The United States Department of Defense’s (DOD) interest in improving energy security through microgrid technology stems from its heavy reliance upon all forms of fossil fuels, often imported from regions of the world hostile to U.S. interests. Microgrids can shrink the amount of fossil fuels consumed to create electricity by networking generators as a system to maximize efficiency. They can also be used to help integrate renewable energy resources (such as wind and solar) at the local distribution grid level. Simultaneously, microgrids enable military bases – both stationary and forward operating bases – to sustain operations, no matter what is happening on the larger utility grid or in the theater of war.

According to the Secretary of Defense, over 40 DOD military bases either have currently operating microgrids, planned microgrids, or have conducted studies or demonstrations of microgrid technologies. DOD also has 600 forward operating bases (FOBs) and is investigating the deployment of even smaller mobile, tactical microgrids in Afghanistan and other engagement hot spots. Pike Research forecasts that, in an average scenario, the total capacity of U.S. military microgrids for stationary bases will reach 54.8 megawatts by 2018.

This Pike Research report examines the growth microgrids for three Department of Defense microgrid sectors: stationary bases, forward operating bases, and mobile systems. Along with forecasts through 2018 for each of the three primary sectors, the report also includes forecasts for stationary renewable integration and demand response microgrids, as well as solar photovoltaic systems deployed by the DOD. In addition, key industry players in systems integration, microgrid systems control and integration, and microgrid components are profiled.

Key Questions Addressed:

• What are the market drivers pushing the U.S. military to adopt microgrids?
• What are the comparative revenue opportunities with the three types of microgrids being deployed by DOD?
• How are DOD policy decisions accelerating or hindering near-term growth in the microgrid sector?
• Which companies are gaining competitive advantage in the DOD market with their controls technology, business models, or partnerships?
• What are the energy security and distribution grid benefits associated with microgrids?
• Why are utilities being viewed as key strategic partners as microgrids mature?
• What are the forecasts for DOD microgrid capacity through 2018?

Who needs this report?

• Microgrid technology vendors
• Smart grid hardware and software companies
• Systems integrators
• Defense contractors
• Utilities
• Military agencies
• Investor community

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

1.1 Military Microgrids Overview
1.1.1 Stationary Military Bases
1.1.2 Forward Operating Base and Mobile Tactical Military Microgrids

2. Market Issues

2.1 Why Military Microgrids?
2.1.1 Stationary Base Electricity Demand Is Top Target
2.2 The Business Case for Military Microgrids
2.3 DOD Microgrid Segments
2.3.1 Stationary Base Installation Microgrids
2.3.2 Forward Operating Base Microgrids
2.3.3 Mobile Tactical Microgrids
2.4 Current Military Microgrid Market Dynamics
2.4.1 DOD’s History of Technology Innovation
2.4.2 Shortcomings of the Status Quo Utility Grid
2.4.3 Mandatory DOD Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Directives
2.4.4 DOD Development Cycles, Contract Vehicles, and Sources of Capital
2.4.5 DOD’s Direct Funding for Microgrid Pilot Programs
2.4.5.1 ASD’s Operational Energy Plans and Programs
2.4.5.2 SERDP and ESTCP Partnership
2.4.5.3 Energy Conservation Investment Program
2.4.5.4 Smart and Green Energy
2.4.6 Global Cyber Security Standards
2.5 Case Study: SPIDERS

3. Technology Issues

3.1 Military Microgrid Overview
3.2 Inventory of Microgrid-Enabling Technologies
3.2.1 Distributed Generation
3.2.2 Islanding and Bi-directional Smart Inverters
3.2.3 Advanced Energy Storage Devices
3.2.4 Smart Switches
3.2.5 Smart Meters
3.2.6 Demand Response Controls
3.2.7 Electric Vehicle Charging Technologies
3.3 Competing Microgrid Control Approaches: Microgrid Gateway Technologies
3.3.1 Adapting Industrial Automation Systems
3.3.2 Inverter-based Droop Frequency
3.3.3 Pure Software Optimization Companies
3.3.4 Enterprise Networks
3.4 Virtual Power Plants
3.5 Cyber Security Technologies

4. Key Industry Players

4.1 Scope of Key Industry Player Analysis
4.2 Defense Contractor Systems Integrators
4.2.1 Burns and McDonnell
4.2.2 Honeywell
4.2.3 SAIC
4.3 Microgrid System Controllers/Integrators
4.3.1 Arista Power
4.3.2 Boeing Smart Grid Solutions
4.3.3 GE Digital Energy
4.3.4 Encorp
4.3.5 IPERC
4.3.6 Lockheed Martin
4.3.7 Rolls-Royce Power Development
4.3.8 Tecogen Inc.
4.4 Selected Component Providers
4.4.1 ZBB Energy Corp.
4.4.2 SkyBuilt Power
4.4.3 SolaRover
4.4.4 Sturman Industries

5. Market Forecasts

5.1 Putting DOD Microgrids into a Larger Context
5.2 Methodology for Military Microgrid Forecasts
5.2.1 Exponential Growth
5.3 Global Overview of Military Microgrids
5.3.1 North America
5.3.2 Europe
5.3.3 Asia Pacific
5.3.4 Rest of the World
5.4 DOD Stationary Base Segmentation
5.5 Pike Research Stationary Microgrid Segment Forecasts
5.6 Pike Research FOB Microgrid Segment Forecasts
5.6.1 FOB Microgrid Market Case Study: ExFOB
5.7 Pike Research Mobile Tactical Microgrid Segment Forecasts
5.8 Conclusions

6. Company Directory

7. Acronym and Abbreviation List

8. Table of Contents

9. Table of Charts and Figures

10. Scope of Study, Sources and Methodology, Notes
List of Charts and Figures

• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, European Markets: 2012-2020
• Stationary Base Microgrid Capacity by Military Branch, Average Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• Stationary Base Microgrid Annual Revenue by Military Branch, Average Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• Annual and Cumulative Renewable Energy Installed Capacity by Technology, All Military Branches, United States: 2013-2018
• Stationary Base Microgrid Capacity by Military Branch, Average Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• Stationary Base Microgrid Revenue by Forecast Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• DOD Forward Operating Base Microgrid Capacity by Forecast Scenario, World Markets: 2012-2018
• DOD Forward Operating Base Microgrid Revenue by Forecast Scenario, World Markets: 2012-2018
• Mobile Tactical Microgrid Capacity by Forecast Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• Mobile Tactical Microgrid Annual Revenue by Forecast Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• Stationary Base Microgrid Capacity by Forecast Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• Stationary Base Microgrid Renewables Integration Capacity by Military Branch, United States: 2012-2018
• Stationary Base Demand Response Capacity by Military Branch, United States: 2012-2018
• DOD Solar PV Microgrid Capacity (Stationary, FOB, and Mobile Tactical Segments) by Military Branch, United States: 2012-2018
• DOD Solar PV Microgrid Revenue (Stationary, FOB, and Mobile Tactical Segments) by Military Branch, United States: 2012-2018
• Military Microgrid Capacity by Military Branch, United States: 4Q 2012
• U.S. Military Costs, Fiscal Year 2010
• DOD Facility Energy Consumption
• The Scale of the DOD’s Tactical, Operational, and Installation Microgrids
• Microgrid Economic Capabilities Matrix per Internal Technology and External Markets
• Moving from Current Hierarchy to Ring Bus Architectures for Tactical Power
• North America Grid Reliability Index
• DOD Policies Driving Renewable Energy Adoption
• Key Components of the DOD’s SPIDERS Initiative
• Basic Microgrid Components and Topology
• Matrix of Microgrid Integration and Complexity
• Declining Cost Curve for Solar PV and Rising Costs of Diesel Fuel
• Discharge Rates and Scale per Energy Storage Technology
• Switching Functionality for Microgrid Disconnects
• Centralized/Distributed Microgrid Controller for DOD Applications
• Hypothetical Virtual Power Plant Topology
• Microgrid as Platform for Diverse Infrastructure Services
• Boeing’s Cyber Security Architecture for Microgrids
• Topology of Twentynine Palms Marine Base Microgrid
• Typical Remote Microgrid Load/Generation Profile
• Fisher-Pry S-Curve for Microgrids



List of Tables

• Annual VEES Value at MCAS Miramar under a Non-Emergency Scenario
• Annual VEES Value at 300 Area Compound Fort Belvoir under a Non-Emergency Scenario
• SWOT Analysis for Stationary Base Installation DOD Microgrids
• SWOT Analysis for FOB Microgrids
• SWOT Analysis for Mobile Tactical Microgrids
• Top Four U.S. Military Energy Initiatives
• SWOT Analysis for Burns and McDonnell
• SWOT Analysis for SAIC
• SWOT Analysis for Arista Power
• SWOT Analysis for Boeing Smart Grid Solutions
• SWOT Analysis for IPERC
• SWOT Analysis for SolaRover
• Stationary Base Microgrid Capacity by Military Branch, Baseline Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• Stationary Base Microgrid Capacity by Military Branch, Average Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• Stationary Base Microgrid Capacity by Military Branch, Aggressive Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• Stationary Base Microgrid Annual Revenue by Military Branch, Baseline Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• Stationary Base Microgrid Annual Revenue by Military Branch, Average Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• Stationary Base Microgrid Annual Revenue by Military Branch, Aggressive Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• DOD Forward Operating Base Smart Microgrid Capacity by Forecast Scenario, World Markets: 2012-2018
• DOD Forward Operating Base Smart Microgrid Revenue by Forecast Scenario, World Markets: 2012-2018
• Mobile Tactical Microgrid Capacity by Forecast Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• Mobile Tactical Microgrid Annual Revenue by Forecast Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• Stationary Base Microgrid Renewables Integration Capacity by Military Branch, United States: 2012-2018
• Stationary Base Microgrid Demand Response Capacity by Military Branch, United States: 2012-2018
• Solar PV Microgrid Capacity (Stationary, FOB, and Mobile Tactical Segments) by Military Branch, United States: 2012-2018
• Solar PV Microgrid Revenue (Stationary, FOB, and Mobile Tactical Segments) by Military Branch, United States: 2012-2018
• Cumulative Total Microgrid Capacity by Military Branch, Average Scenario, United States: 2012-2018
• United States Military Energy Goals
• Defense Energy Programs and Organizations, United States
• Microgrid Projects, Military Segment

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