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The Global Industrial Gas Business

  • June 2015
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  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 157 pages

This BCC Research study provides a critical view of the global markets for industrial gases, including demand scenarios. It assesses the roles of industrial gases as key factors in almost all major markets. Includes forecasts through 2020.

Use this report to:
- Assess and quantify the current global industrial gas market and its demands.
- Investigate and evaluate future markets for industrial gases in agriculture, mining and oil, gas, electronic-component manufacturing, construction, manufacturing, transportation, utilities, government programs, services and health to show how technological advances will affect global industrial gas demand.
- Determine the extent of the impact of industrial gas developments on the petroleum industry, as well as to identify major trends and shifts in the industry and relate these to future demand for industrial gases.
- Quantify the demands for industrial gases by category, product type, application, purity and technology, as well as the relationships between major consumers and producers.

Highlights
- The global market for industrial gases was valued at $66.7 billion in 2014. The market is expected to grow from $68.7 billion in 2015 to $80.9 billion in 2020, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.3% from 2015 to 2020.
- As an end-user the chemical and refining industry has the largest market share, valued at $27.6 billion in 2015. Market value should reach $33.5 billion in 2020, growing at a CAGR of 4.0% from 2015 to 2020.
- Medical is the fastest growing industry segment and is projected to increase from $10.8 billion in 2015 to reach $13.5 billion in 2020, a CAGR of 4.6% through the forecast period.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This study provides a critical view of the global markets for industrial gases, including demand scenarios. It assesses the roles of industrial gases as key factors in almost all major markets that account for more than 50% of the global gross domestic product. It quantifies demands for industrial gases by category, product type, application, purity and technology, as well as the relationships between major consumers and producers.
Focus is placed on major challenges to long-term development of the industrial gas economy and various technologies. These include the numerous processing stages and the ways they relate to consumption and demand patterns. Another objective of this report is to provide a critical evaluation of the current status of industrial gas markets and the ways recent environmental legislation and technological breakthroughs will
affect them.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
Nearly three years have passed since BCC Research published its last analysis of the global industrial gas business. Meanwhile, market conditions have remained in a state of flux, as the world’s major economies have made uneven progress in emerging from the global recession that began in 2008. In addition to macroeconomic trends, some markets that were once considered promising (e.g., hydrogen-powered vehicles) now
show less potential. BCC Research therefore considers it important to update the earlier report’s findings and conclusions regarding the size and structure of the industrial gas market. The key component of industrial gas production involves the separation of air or the generation of synthesis gas (syngas), which is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Carbon dioxide is also the main byproduct. Syngas can be produced from
any carbon-based feedstock (e.g., hydrocarbons, coal, petroleum coke, biomass), but the lowest-cost routes to syngas are currently based on natural gas. Initially, syngas-generation technology was applied to the conversion of coal-based feedstocks into syngas. Over the years, however, the technology has witnessed significant improvements in reactor design and product recovery, and this has enabled the economic use of natural-gas feedstocks.

Industrial gases are also produced as byproducts of other manufacturing activities, such as natural-gas processing and steel, cement and lime production. Efficient recovery and recycling are also being practiced for hydrogen and helium. Therefore, the use of industrial gases will continue to increase. They will be used to support greener processes in petrochemicals, agrochemicals and renewable energy production. BCC Research believes the use of industrial gases will make significant progress through 2020 as increasingly stringent environmental legislation is enforced. Keeping the air clean and promoting energy security will be two key priorities for policymakers over this time period. Higher-purity transportation fuels will become mandatory, and harmful chemical emissions will be drastically cut. Industrial gases will offer metals producers, electronic component manufacturers, petroleum refiners, specialty chemical manufacturers and automakers the flexibility to meet international requirements for cleaner products. Therefore, the major reasons for this study are:

- To assess and quantify the current global industrial gas market and its demands.
- To investigate and evaluate future markets for industrial gases in agriculture, mining and oil, gas, electronic-component manufacturing, construction, manufacturing, transportation, utilities, government programs, services and health to show how technological advances will affect global industrial gas demand.
- To determine the extent of the impact of industrial gas developments on the petroleum industry, as well as to identify major trends and shifts in the industry and relate these to future demand for industrial gases.

CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE
This study contributes to the diversity underlying the strength of the industrial gas industry. This helps it withstand economic cycles and enables it to stay ahead of general trends, including economic downturns, by relying on its stronger market segments. Practical realities challenging environmental legislation have resulted from the widespread use of industrial gases in manufacturing. Today, many processes require high-quality industrial gas feed, in some cases, to chemically combine and thus form new products, and in others, to provide a reducing atmosphere to prevent oxidation. More recent developments in fuel cell technology
have provided yet another interesting twist to the industrial gas market, now driven by a need for reduced emissions in road transportation. Under these conditions, industrial gases offer the potential for making a significant contribution to the global push for clean fuels while helping industrialized countries to meet international targets. To this end, the study will be useful to:

- Marketing managers.
- Senior petrochemical executives.
- Gas majors.
- Decision makers from international governments.
- Process licensors and engineering contractors.
- Plant and operations directors.
- Engineering and technology manufacturers and providers.
- Process and technology support advisors.
- Petrochemical and refining management specialists.
- Logistical, supply chain and e-business specialists.
- Corporate, project and trade finance specialists.
- Strategic planners and forecasters.
- New product and business developers.
- Decision makers from the chemical and energy industries and end users (e.g., oil, gas, petrochemical, fertilizer, chemical companies).
- Automotive companies.
- Fuel cell developers and government agencies.
- Trade associations.
- Environmental consultants.
- Equipment manufacturers and process designers.
- Hydrogen plant manufacturers and equipment support companies.
- Venture capitalists, those involved in research and development work, and academic institutions.

SCOPE AND FORMAT
This study presents data on supply of and demand for industrial gases by type, technology and application in current U.S. dollars for the major global regions. The report starts with an overview describing the importance of the industrial gas industry in relation to the overall global economy. Major products and applications are then reviewed. The next section contains a detailed description of current and emerging technologies for the production, distribution and end use of industrial gases. The government environmental and energy regulation scene is discussed as it applies to industrial gases, and there are descriptions of environmental regulation changes and the agencies involved.

The core of the report is an analysis of the industrial gas market’s size and segmentation from 2014 through 2020. The market is segmented by product type, end-user type, application, production technology, purity grade, region, distribution channel and supply mode (e.g., pipeline, cylinder). The report concludes with an analysis of the structure of the industrial gas industry, including its major players, market shares, and merger and acquisition trends. Patents relating to industrial gases are analyzed, and another chapter contains profiles of companies involved in the industrial gas business.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
The findings and conclusions of this report are based on information gathered from industry sources, including industrial gas manufacturers, distributors and users. Interview data were combined with information gathered through an extensive review of secondary sources, including trade publications, trade associations, company literature and online databases, to produce the projections contained in this report. The base year for analysis and projection is 2014 and market projections were developed for 2015 through 2020. These projections are based on a consensus among the primary contacts combined with BCC Research’s understanding of the key market drivers and their impact from a historical and analytical perspective. The analytical methodologies used to generate the market estimates are described in detail in the
section on market size and segmentation. All dollar projections presented in this report are in 2014 constant dollars.

Table Of Contents

The Global Industrial Gas Business
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE AND FORMAT 4
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 5
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 5
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 6
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 8
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT,
2014-2020 ($ BILLIONS) 8
CHAPTER 3 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 11
IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRIAL GASES 11
PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIAL GAS TYPES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 11
CARBON DIOXIDE 11
HYDROGEN 12
HELIUM 12
NITROGEN 13
OXYGEN 13
CHAPTER 4 TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT 15
INDUSTRIAL GAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 15
REFORMING 15
Adiabatic Prereforming 16
Tubular (Primary) Reforming 16
Advanced Reforming 16
Sulfur-Passivated Reforming 16
Autothermal Reforming 17
Two-Step Reforming or Combined Tubular and Secondary Reforming 17
Heat-Exchange Reforming 17
Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane 18
NONCATALYTIC PARTIAL OXIDATION 18
SHIFT-CONVERSION AND METHANATION TECHNOLOGY 19
Shift Conversion 19
Methanation 19
AIR SEPARATION 19
Oxygen Plant 20
Air Cooling and Purification 20
Cryogenic Distillation 21
Nitrogen Compression 21
Major Plant Equipment 21
Rare Gases Separation 22
TABLE 1 PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR VARIOUS CRYOGENIC
INDUSTRIAL GASES 22
Hydrogen and Helium Liquefaction Technology 23
Hydrogen 23
Helium 23
Noncryogenic 23
Adsorption 24
Membranes 24
NEW PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 24
Modification of Existing Technologies 24
Hydrogen-Production Technologies 24
Thermochemical-Production Technologies 24
Natural Gas Steam Reforming 24
Partial Oxidation and Ceramic Membrane Reactor 25
Plasma Reforming 25
Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis 25
Electrolytic Production Technologies 26
Water Electrolysis 26
Reversible Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers 26
Photolytic Production Technologies 26
Photobiological 26
Photoelectrolysis 27
Emerging Technologies 27
Ceramic Membrane Technology 27
Solar Thermal Production of Syngas 28
DISTRIBUTION TECHNOLOGIES 28
OXYGEN-PRODUCING VACUUM PRESSURE SWING SYSTEMS 29
NITROGEN MEMBRANE SYSTEMS 29
ON-SITE INDUSTRIAL GAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 29
TABLE 2 TECHNICAL-GRADE INDUSTRIAL GAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 30
TABLE 3 AIR-SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON: CRYOGENIC VERSUS
NONCRYOGENIC PROCESSES 30
Cryogenic Processes 30
Oxygen Plants 30
Nitrogen Generators: A Low First-Cost Alternative 31
Oxygen Generators Reduce Costs 31
Noncryogenic Processes 31
PSA System: Only Air is Needed 31
Vacuum Pressure-Swing Adsorption System: Reduced Oxygen
Costs 31
Membranes: Nitrogen by Pushing a Button 31
Hydrogen, Syngas and Carbon Dioxide 31
Electrolyzers 31
Steam Reforming 32
Carbon Dioxide 32
BULK LIQUID DELIVERY AND STORAGE 32
MICROBULK GAS-DELIVERY SYSTEM 33
HIGH-PRESSURE GAS DELIVERY AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGY 33
NITROGEN PUMPING UNITS 33
PIPELINES 33
INDUSTRIAL GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY 33
LIQUEFACTION TECHNOLOGY 34
COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY 34
ABOVE-GROUND STORAGE TECHNOLOGY 34
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TECHNOLOGY 35
TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES 35
Compressed Gas Storage Tanks 35
Liquid Storage Tanks 36
Hydrides (High- and Low-Temperature) 36
Zeolites 37
Other Nanostructured Materials 38
END-USER TECHNOLOGIES 39
PETROLEUM PRODUCTION AND REFINING TECHNOLOGY 39
Enhanced Oil Recovery Technology 39
Enhanced Oil Recovery with Carbon Dioxide 39
Storage Capacity of Oil Reservoirs 40
Carbon Dioxide-Enhanced Oil-Recovery Limitations 40
Nitrogen-Enhanced Oil Recovery 40
Petroleum-Refining Technology 40
Hydroprocessing Technologies 41
TABLE 4 HYDROTREATING REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT REFINERY SYSTEMS 42
PRIMARY METALS PRODUCTION AND FABRICATION TECHNOLOGY 43
Primary Metalworking Technology 43
Metal-Forming Technology 44
Welding Technology 45
Oxyacetylene Welding 45
Arc Welding 46
Metal-Cutting Technology 46
Single-Point Tool Operations 47
Drilling and Allied Operations 47
Multipoint Tool Operations: Milling 47
Broaching 47
CHEMICAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 47
ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY 50
Silicon Germanium 50
Copper 50
III-V Semiconductors 50
III-V Consumables 51
Ultrapure Source Chemicals Technology 51
Supply, Handling and Management Technology 52
Bulk-Delivery Systems Technology 53
LASER TECHNOLOGY 54
Laser-Gas Composition 54
Laser-Gas Delivery 54
Laser-Gas Purity 54
FUEL CELLS 54
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 55
HYDROGEN SENSORS 55
CHAPTER 5 MARKETS AND MARKETING 58
SUMMARY 58
TABLE 5 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 58
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET TRENDS, 2014-2020 ($ BILLIONS) 58
INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END USER TYPE 59
TABLE 6 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT, THROUGH
2020 ($ BILLIONS) 59
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARE BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2014
VS. 2020 (%) 59
REFINING AND CHEMICAL PROCESSING 61
METAL MANUFACTURING AND FABRICATION 61
MEDICAL 61
FOOD AND BEVERAGE 61
ELECTRONICS 62
PULP AND PAPER 62
OTHER END-USE MARKET SEGMENTS 62
INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY PRODUCT TYPE 63
TABLE 7 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 63
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARE BY PRODUCT, 2014 VS. 2020
(%) 63
OXYGEN 65
NITROGEN 65
SPECIALTY GASES 65
ARGON 66
HYDROGEN 66
CARBON DIOXIDE 66
RARE GASES 66
ACETYLENE 67
HELIUM 67
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS 67
SYNTHESIS GAS 67
OTHER 68
INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY APPLICATION 68
NITROGEN 68
TABLE 8 GLOBAL NITROGEN MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 69
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL NITROGEN MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 69
Gaseous Nitrogen 71
Chemical Industry 71
Metal Production and Fabrication 71
Food Industry 71
Electrical Industry 71
Plastics Industry 71
Crude Oil Recovery and Refining 72
Research and Health Services 72
Construction 72
Glass Manufacturing 72
Liquid Nitrogen 72
Food Transportation 72
Medical 72
Electronics Industry 72
OXYGEN 73
TABLE 9 GLOBAL OXYGEN MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 73
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL OXYGEN MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 73
Primary Metals Manufacturing 75
Chemical Processing and Gasification 75
Clay, Glass and Concrete Products 75
Petroleum Refining 75
Welding and Cutting 76
Health Sciences 76
Pulp and Paper 76
Utilities 76
HYDROGEN 76
TABLE 10 GLOBAL HYDROGEN MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 77
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL HYDROGEN MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 77
Food 78
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Processing 78
Metal Production and Fabrication 78
Aerospace and Transportation 78
Electronics 78
Glass 79
Petroleum Refining 79
Water Treatment 79
Power Generation 79
Laboratory Research and Development 79
ARGON 79
TABLE 11 GLOBAL ARGON MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 80
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL ARGON MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 80
Inerting 81
Lighting 81
Electronics Manufacturing 82
Laboratory Research and Development 82
CARBON DIOXIDE 82
Liquid and Solid Carbon Dioxide 83
TABLE 12 GLOBAL LIQUID AND SOLID CARBON DIOXIDE MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 83
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL LIQUID AND SOLID CARBON DIOXIDE MARKET SHARE BY
APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 83
Chemical Industry 85
Metal Industry 85
Plastics Industry 86
Food Industry 86
Pharmaceutical Industry 86
Beverage Industry 87
Medicine 87
Cleaning Systems 87
Oil and Gas Recovery 88
Other Industries 88
Gaseous CO2 88
TABLE 13 GLOBAL GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 88
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION,
2014 VS. 2020 (%) 88
Firefighting 90
Agriculture 90
Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery 90
SYNTHESIS GAS 90
TABLE 14 GLOBAL SYNTHESIS GAS DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 91
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SYNTHESIS GAS MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS.
2020 (%) 92
Chemicals and Fuels 93
Iron and Steel Production 93
Power Generation 93
Fischer-Tropsch Liquids 93
ACETYLENE 94
TABLE 15 GLOBAL ACETYLENE MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 94
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL ACETYLENE MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020
(%) 94
HELIUM 95
TABLE 16 GLOBAL HELIUM MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 96
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL HELIUM MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 96
Optical Fibers 98
Shielding and Inerting 98
Drawing Process 98
Cooling Medium 98
Leak Tests 99
Weather Programs 99
Laboratory Research and Development 99
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS 100
TABLE 17 GLOBAL LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 100
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION,
2014 VS. 2020 (%) 100
Industrial 102
Auto Fuel 102
Residential and Commercial 102
Chemical and Industrial 102
Other 102
SPECIALTY INDUSTRIAL GASES 102
TABLE 18 GLOBAL SPECIALTY GAS MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 103
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL SPECIALTY GAS MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS.
2020 (%) 103
Electronics 105
Lasers 105
Medical 105
Lighting 105
Laboratory Research and Development 105
RARE GASES 106
TABLE 19 GAS MIXTURES BY APPLICATION 106
TABLE 20 GLOBAL RARE GAS MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 107
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL RARE GAS MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 107
Lighting 109
Medical 109
Laboratory Research and Development 109
INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 110
TABLE 21 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 110
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARE BY PRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGY, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 110
CRYOGENIC AIR SEPARATION 112
VACUUM PRESSURE-SWING ADSORPTION 112
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY 112
REFORMING 113
GASIFICATION 113
MANUFACTURING BY-PRODUCTS 114
Cement Production 114
Lime Production 114
Iron and Steel 114
OTHER 115
Chemical Reaction 115
Water Electrolysis 115
Natural Gas Processing 116
Recovery and Recycling 116
INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY PURITY GRADE 116
TABLE 22 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY PURITY GRADE, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 117
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARE BY PURITY GRADE, 2014 VS.
2020 (%) 117
RESEARCH GRADE 118
ULTRA-HIGH-PURITY GRADE AND INSTRUMENT GRADE 118
HIGH-PURITY GRADE AND PROCESS GRADE 118
CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY REGION 120
TABLE 23 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 120
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARE BY REGION, 2014 VS. 2020
(%) 120
EUROPE 122
NORTH AMERICA 122
ASIA-PACIFIC 122
INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL AND SUPPLY MODE 122
DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 122
TABLE 24 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKETS BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 122
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARE BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL,
2014 VS. 2020 (%) 123
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF INDUSTRIAL GASES BY
REGION, 2014-2020 (%) 124
TABLE 25 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS SALES BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL AND
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 125
GAS SUPPLY MODES 125
TABLE 26 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARE BY SUPPLY MODE, 2014-2020
(%) 126
PACKAGED CYLINDERS 126
BULK SHIPMENTS 126
ON-SITE PLANTS AND PIPELINES 127
MARKETING 127
SUPPORT SERVICES 127
Cylinder-Management and Logistics Systems 127
Applications Training 128
Compliance Management 128
e-Business 128
CHAPTER 7 GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND LEGISLATION 130
INTRODUCTION 130
U.S. 130
FEDERAL INITIATIVES 130
Department of Energy 130
FIGURE 21 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL FUNDING,
FY2004-FY2014 ($ MILLIONS) 130
FIGURE 22 OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY HYDROGEN
BUDGET, FY2014 (%) 131
Other U.S. Government Programs and Initiatives 132
STATE INITIATIVES 132
California 132
New York 133
Other States 134
EUROPEAN UNION 134
EU PROGRAMS 134
Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking 134
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF JOINT UNDERTAKING HYDROGEN
INVESTMENTS BY AREA, 2008-2013 (%) 134
Dioxide Emissions Restrictions 135
EU MEMBER STATES 136
Germany 136
France 136
Italy 137
Denmark 137
JAPAN 138
CHINA 138
INDIA 138
OTHER COUNTRIES 139
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PROGRAMS 139
U.S.-EU COLLABORATION 139
INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIP FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY 140
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY HYDROGEN COORDINATION GROUP 140
CHAPTER 8 INDUSTRIAL GAS HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES 142
INDUSTRIAL GAS HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES 142
INDUSTRIAL GAS TRAINING COURSES FOR INDUSTRIAL SECTORS 143
SAFETY 144
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND HYGIENE 144
ENVIRONMENT 144
QUALITY 144
CHAPTER 9 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 147
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS 147
NUMBER AND SIZE OF FIRMS 147
LEADING FIRMS 147
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY LEADING SUPPLIERS, 2014 ($
BILLIONS) 147
L' Air Liquide 148
Linde AG 148
Praxair 148
Air Products 148
Airgas Inc. 149
Taiyo Nippon Sanso 149
Messer Group GmbH 149
OWNERSHIP TRENDS 150
CHAPTER 10 PATENT ANALYSIS 152
TABLE 27 U.S. PATENT AWARDS FOR INDUSTRIAL GAS-PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES,
2010-2014 (NO. OF PATENTS) 152
FIGURE 25 U.S. PATENT AWARD TRENDS FOR INDUSTRIAL GAS PROCESS
TECHNOLOGIES, 2010-2014 (NO. OF PATENTS) 152
CHAPTER 11 COMPANY PROFILES 155
COMPONENT AND EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS 155
ATLAS COPCO 155
CHICAGO BRIDGE and IRON CO. N.V. 155
FABRICATION AND CONSTRUCTION 155
TECHNIP 155
ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES PROVIDERS 156
XEBEC ADSORPTION INC. 156
LICENSORS, CONTRACTORS AND OPERATORS 156
DIVERSIFIED ENERGY CORP. 156
ENGINEERED GAS SYSTEMS LLP 157
HALDOR TOPSOE A/S 157
SIEMENS AG 157
THYSSENKRUPP INDUSTRIAL SOLUTIONS 158
UNIVERSAL INDUSTRIAL GASES INC. 158
PRODUCERS AND DISTRIBUTORS 159
AIR LIQUIDE AMERICA SPECIALTY GASES LLC. 159
AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS INC. 159
AIR WATER INC. 160
AIRGAS INC. 160
ALEXANDER CHEMICAL CORP. 160
AMERICAN GAS GROUP 160
CARBUROS METALICOS S.A. 161
FOSTER WHEELER CORP. 161
L'AIR LIQUIDE SA 161
LINDE AG 162
MESSER GROUP GMBH 162
MITSUBISHI GAS CHEMICAL CO. 162
NUCO2 INC. 162
OZONO ELECTRONICA INTERNATIONALE SRL 163
PRAXAIR INC. 163
REGO PRODUCTS 163
SCOTTISH CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES 163
SERVOMEX GROUP LTD. 164
SHOWA DENKO GAS PRODUCTS CO. LTD. 164
SPECIAL GAS SERVICES INC. 164
TAIYO NIPPON SANSO CORP. 164
TAIYO TOYO SANSO CO. LTD. 165
TOLL GAS AND WELDING SUPPLY 165
UTTAM AIR PRODUCTS PVT. LTD. 165
VOLTAIX INC. 165
MANUFACTURERS OF FUEL CELLS AND COMPONENTS 166
BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS 166
FUEL CELL ENERGY INC. 166
HYDROGENICS CORP. 167
PLUG POWER LLC 167
PROTON ONSITE 167

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 8
TABLE 1 PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR VARIOUS CRYOGENIC
INDUSTRIAL GASES 22
TABLE 2 TECHNICAL-GRADE INDUSTRIAL GAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 30
TABLE 3 AIR-SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON: CRYOGENIC VERSUS
NONCRYOGENIC PROCESSES 30
TABLE 4 HYDROTREATING REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT REFINERY SYSTEMS 42
TABLE 5 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 58
TABLE 6 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020
($ BILLIONS) 59
TABLE 7 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 63
TABLE 8 GLOBAL NITROGEN MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 69
TABLE 9 GLOBAL OXYGEN MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 73
TABLE 10 GLOBAL HYDROGEN MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 77
TABLE 11 GLOBAL ARGON MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 80
TABLE 12 GLOBAL LIQUID AND SOLID CARBON DIOXIDE MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 83
TABLE 13 GLOBAL GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2020 ($ BILLIONS) 88
TABLE 14 GLOBAL SYNTHESIS GAS DEMAND BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 91
TABLE 15 GLOBAL ACETYLENE MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 94
TABLE 16 GLOBAL HELIUM MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 96
TABLE 17 GLOBAL LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2020 ($ BILLIONS) 100
TABLE 18 GLOBAL SPECIALTY GAS MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 103
TABLE 19 GAS MIXTURES BY APPLICATION 106
TABLE 20 GLOBAL RARE GAS MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 107
TABLE 21 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 110
TABLE 22 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY PURITY GRADE, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 117
TABLE 23 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 120
TABLE 24 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKETS BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 122
TABLE 25 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS SALES BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL AND REGION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 125
TABLE 26 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARE BY SUPPLY MODE, 2014-2020
(%) 126
TABLE 27 U.S. PATENT AWARDS FOR INDUSTRIAL GAS-PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES,
2010-2014 (NO. OF PATENTS) 152

LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT,
2014-2020 ($ BILLIONS) 8
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET TRENDS, 2014-2020 ($ BILLIONS) 58
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARE BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2014
VS. 2020 (%) 59
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARE BY PRODUCT, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 63
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL NITROGEN MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 69
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL OXYGEN MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 73
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL HYDROGEN MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 77
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL ARGON MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 80
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL LIQUID AND SOLID CARBON DIOXIDE MARKET SHARE BY
APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 83
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION,
2014 VS. 2020 (%) 88
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SYNTHESIS GAS MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS.
2020 (%) 92
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL ACETYLENE MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 94
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL HELIUM MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 96
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION,
2014 VS. 2020 (%) 100
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL SPECIALTY GAS MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020
(%) 103
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL RARE GAS MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 107
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARE BY PRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGY, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 110
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARE BY PURITY GRADE, 2014 VS.
2020 (%) 117
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARE BY REGION, 2014 VS. 2020 (%) 120
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET SHARE BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL,
2014 VS. 2020 (%) 123
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF INDUSTRIAL GASES BY
REGION, 2014-2020 (%) 124
FIGURE 21 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL FUNDING,
FY2004-FY2014 ($ MILLIONS) 130
FIGURE 22 OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY HYDROGEN
BUDGET, FY2014 (%) 131
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF JOINT UNDERTAKING HYDROGEN
INVESTMENTS BY AREA, 2008-2013 (%) 134
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY LEADING SUPPLIERS, 2014 ($
BILLIONS) 147
FIGURE 25 U.S. PATENT AWARD TRENDS FOR INDUSTRIAL GAS PROCESS
TECHNOLOGIES, 2010-2014 (NO. OF PATENTS) 152

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