Overview:

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are intended to protect the legal rights of property to the owner includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, service marks, commercial names, designations etc. A key factor in disputes is not only the issues of validity and infringement but also a determination of commercial value and potential damages. IPR law in the digital arena is intended to safeguard the legal rights of owners to various assets including architectures, platforms, processes, procedures, methods, and the associated commercialization of applications, products, and services.

IPR has become a significant issue within telecom, ICT, and digital media as there are often many overlapping claims from different companies against each other's applications, products, services, infrastructure, and devices. There has been significant litigation recently within wireless communications, especially in the areas of mobile device user interface, feature/functionality, and applications. This report analyzes IPR within this context with emphasis on recent disputes between Apple, Samsung, Yahoo, and Facebook.

Regulatory Organizations and Industry Associations in Report:

World Trade Organization (WTO), World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), United States Patents and Trademark Office (USPTO), International Trade Administration (ITA), Department of Justice (DOJ), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Copyright Office, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), United States Trade Representative (USTR), United States International Trade Commission (USITC), Intellectual Property Enforcement Coordinator (IPEC), International Federation of Phonographic Industry (IFPI), U.S. Chamber's Global Intellectual Property Center, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), China's Intellectual Property Office, European Commission, University College London (UCL), Work Foundation and NESTA, IPSOS MediaICT, Harvard University, UNESCO, Euro State, Information Technology& Innovation Foundation (ITIF), EUCD, DiMA, Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).

Companies in Report:

Google, Skype, Facebook, Twitter, Apple, Samsung, LinkedIn, WiKi, Yahoo, Bunchball, Badgeville, Gigya, Nike, Zamzee, Microsoft, Salesforce.com, Eloqua, Bluewolf, Vimeo, Zapak, Sega, Activision, NBC Universal, Envisional Ltd, eDonkey, Gnutella, Usenet, Bit Torrent, Daily Motion, Mega Video, Novamov, Mega Upload, Rapidshare, HotFile, Cyberlocker, British Library, Ofcom, Bloomberg, Booz, PetroChina Co. Ltd., Vale SA, ZTE Corp, China Railway Construction Corp., Petroleo Brasileiro SA, China Petroleum & Chemical Corp., A-Power Energy Generation Systems Ltd., Dongfeng Motor Group Co. Ltd., China Communications Construction, China South Locomotive and Rolling Stock Corp., Lenovo Group Ltd., Metallurgical Corp. of China Ltd., Byd Co. Ltd., Tencent Holdings Ltd., Shanghai Electric Group Co. Ltd., Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corp., Shanghai Zhenhua Heavy Industry, China CNR Corp. Ltd., Tata Motors Ltd., China Railway Group Ltd., Dongfang Electric Corp. Ltd., Infosys Technologies Ltd., CPFL Energia SA, Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd., Lupin Ltd., Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica, Reliance Industries Ltd., Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Harbin Power Equipment Co. Ltd., China National Materials Co. Ltd., Welchal Power Co. Ltd., Baidu Inc., Shanda Interactive Entertainment Ltd, Totsv SA, Huawei, Zuniga, Gold Corporation, Amazon, Netflix, Blockbuster, British Airways, Pirate Bay, isoHunt, CNET, Blinkbox, Ironhide Game Studios, PTT Inc, MGM Studios, Groksters, Bowker, McIlroy, Heist, MySpace, Zynga, Farmville, gagaville, Movielink.com, CinemaNow.com, Disney, Tern TV, BBC, Discovery, Channel 4, Sky, HMV Group, YoYo Games, NTT DocoMo, KDDI, Napster.

Target Audience:

Exporters, Importers and Traders
Regulatory and Policy Individuals
Associations and Technology Groups
Government and International Bodies
Business and Financial Institutions
Corporate and Institutional Investors
Lawyers, Bankers, Libraries, Embassies
Patent Offices and Technology Executives
Venture Capitalists, Consultants and more

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents:

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5
1.0 INTRODUCTION 6
1.1 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (IPR) LANDSCAPE 6
1.1.1 MEANING 6
1.1.2 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF WORLD IPR SYSTEM 7
1.1.3 IPR INFRINGEMENT 12
1.1.4 PROMINENT FIELDS OF IP PROTECTION 13
1.1.5 OTHER FIELDS OF IP PROTECTION 19
1.2 DIGITAL MEDIA REVOLUTION: THE NEXT LEVEL OF COMMUNICATION 23
1.2.1 OVERVIEW 23
1.2.2 THE DIGITAL ECO-SYSTEM 24
1.2.3 INTERACTIVITY: A KEY FEATURE OF CONTEMPORARY DIGITAL MEDIA 28
1.3 DIGITAL DILEMMA: A CROSSOVER BETWEEN IPR and DIGITAL MEDIA 30
2.0 DISCUSSION 42
2.1 FROM THE "MARKET'S MOUTH" 42
2.1.1 RECENT GLOBAL TRENDS 42
2.1.2 THE "IPR RED FLAGS" 47
2.2 ATTITUDE HOLDS THE KEY 74
2.2.1 PSYCHE OF THE DIGITAL INFORMATION USER 74
2.2.2 DIFFERENT CONSUMPTION POSITIONS 81
2.3 INNOVATION'S DYNAMIC DNA 82
2.3.1 GEOGRAPHICAL SHIFT IN INNOVATION 82
2.3.2 INCREASED INVESTMENTS IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED INNOVATION 83
2.3.3 INNOVATION IS INTERNATIONALIZED AND COLLABORATIVE IN NATURE 84
2.3.4 NON-RandD-BASED INNOVATION 93
2.3.5 OPEN INNOVATION - A PARADOX 94
2.4 ONLINE PRIVACY AND DATA PROTECTION 96
2.5 THE LEGAL LENS 100
2.5.1 DIGITAL MEDIA ASSOCIATION (DIMA) 105
2.6 CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES 108
2.7 BUSINESS MODELS: A POSSIBLE SOLUTION 109
2.7.1 PUBLISHING 110
2.7.2 MUSIC 112
2.7.3 TELEVISIONand MOVIES 117
2.7.4 COMPUTER GAMES 120
2.8 "PAGE 3"LITIGATION BATTLES 125
2.8.1 APPLE INC. VS. SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO. LTD: THE BIG DADDY OF ALL PATENT WARS 125
2.8.2 YAHOO INC.VS. FACEBOOK INC. 141
2.8.3 RECORDING INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA (RIAA) VS. NAPSTER 143
3.0 KEY FINDINGS 145
4.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 147
4.1 CONCLUSION 147
4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 149

Table of Figures

Figure 1: Eloqua's 55% Lift in Community Activity with Gamification (copyright: topliners.eloqua.com, 2012 YTD) 28
Figure 2: Entertainment and Media Revenues in Developed and Developing Countries: 2002-2012 (copyright: Wilkofsky Gruen Associates, June 2008) 29
Figure 3: Proportion of Industries' Global Revenues Coming From Digital Sales (2011) (Copyright: PWC Global Entertainment and Media Outlook and IFPI) 29
Figure 4: The Electronic Publication Cycle 34
Figure 5: Global Trends in IP Applications (copyright: WIPO) 43
Figure 6: Involved IP Rights by Articles (copyright: European Commission) 44
Figure 7: Involved IP Rights by Value (copyright: European Commission) 44
Figure 8: Resident and Non-Resident Applications, 2010 (copyright: WIPO) 45
Figure 9: Geographical Distribution of IPR Applications, 2010 (copyright: United Nations) 47
Figure 10: An Integrated Framework for Understanding Consumer Attitudes and Behavior in Copyright Markets in the Digital Age, including the Legality of Choices (copyright: BOP Consulting 2009 and 2010) 80
Figure 11: RandD Expenditure still comes mainly from high-income countries (copyright: WIPO Estimates, based on data from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Eurostat and OECD, September, 2011) 82
Figure 12: China has emerged as a major RandD Spender (copyright: WIPO Estimates, based on data from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Eurostat and OECD, September, 2011) 83
Figure 13: Knowledge Investment is the New Buzzword (copyright: WIPO, based on data from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Eurostat, OECD, World Bank and the World Information Technology and Services Alliances, September 2011) 84
Figure 14: Global Growth of Researchers (copyright: WIPO Estimates, based on data from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Eurostat and OECD, September, 2011) 85
Figure 15: Internationalization of Science (copyright: WIPO, based on data by Thomson in National Science Board 2010) 86
Figure 16: Changing Sources of Global Scientific Publications (copyright: WIPO, based on data from Elsevier Scopus provided in Royal Society 20111) 87
Figure 17: Rising Domestic and International Co-authorship (copyright: WIPO,based on Thomas Reuters data in National Science Board 2010) 88
Figure 18: Increasing Collaboration among Inventors (copyright: WIPO Statistical Database, July 2011) 88
Figure 19: Global RandD Spend Annual Growth Rate - 2001 to 2011 (copyright: Bloomberg Data; Booz and Company Innovation 1000 articles in strategy + business; Booz and Company analysis) 89
Figure 20: Computing and Electronics, Healthcare and Automotive Top the List of Global RandD Spend (copyright: Booz and Company - 2012 Innovation 1,000 Making Ideas Work) 89
Figure 21: Firms in Middle- and Lower-Income Countries Invest in Machinery and Equipment to Innovate (copyright: Zuniga (2011) based on Innovation Surveys) 93
Figure 22: Side-by-side Comparison of "Clash of the Olympians" and "Achilles Defense" (copyright: Ironhide Game Studiosand PTT Inc) 99
Figure 23: Osterwalder and Pigneur's (2010) Business Model Map (copyright: www.businessmodelgeneration.com) 109
Figure 24: iOS Icon List (left) Vs. TouchWiz'd Icon List (right) (copyright: The Verge, 2011) 127
Figure 25: Drawing for Patent # D618, 677: iPhone 3G/3GS Design (copyright: The Verge, 2011) 128
Figure 26: Drawing of Apple's U.S. Patent # D618,677 (copyright: The Verge, 2012) 136
Figure 27: Drawing of Apple's U.S. Patent # D593,087 (copyright: The Verge, 2012) 136
Figure 28: Drawing of U.S. Patent # D604,305 (copyright: The Verge, 2012) 137
Figure 29: Drawing of U.S. Patent # D504,889 (copyright: The Verge 2012) 137
Figure 30: Drawing of Yahoo U.S. Patent # 7,373,599 (copyright: CNET, 2012) 141
Figure 31: Photo of the Ghent Lens Developed at Ghent University, Belgium (copyright: Business Insider, 2012) 148
Figure 32: Photo of what the Google Glass Looks Like (copyright: Business Insider, 2012) 148
Figure 33: Illustration of Microsoft's Patent (copyright: Business Insider, 2012) 149
Figure 34: Illustration of Apple's Patent (copyright: Business Insider, 2012) 149

List of Tables

Table 1: Taxonomy of Media and Entertainment Services (copyright: Deloitte Analysis) 30
Table 2: Stakeholders' Interests and Impact on long-term digital media preservation 33
Table 3: Stakeholders' Priorities and Concerns 35
Table 4: USTR's 2012 Special 301 Trading Partners' Placements (copyright: Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR)) 73
Table 5: Top 1,000 Global RandD Spenders from Middle-Income Nations, 2009 (copyright: WIPO, based on Booz and Company Global Innovation 1,000 database) 92
Table 6: Heist Records: Performing Musician Business Model (copyright: Intellectual Property Office, 2011) 114
Table 7: Heist Records: New Talent Development Business Model (copyright: Intellectual Property Office, 2011) 115
Table 8: Heist Records: Computer Games' Music Development Business Model (copyright: Intellectual Property Office, 2011) 116
Table 9: Tern TV: Television Production Business Model (copyright: Intellectual Property Office, 2011) 119
Table 10: Tern Digital: Multimedia Production Business Model (copyright: Intellectual Property Office, 2011) 120
Table 11: YoYo Games: Games Development and Selling Tool Business Model (copyright: Intellectual Property Office, 2011) 123
Table 12: YoYo Games:Games Publishing Business Model (copyright: Intellectual Property Office, 2011) 124

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