Across Europe, a greater variety of hybrid (HEV), plug-in hybrid (PHEV), and battery electric vehicle (BEV) models are being offered by manufacturers each month. Although government support is waning, the increasing availability of vehicle charging infrastructure that enables vehicles to charge at home, at the workplace, and in public places is facilitating market growth.

The top six European countries for BEVs on the road in 2020 will be Germany, France, Norway, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Sweden, with this group representing more than 67% of the total market, and each having a volume in excess of six figures. The situation is slightly different for PHEVs, where only four countries are expected to exceed a volume of greater than 100,000 vehicles – Germany, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom – and these four represent 52% of the total. By 2020, Pike Research forecasts that more than 1.8 million BEVs will be on Europe’s roadways, along with 1.2 million PHEVs and 1.7 million HEVs.

This Pike Research report examines key market trends and drivers for the purchase of light duty electric drive vehicles in Europe. The study includes an analysis of business models and demand factors, technology and standards issues, and government policies within the region. Profiles of 23 key automakers in the sector are included, and detailed market forecasts for vehicle sales and registrations are provided for 21 European countries, segmented by powertrain, through 2020.

Key Questions Addressed:

• How large is the European market for hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles?
• Which countries will see the greatest demand for each of these vehicle types?
• How fast will the installed base of plug-in electric vehicles grow?
• What share of the overall market will be captured by alternative powertrain vehicles by 2020?
• Who are the leading manufacturers of electric vehicles for the European market?
• What are the drivers and inhibitors for the EV market in Europe?

Who needs this report?

• Automotive OEMs
• Electric vehicle component suppliers
• Electric motor manufacturers
• Battery manufacturers
• EV charging equipment manufacturers
• Utilities
• Government agencies
• Industry associations
• Investor community

Table Of Contents

Electric Vehicles in Europe: Light Duty Hybrid, Plug-in Hybrid, and Battery Electric Vehicles: Market Analysis and Forecasts
Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

1.1 The Electric Vehicle Market
1.2 The Technology
1.3 The Market Forces
1.4 The Forecast

2. Market Drivers

2.1 The Overall European Vehicle Market Segmentation by Powertrain
2.1.1 Gasoline
2.1.2 Diesel
2.1.3 Alternate Fuels
2.1.4 The Future
2.2 Vehicles with Electric Motor Enhancement
2.2.1 HEV
2.2.2 PHEV
2.2.3 BEV
2.2.4 Micro Hybrid and Stop-Start Vehicles
2.3 Consumer versus Commercial
2.4 The Importance of the Recharging Infrastructure
2.4.1 Residential
2.4.2 Public
2.4.3 Workplace
2.4.4 Pan-European EV Charging Billing
2.5 Running Cost versus Acquisition Cost
2.5.1 Business Perspective
2.5.2 Private Buyers
2.6 Government Incentives
2.7 Emissions Goals
2.8 Market Challenges
2.8.1 Battery Cost
2.8.2 Fuel Prices

3. Technology Issues

3.1 Overview of HEV and PEV Technology
3.2 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drivetrains
3.2.1 Parallel Hybrid Design
3.2.2 Series Hybrid Design/Extended-Range Electric Vehicle
3.3 Battery Electric Vehicle Drivetrains
3.4 Battery Technology
3.4.1 Lithium Ion Battery Chemistry
3.4.1.1 Safety Concerns and Battery Thermal Management
3.4.1.2 Battery Reliability
3.4.2 Advanced Battery Chemistry
3.4.2.1 Lithium-Air
3.4.2.2 Solid-State Batteries
3.5 Regenerative Braking
3.6 Charging Infrastructure
3.6.1 Charging Equipment
3.6.1.1 AC Charging Equipment
3.6.1.2 Fast DC Charging
3.6.2 Home Energy Technologies and Grid Communications
3.6.2.1 Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G)
3.6.2.2 Mobile Applications
3.6.2.3 PEVs and Solar
3.6.3 Recharging Habits and Public Recharging

4. Key Industry Players

4.1 Bollore
4.2 BMW AG
4.3 Daimler AG
4.4 Fiat
4.5 Fisker Automotive
4.6 Ford
4.7 General Motors
4.8 Honda
4.9 Hyundai
4.10 Jaguar Land Rover
4.11 Mahindra Reva
4.12 Mazda
4.13 Mia Electric
4.14 Mitsubishi Motors
4.15 Nissan
4.16 Porsche
4.17 PSA Peugeot Citroën
4.18 Renault
4.19 Tata Motors
4.20 Tesla
4.21 Toyota
4.22 Volkswagen/Audi
4.23 Volvo

5. Market Forecasts

5.1 Baseline Vehicle Sales Forecast for Europe
5.2 The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Market for European Countries
5.2.1 Austria
5.2.2 Belgium
5.2.3 Czech Republic
5.2.4 Denmark
5.2.5 Estonia
5.2.6 France
5.2.7 Germany
5.2.8 Ireland
5.2.9 Italy
5.2.10 Luxembourg
5.2.11 Netherlands
5.2.12 Norway
5.2.13 Poland
5.2.14 Portugal
5.2.15 Romania
5.2.16 Russia
5.2.17 Slovakia
5.2.18 Spain
5.2.19 Sweden
5.2.20 Switzerland
5.2.21 United Kingdom
5.3 Conclusions and Recommendations

6. Company Directory

7. Acronym and Abbreviation List

8. Table of Contents

9. Table of Charts and Figures

10. Scope of Study, Sources and Methodology, Notes



List of Charts and Figures

• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, European Markets: 2012-2020
• Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Powertrain, European Markets: 2012-2020
• Fuel Economy - Price Map Comparison, European Markets: 2012
• Battery Pack Capacities of Mass Market Electric Vehicles, Europe: 2012
• Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
• Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Country, European Markets: 2012-2020
• Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Alternative Powertrain, European Markets: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Austria: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Belgium: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Czech Republic: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Denmark: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Estonia: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, France: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Germany: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, France: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Italy: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Luxembourg: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Netherlands: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Norway: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Poland: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Portugal: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Romania: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Russia: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Slovakia: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Spain: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Sweden: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Switzerland: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, United Kingdom: 2012-2020



List of Tables

• Planned HEV/PHEV/BEV Launches, Europe: 2010-2013
• European Public EVSE Installation Projects
• European EV Charging Networks
• Light Duty Electric Vehicle Purchase Incentives by Country, European Markets: 2012
• Battery Pack Capacities of Mass Market Electric Vehicles, Europe 2012
• Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
• Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Country, European Markets: 2012-2020
• Light Duty Vehicle Sales by Region, World Markets: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, European Markets: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Austria: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Austria: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Belgium: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Belgium: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Czech Republic: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Czech Republic: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Denmark: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Denmark: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Estonia: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Estonia: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, France: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, France: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Germany: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Germany: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Ireland: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Ireland: 2012- 2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Italy: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Italy: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Luxembourg: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Luxembourg: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Netherlands: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Netherlands: 2012 - 2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Norway: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Poland: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Poland: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Poland: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Portugal: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Portugal: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Romania: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Romania: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Russia: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Russia: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Slovakia: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Slovakia: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Spain: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Spain: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Sweden: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Sweden: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, Switzerland: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, Switzerland: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Sales by Electrified Drivetrain, United Kingdom: 2012-2020
• Vehicle Registrations (Parc) by Electrified Drivetrain, United Kingdom: 2012-2020

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