Natural Gas Processing 110
Recovery and Recycling 110
INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY PURITY GRADE 111
TABLE 22 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS DEMAND BY PURITY, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 111
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS PRODUCTION SHARES BY PURITY GRADE, 2011 VS.
2017 (% OF TOTAL INDUSTRIAL GAS DEMAND) 111
RESEARCH GRADE 113
ULTRA-HIGH-PURITY GRADE AND INSTRUMENT GRADE 113
HIGH-PURITY GRADE AND PROCESS GRADE 113

CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY REGION 115
TABLE 23 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS SALES BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 115
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS SHARES BY REGION, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL
CONSUMPTION) 115
EUROPE 116
NORTH AMERICA 117
ASIA-PACIFIC 117
INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL AND SUPPLY MODE 117
DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 117
TABLE 24 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKETS BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL THROUGH
2017 ($ BILLIONS) 117
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARES BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL, 2011
VS. 2017 (%) 117
FIGURE 20 TRENDS IN DISTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRIAL GASES, 2011-2017 (% TOTAL
INDUSTRIAL GAS SALES MADE THROUGH DISTRIBUTORS) 118
TABLE 25 INDUSTRIAL GAS SALES BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL, THROUGH 2017 ($
BILLIONS) 119
GAS SUPPLY MODES 120
TABLE 26 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS VALUES BY SUPPLY MODE, 2011-2017 (%) 120
PACKAGED CYLINDERS 120
BULK SHIPMENTS 121
ON-SITE PLANTS AND PIPELINES 121
MARKETING 121
SUPPORT SERVICES 122
Cylinder-Management and Logistics Systems 122
Applications Training 122
Compliance Management 122
e-Business 122

CHAPTER 7 GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND LEGISLATION 124
INTRODUCTION 124
U.S. 124
FEDERAL INITIATIVES 124
Department of Energy 124
FIGURE 21 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL FUNDING, FISCAL
YEAR 2004-FISCAL YEAR 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 124
FIGURE 22 OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY HYDROGEN
BUDGET, FISCAL YEAR 2012 (% OF TOTAL EERE HYDROGEN BUDGET) 125
Other U.S. Government Programs and Initiatives 126
STATE INITIATIVES 126
California 127
New York 127
Florida 128
Other States 128
EUROPEAN UNION 129
EU PROGRAMS 129
EU Framework Program 129
Carbon Dioxide Emissions Restrictions 129
EU MEMBER STATES 130
Germany 130
JAPAN 130

CHAPTER 8 INDUSTRIAL GAS HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES 132
INDUSTRIAL GAS TRAINING COURSES FOR INDUSTRIAL SECTORS 133
SAFETY 134
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND HYGIENE 134
ENVIRONMENT 134
QUALITY 134

CHAPTER 9 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 136
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS 136
NUMBER AND SIZE OF FIRMS 136
LEADING FIRMS 136
FIGURE 23 LEADING INDUSTRIAL GAS SUPPLIERS, 2011 ($ BILLIONS) 136
L' Air Liquide 137
Linde AG 137
Praxair 137
Air Products 137
Taiyo Nippon Sanso 138
Airgas Inc. 138
Messer Group GmbH 138
OWNERSHIP TRENDS 138
LINDE 139
L'AIR LIQUIDE 139
PRAXAIR 140
AIRGAS 140
TAIYO NIPPON SANSO 141
MESSER GROUP 141

CHAPTER 10 PATENT ANALYSIS 143
TABLE 27 U.S. PATENT AWARDS FOR INDUSTRIAL GAS-PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES,
2007-2011 143
FIGURE 24 U.S. PATENT AWARD TRENDS FOR INDUSTRIAL GAS PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES,
2007-2011 144

CHAPTER 11 COMPANY PROFILES 146
COMPONENT AND EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS 146
ATLAS COPCO 146
CHICAGO BRIDGE and IRON N.V. 146
FABRICATION AND CONSTRUCTION 146
TECHNIP 146
ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES PROVIDERS 147
ECD OVONICS 147
STARTECH ENVIRONMENTAL CORPORATION 147
XEBEC ADSORPTION INC. 148
LICENSORS, CONTRACTORS AND OPERATORS 148
DIVERSIFIED ENERGY CORP. 148
ENGINEERED GAS SYSTEMS LLP 148
HALDOR TOPSØE A/S 149
LURGI GMBH 149
SIEMENS AG 149
UHDE GMBH 150
UNIVERSAL INDUSTRIAL GASES INC. 150
PRODUCERS AND DISTRIBUTORS 150
AIR LIQUIDE AMERICA SPECIALTY GASES LLC 150
AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS INC. 151
AIR WATER INC. 151
AIRGAS INC. 151
ALEXANDER CHEMICAL CORP. 152
AMERICAN GAS GROUP 152
FOSTER WHEELER CORP. 152
L'AIR LIQUIDE SA 153
LINDE AG 153
MESSER GROUP GMBH 153
MITSUBISHI GAS CHEMICAL CO. 154
NIKKO SANSO CO. LTD. 154
NUCO2 INC. 154
OZONO ELECTRONICA INTERNATIONALE SRL 154
PRAXAIR INC. 155
REGO PRODUCTS 155
SCOTTISH CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES 155
SERVOMEX GROUP LIMITED 155
SHOWA DENKO GAS PRODUCT CO. LTD. 156
SOCIEDAD ESPANOLA DE CARBUROS METALICOS S.A. 156
SPECIAL GAS SERVICES INC. 156
SPECTRA GASES 156
TAIYO NIPPON SANSO CORP. 157
TAIYO TOYO SANSO CO. LTD. 157
TOLL GAS AND WELDING SUPPLY 157
UTTAM AIR PRODUCTS PVT. LTD. 157
VOLTAIX INC. 158
MANUFACTURERS OF FUEL CELLS AND COMPONENTS 158
BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS 158
FUEL CELL ENERGY INC. 158
HYDROGENICS CORP. 159
PLUG POWER LLC 159
PROTON ONSITE 159
RELION INC. 160




LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT, THROUGH
2017 ($ BILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR VARIOUS CRYOGENIC INDUSTRIAL
GASES 21
TABLE 2 TECHNICAL-GRADE INDUSTRIAL GAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 28
TABLE 3 AIR-SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON: CRYOGENIC VERSUS
NONCRYOGENIC PROCESSES 28
TABLE 4 HYDROTREATING REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT REFINERY SYSTEMS 39
TABLE 5 INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 54
TABLE 6 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT, THROUGH 2017 ($
BILLIONS) 55
TABLE 7 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS DEMAND BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 59
TABLE 8 GLOBAL NITROGEN DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 65
TABLE 9 GLOBAL OXYGEN DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 69
TABLE 10 GLOBAL HYDROGEN DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 73
TABLE 11 GLOBAL ARGON DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 76
TABLE 12 GLOBAL LIQUID AND SOLID CARBON DIOXIDE DEMAND BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 80
TABLE 13 GLOBAL GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017
($ BILLIONS) 85
TABLE 14 GLOBAL SYNTHESIS GAS DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 88
TABLE 15 GLOBAL ACETYLENE DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 90
TABLE 16 GLOBAL HELIUM DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 92
TABLE 17 GLOBAL LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017
($ BILLIONS) 96
TABLE 18 GLOBAL SPECIALTY GAS DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 99
TABLE 19 GAS MIXTURES BY APPLICATION 103
TABLE 20 GLOBAL RARE GAS DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 103
TABLE 21 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS DEMAND BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2017 ($ BILLIONS) 105
TABLE 22 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS DEMAND BY PURITY, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 111
TABLE 23 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS SALES BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 115
TABLE 24 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKETS BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL THROUGH 2017
($ BILLIONS) 117
TABLE 25 INDUSTRIAL GAS SALES BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 119
TABLE 26 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS VALUES BY SUPPLY MODE, 2011-2017 (%) 120
TABLE 27 U.S. PATENT AWARDS FOR INDUSTRIAL GAS-PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES, 2007-2011 143




LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT, 2011-2017 ($
BILLIONS) 7
FIGURE 1 INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET TRENDS, 2011-2017 ($ BILLIONS) 54
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET END-USER SEGMENT SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017
(% OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION) 55
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY PRODUCT SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF
TOTAL CONSUMPTION) 59
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL NITROGEN APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL NITROGEN
DEMAND) 65
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL OXYGEN APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF OXYGEN DEMAND) 69
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL HYDROGEN APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL
HYDROGEN DEMAND) 74
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL ARGON APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL ARGON
DEMAND) 76
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL LIQUID AND SOLID CARBON DIOXIDE APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS.
2017 (% OF TOTAL LIQUID AND SOLID CARBON DIOXIDE DEMAND) 81
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF
TOTAL GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE DEMAND) 85
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SYNTHESIS GAS APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL
SYNTHESIS GAS DEMAND) 88
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL ACETYLENE APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL
ACETYLENE SALES) 90
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL HELIUM APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL HELIUM
DEMAND) 93
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (%
OF TOTAL LPG DEMAND) 96
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL SPECIALTY GAS APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL
SPECIALTY GAS DEMAND) 99
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL RARE GAS APPLICATION SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL RARE GAS
DEMAND) 103
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (%
OF TOTAL INDUSTRIAL GAS DEMAND) 105
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS PRODUCTION SHARES BY PURITY GRADE, 2011 VS.
2017 (% OF TOTAL INDUSTRIAL GAS DEMAND) 111
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS SHARES BY REGION, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL
CONSUMPTION) 115
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARES BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL, 2011
VS. 2017 (%) 117
FIGURE 20 TRENDS IN DISTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRIAL GASES, 2011-2017 (% TOTAL
INDUSTRIAL GAS SALES MADE THROUGH DISTRIBUTORS) 118
FIGURE 21 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL FUNDING, FISCAL
YEAR 2004-FISCAL YEAR 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 124
FIGURE 22 OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY HYDROGEN BUDGET,
FISCAL YEAR 2012 (% OF TOTAL EERE HYDROGEN BUDGET) 125
FIGURE 23 LEADING INDUSTRIAL GAS SUPPLIERS, 2011 ($ BILLIONS) 136
FIGURE 24 U.S. PATENT AWARD TRENDS FOR INDUSTRIAL GAS PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES,
2007-2011 144
*

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