World Biofuels Report

  • November 2012
  • -
  • NRG Expert
  • -
  • 298 pages

This new biofuels market research report looks at the global Biofuels industry now and the predictions for future growth and development. 2009 was a hard year for the biofuels industry with low oil prices and reduced demand for transport fuels. Biofuels investment was down by just over a third compared to the previous year. Plants were idle or operating at less than capacity. The biofuels industry in the EU, US, Malaysia and Indonesia were particularly feeling the effects; both the US and EU were struggling to compete with cheaper fuels from Latin America. The projects that did receive biofuels investments mainly used mixed feedstocks and thus could adapt to changing commodity prices and supply shortages. Projects using sugar cane or next generation feedstocks such as jatropha, cellulosics or algae received significant investments.

Table Of Contents

Table of Contents

Published By 2
Copyright Notice .2
Table of Contents 3
List of Figures 7
List of Tables .11

1 Executive Summary .15

2 Introduction .17

3 First generation biofuels .21
3.1 Ethanol (Bioethanol) 21
3.1.1 Corn .22
3.1.2 Sugar beet 23
3.1.3 Sugar cane 23
3.1.4 Sorghum 25
3.2 Biodiesel 26
3.2.1 Palm oil 26
3.2.2 Soy beans (Soya; Soya beans) .28
3.2.3 Rapeseed .28

4 Energy Crops 31
4.1.1 Jatropha .31
4.1.2 Camelina 35
4.1.3 Croton trees 36
4.1.4 Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) 37
4.1.5 Poplar trees 37
4.1.6 Salicornia (Salicornia Bigelovii, Dwarf saltwort, Dwarf glasswort) 37
4.1.7 Switch grass .38

5 Waste vegetable oil and tallow .39
5.1.1 Fuel: Biodiesel .39

6 Cellulosic biofuels (lignocellulosic biofuels) .40
6.1 Second generation 40
6.1.1 Fuel: Ethanol 40

7 Algae 49
7.1 Third generation biofuel 49
7.1.1 Fuel: Diesel substitute 49

8 Biotechnology .54

9 Conversion process .56

10 Environmental Impact 58

11 Food versus fuel debate .64

12 Market 65
12.1 Financials 65
12.2 Companies .71
12.3 Petroleum transport fuels 74

13 Biofuel production .78

14 Europe 84
14.1 EU Biofuels Directive 85
14.2 Renewable Energy Directive 87
14.3 REACH .90
14.4 Import and export regulations 91
14.5 Biofuel production .93
14.5.1 Biodiesel 93
14.6 Ethanol .98
14.7 Biofuel consumption 108
14.8 Next generation biofuels 109
14.9 Job creation 110
14.10 Factors affecting the market 111
14.11 EU competitiveness 113

15 European countries 114
15.1 Austria 114
15.2 Belgium 114
15.3 Bulgaria .115
15.4 Denmark 116
15.5 Estonia 117
15.6 Finland 117
15.7 France 117
15.8 Germany 118
15.9 Ireland .124
15.10 Latvia 125
15.11 Luxembourg 125
15.12 Netherlands 126
15.13 Norway 126
15.14 Poland 126
15.15 Portugal .127
15.16 Romania 127
15.17 Spain 127
15.18 Sweden 131
15.19 Switzerland 134
15.20 Turkey .136
15.21 UK 137

16 USA .138
16.1 Incentives .138
16.2 Renewable Fuel Standard 139
16.3 Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm Bill 2008) .142
16.4 State legislation 142
16.5 Biofuel imports and exports 144
16.6 Market .145
16.7 Next generation biofuels 156
16.8 Economic downturn 161
16.9 Animal feed 162
16.10 Biodiesel 163

17 Brazil 171
17.1 Sugar production 172
17.2 Sugar cane production .173
17.3 Ethanol plants 173
17.4 Ethanol 176
17.5 Blending mandates 179
17.6 Export market 179
17.7 Biodiesel 181
17.8 Investment 183
17.9 Foreign Investment 185

18 Latin America 186
18.1 Argentina 186
18.2 Colombia 191
18.3 Honduras 192
18.4 Paraguay 194
18.5 Peru .195
18.6 Uruguay .195

19 North America 198
19.1 Canada 198
19.2 Biodiesel 204
19.3 Ethanol 204
19.4 Mexico 205

20 Oceania .208
20.1 Australia .208
20.2 New Zealand 213

21 ASIA .222
21.1 China 222
21.2 Chinese Taiwan 226
21.3 India .226
21.4 Indonesia 231
21.5 Japan 234
21.6 Korea, South .236
21.7 Malaysia 236
21.8 Pakistan .238
21.9 Thailand .239
21.10 The Philippines 248
21.11 Vietnam .251

22 Russia and the CIS countries .252
22.1 Russia .252
22.2 Ukraine 252
22.3 Other countries 253

23 Africa 254
23.1 South Africa 254
23.2 Sudan .255
23.3 Other countries 255
23.3.1 Kenya 255
23.3.2 Mozambique 255
23.3.3 Tanzania .255

24 Aviation sector .256
24.1 Carbon emissions 256
24.2 Bio-jet fuels 257
24.3 Air force and the military 263

25 Oil and Gas Involvement 266

26 Biofuel targets, subsidies and incentives 279

27 Conversion units .297

28 Acknowledgements 298



List of Figures

Figure 2.1. Development of biofuels
Figure 2.2. Products from biofuel feedstocks
Figure 3.1. World corn price projections, US $ per tonne
Figure 3.2. World sugar price projections, US $ per tonne
Figure 3.3. Fuel yield for biofuel feedstocks, gasoline equivalent, gallons per acre
Figure 3.4. World vegetable oil prices, US $ per tonne
Figure 3.5. World oil seed prices, US $ per tonne
Figure 4.1. Jatropha curcas
Figure 4.2. Scale of jatropha projects (hectares) and number of projects, 2008 and 2015
Figure 4.3. Camelina*
Figure 4.4. Salicornia (Salicornia Bigelovi)
Figure 6.1. Breakdown of operating costs for a cellulosic plant using enzyme pre-treatment
Figure 6.2. Status of cellulosic ethanol plants as of February 2010
Figure 6.3. Adjusted feedstock potential for cellulosic feedstocks
Figure 6.4. Planned development of cellulosic ethanol capacity by the top ten developers, million
litres
Figure 7.1. Microalgae and macroalgae. Microalgae (left) Macroalgae (right)
Figure 8.1. Role of biotechnology in biofuel production
Figure 9.1. Levelised cost of energy for transport fuels, US $ per litre
Figure 9.2. Conversion pathways to produce biofuels
Figure 10.1. Greenhouse gas savings of biofuels by feedstock and country of origin, % - Biodiesel
Figure 10.2. Greenhouse gas savings of biofuels by feedstock and country of origin, % - Ethanol
and Biogas
Figure 10.3. Future research challenges for assessing the environmental impacts of biofuels
Figure 10.4. Global average water footprint for ethanol feedstocks, m³/GJ
Figure 10.5. Global average water footprint for biodiesel feedstocks, m³/GJ
Figure 12.1. New investment by technology, 2009, US $billion
Figure 12.2. Global Asset Financing (GAF), US $ million, Q1 2009 - Q2 2010
Figure 12.3. Global Asset Financing (GAF) per biofuel project, US $ million, Q1 2009 - Q2 2010
Figure 12.4. Biofuels New Build Asset Investment Waves, US $ billion
Figure 12.5. Investments in terms of feedstocks, US $ million, 2009
Figure 12.6. VC/PE investments in biofuels, US $ million, Q1 2009 - Q2 2010
Figure 12.7. Average VC/PE investments in biofuels per deal, US $ million, Q1 2009 - Q2 2010
Figure 12.8. Top ten companies in 2009 in terms of investments, US $ million
Figure 12.9. Corporate and government RandD investment by technology, 2009, and total growth on
2008, US $ billion
Figure 12.10. Average crude oil import costs, US $/barrel*
Figure 12.11. Short term oil price forecast, West Texas Spot price, US$ per barrel
Figure 12.12. DOE EIA World oil price projections, US $ per barrel
Figure 14.1. Biofuel chain and supply measures in the EU
Figure 14.2. Proportion of biofuel meeting sustainability standards
Figure 14.3. Idle and used biodiesel capacity in the EU, million litres
Figure 14.4. Average installed capacity of biodiesel plants in the EU, million litres
Figure 14.5. Biodiesel production in the top six EU countries, million litres
Figure 14.6. Market share of biodiesel production in the top six EU countries, %, 2009 (left) and
2011 (right)
Figure 14.7. Feedstock used for biodiesel production, thousand tonnes
Figure 14.8. Idle and used ethanol capacity in the EU, million litres
Figure 14.9. Average installed capacity of ethanol plants in the EU, million litres
Figure 14.10. Ethanol production in the top six EU countries, million litres
Figure 14.11. Market share of ethanol production in the top six EU countries, %, 2009 (left) and
2011 (right)
Figure 14.12. Balance of ethanol trade, net exporters +and net importers -, million litres
Figure 14.13. Feedstock used for ethanol production, thousand tonnes
Figure 14.14. Fate of ethanol produced in the EU, million litres
Figure 14.15. Imports of biofuels into the EU, million litres
Figure 14.16. Production of DDGS during ethanol production in the EU, thousand tonnes
Figure 14.17. Consumption of biofuels in the EU, 2006 - 2011
Figure 14.18. Biodiesel consumption in the EU, 2009 - 2011, million litres
Figure 14.19. Ethanol consumption in the EU, 2009 - 2011, million litres
Figure 15.1. Projections on the production of biodiesel and ethanol in Bulgaria, 2008 - 2020
Figure 15.2. Standard greenhouse gas emissions for biofuels, established by the UFOP in Germany,
gCO2eq per MJ, %
Figure 15.3. Ethanol market in Sweden, thousand litres
Figure 15.4. Biodiesel market in Sweden, thousand litres
Figure 15.5. Quantity of feedstock used in biofuel production in Sweden, thousand tonnes
Figure 15.6. Biodiesel consumption in Switzerland, million litres
Figure 15.7. Ethanol consumption in Switzerland, million litres
Figure 16.1. Renewable fuel volume obligation as established in the RFS program, billion litres
Figure 16.2. Blending mandates in the US, launch dates
Figure 16.3. Historical US ethanol imports, million litres
Figure 16.4. Growth of the ethanol industry in the US, billion litres
Figure 16.5. Average production capacity of ethanol plants in operation in the US, million litres
Figure 16.6. Top ten states for ethanol production, million litres
Figure 16.7. US Ethanol biorefinery locations
Figure 16.8. Top ten ethanol producers in terms of installed capacity, million litres
Figure 16.9. Breakdown of funding for advanced biorefinery projects, December 2009, US $
million
Figure 16.10. Fate of corn harvested for ethanol production in the USA, 2009
Figure 16.11. Breakdown of feedstocks for biodiesel plants in operation and under construction in
the US, %
Figure 16.12. Breakdown of biodiesel production costs
Figure 16.13. Top ten biodiesel manufacturers in the US, million litres
Figure 16.14. Production and consumption of biodiesel in the US, million litres
Figure 17.1. Sugar producing regions and ethanol plants in Brazil
Figure 17.2. Sugar cane and sugar production in Brazil for each crop harvest, million tonnes
Figure 17.3. Balance of cane products and by-products, 1,000 kg of planted cane
Figure 17.4. Ethanol production in Brazil for each crop harvest, million litres
Figure 17.5. Average price of Brazilian ethanol exports, US $ per litre
Figure 18.1. Anticipated fate of biodiesel produced by the ten largest biodiesel producers by
installed capacity, million litres, 2010
Figure 18.2. Map showing biofuel production and blending terminal locations in Argentina
Figure 18.3. Supply commitments for ethanol producers for the Argentinan market from the
government, million litres, 2010
Figure 18.4. Supply commitments for biodiesel producers for the Argentinan market from the
government, million litres, 2010
Figure 18.5. Fate of palm oil produced in Honduras, tonnes
Figure 18.6. Development of the biofuel market in Paraguay, million litres
Figure 18.7. Quantity of feedstock used in biofuel production in Uruguay, tonnes
Figure 19.1. Ethanol and biodiesel plants in Canadian provinces, million litres
Figure 19.2. Feedstocks used by Canadian biofuel plants, million litres
Figure 19.3. Map of potential areas for biofuel feedstock cultivation in Mexico
Figure 20.1. Ethanol production capacity in operation in Australia, million litres
Figure 20.2. Biodiesel production capacity in operation in Australia, million litres
Figure 20.3. Breakdown of biodiesel sold on the Australian market, million litres
Figure 21.1. Fuel ethanol plants in China
Figure 21.2. Sugar cane feedstocks in India, thousand tonnes
Figure 21.3. Production and consumption of ethanol in India, 2006 - 2011, million litres
Figure 21.4. Breakdown of fate of biodiesel produced by manufacturers in Indonesia, million litres
Figure 21.5. Map of installed ethanol plants in Indonesia
Figure 21.6. Map of installed biodiesel plants in Indonesia
Figure 21.7. Annual and forecast of crude palm oil production in Malaysia, million tonnes
Figure 21.8. Main feedstock used to produce ethanol in Thailand, thousand litres per day
Figure 21.9. Anticipated production of ethanol from cassava and molasses in Thailand, million
litres per day
Figure 21.10. Prices of ethanol blends and gasoline in Thailand, 2005 - 2009, THB per litre
Figure 21.11. Prices of biodiesel blends and gasoline in Thailand, 2005 - 2009, THB per litre
Figure 21.12. Feedstocks used in biodiesel plants in Thailand
Figure 21.13. Projections on domestic demand for biodiesel in Thailand, million litres
Figure 21.14. Breakdown of manufacturers of biodiesel in Thailand, thousand litres per day
Figure 21.15. Projections of idle and operating ethanol capacity in the Philippines, million litres
Figure 21.16. Projections of ethanol production and imports in the Philippines, million litres
Figure 21.17. Projections of biodiesel production and consumption in the Philippines, million litres
Figure 24.1. Timeline of proposed legislation and voluntary targets for the aviation sector
Figure 24.2. Aviation fuel demand and supply scenarios
Figure 24.3. CAAFI RandD roadmap for biofuel feedstocks



List of Tables

Table 2.1. Production processes for first generation biofuels
Table 3.1. Advantages and disadvantages of ethanol compared to gasoline
Table 3.2. Yields of ethanol per feedstock
Table 3.3. Monthly prices for corn, US $ per tonne
Table 3.4. Products from sugar cane production
Table 3.5. Monthly sugar prices, US $ cents per pound
Table 3.6. Advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel compared to petroleum diesel
Table 3.7. Monthly prices for feedstocks for the production of biodiesel, US $ per tonne
Table 4.1. By-products from jatropha
Table 4.2. The advantages and disadvantages of jatropha
Table 4.3. Key companies involved in jatropha projects
Table 4.4. Main developers of biodiesel from Camelina
Table 6.1. Cellulosic waste materials of food crops
Table 6.2. Top cellulosic ethanol manufacturers in terms of installed capacity in 2009
Table 6.3. The advantages and disadvantages of cellulosic ethanol as an alternative to firstgeneration
biofuels feedstocks on the market
Table 7.1. The biodiesel yield per acre for different feedstocks
Table 7.2. Production capacity for algae biofuel developers, million litres, 2010 and 2012
Table 7.3. Products derived from algae
Table 7.4. The advantages and disadvantages of algae as an alternative to first-generation
biofuels feedstocks on the market
Table 9.1. Description of Conversion Pathway
Table 10.1. Emissions Lifecycle for each Feedstock
Table 10.2. How green are biofuels?
Table 12.1. Business model of the top ten biofuel companies in terms of investments last year
Table 12.2. Estimates of subsidies for different energy sources
Table 12.3. Transport fuel prices and taxes per litre, June 2010
Table 12.4. Transport fuel prices, May 2010, US dollars per litre
Table 12.5. Relationships between crude oil, gasoline, ethanol and break-even corn prices
Table 12.6. Average oil price projections, US $ per barrel
Table 13.1. Biodiesel production, million litres
Table 13.2. Ethanol production, million litres
Table 13.3. Biodiesel projections
Table 13.4. Bioethanol projections
Table 14.1. Energy content of marginal transport fuel - pure and blends, MJ/litre
Table 14.2. Energy content of marginal transport fuel blends, MJ/litre
Table 14.3. EU Member States goals for the use of biofuels as transportation fuel, % of total fuel
use
Table 14.4. Road transportation fuels consumption in the EU, 2006 - 2011, ktoe
Table 14.5. Renewable Energy Directive targets
Table 14.6. Greenhouse gas emissions for biofuel feedstocks according to the European Commission
Table 14.7. Milestones for the biofuel industry in the EU
Table 14.8. REACH costs
Table 14.9. Development of biodiesel plants in the EU, thousand litres
Table 14.10. EU 2008 and 2009 biodiesel capacity estimates
Table 14.11. Production capacity of the main biodiesel producers in Europe
Table 14.12. Development of ethanol plants in the EU, million litres
Table 14.13. Production capacity of the main ethanol producers, 2010
Table 14.14. Ethanol plants in the EU, million litres, March 2010
Table 14.15. Advanced biofuel plants in the EU
Table 14.16. Jobs created by the sector in key European countries
Table 15.1. Fuel Taxes
Table 15.2. Breakdown of transport fuels in Bulgaria
Table 15.3. Quota for Biodesel and Bioethanol from 2003-2010
Table 15.4. Quotas and taxes for biofuels in Germany
Table 15.5. Tax exemptions in € per litre of biofuels
Table 15.6. Land use criteria for sustainable biofuels in Germany
Table 15.7. Energy tax on pure biodiesels, € per litre
Table 15.8. Consumption of biofuels in Germany, thousand tonnes
Table 15.9. Average price at the filling station for biodiesel and diesel in Germany, June 2010
Table 15.10. Biodiesel plants in operation in Germany, end 2009
Table 15.11. Incentives for Irish farmers producing energy crops
Table 15.12. Financial support for production facilities
Table 15.13. Albengoa Bioenergy global presence
Table 15.14. Biodiesel plants in operation, under construction and planned in Spain
Table 15.15. Ethanol plants in Spain, excluding Abengoa’s plants
Table 15.16. Ethanol plants in Sweden
Table 15.17. Biodiesel plants in Sweden
Table 15.18. Planned biodiesel projects in Switzerland, million litres
Table 16.1. History of ethanol subsidy legislation in the US
Table 16.2. State fuel taxes
Table 16.3. Biofuel blends and car manufacturing compatibility in the US
Table 16.4. Ethanol plants in the USA, July 2010
Table 16.5. Business structure of the top 5 ethanol producers in the US
Table 16.6. US cellulosic ethanol projects under development and construction
Table 16.7. Awardees of US Department of Energy and Department of Agriculture funding,
December 2009
Table 16.8. Valero Renewables’ ethanol plants
Table 16.9. DDGS produced for a 20 million gallon (91 million litres) plant using different feedstocks
Table 16.10. Business models for the top five biodiesel producers in the US
Table 16.11. Biodiesel plants in the USA, July 2010
Table 17.1. Production costs for ethanol in the USA, Germany and Brazil, € per 1,000 litres
Table 17.2. Installed biofuel capacity and targets in Brazil
Table 17.3. Top ten sugar cane facilities in Sao Paulo State for the 2008/2009 harvest
Table 17.4. Key Companies using SCA Brazil Ethanol brokerage
Table 17.5. Biodiesel plants in operation in Brazil
Table 17.6. Investment in renewable energies
Table 17.7. Ethanol plants owned by Cosan in Brazil
Table 18.1. Argentina Renovables’ list of biodiesel plants in operation, large scale
Table 18.2. Ethanol plants in operation in Colombia
Table 18.3. Biodiesel plants in operation in Colombia
Table 18.4. Top five biodiesel plants in operation in Honduras
Table 19.1. Blending mandates in Canadian provinces, target dates
Table 19.2. Incentives for biofuels in Canadian provinces
Table 19.3. Federal programmes to promote a domestic renewable fuels industry in Canada
Table 19.4. Ethanol plants in operation or under construction in Canada
Table 19.5. Biodiesel plants in operation or under construction in Canada
Table 19.6. Tax exemptions for E10 by Canadian province
Table 19.7. Ethanol pilot project in Mexico
Table 20.1. Biodiesel plants in Australia, January 2010
Table 20.2. Ethanol plants in operation in Australia, January 2010
Table 20.3. Biofuels Excise Rates for Australia
Table 20.4. Effective fuel tax rates for alternative fuels in Australia
Table 20.5. Blending mandates in Australia, target dates
Table 20.6. Second generation Biofuels Research and Development Programme projects in
Australia
Table 20.7. Leading biofuel players in New Zealand, as of August 2009
Table 21.1. China investment in renewable energy markets
Table 21.2. Ethanol plants in operation in China, million litres
Table 21.3. Cities with the E10 blend mandate in China
Table 21.4. Cost analysis of using different feedstocks for ethanol using 2006 prices in China
Table 21.5. Major biodiesel facilities in China
Table 21.6. Project financing for biofuel projects in India
Table 21.7. Blending mandate for biodiesel in Indonesia
Table 21.8. Blending mandate for ethanol in Indonesia
Table 21.9. Biodiesel projects in operation in Malaysia
Table 21.10. Fifteen year Renewable Energy Development Plans for biofuels in Thailand, million
litres per day
Table 21.11. Ethanol plants in Thailand, March 2010
Table 21.12. Breakdown o

View This Report »

Find all the market research you need - instantly, in one place.

+1.2 Million Research Documents & Statistics +200,000 Trusted Public Sources 350 Industries With Global Coverage

24/7 Customer Support

Talk to Amrita

+1 718 303 2019

Purchase Reports From Reputable Market Research Publishers

Global Biolubricants Market

Global Biolubricants Market

  • $ 4 950
  • Industry report
  • September 2014
  • by Global Industry Analysts

This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Biolubricants in Metric Tons for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World. The report analyzes the North American market in Metric Tons by the ...

Machine Condition Monitoring Market by Product (Vibration Monitoring, Thermography, Ultrasound Emission, Lubricating Oil Analysis, Corrosion Monitoring, and Motor Current Signature Analysis), Component, Application, and Geography - Global Forecast to 2013

Machine Condition Monitoring Market by Product (Vibration Monitoring, Thermography, Ultrasound Emission, Lubricating Oil Analysis, Corrosion Monitoring, and Motor Current Signature Analysis), Component, Application, and Geography - Global Forecast to 2013

  • $ 4 650
  • Industry report
  • September 2014
  • by MarketsandMarkets

Machine condition monitoring is the best way of maintenance to meet requirements of production. It is the process of monitoring the health of a machine with the intent to predict mechanical wear and failure. ...

2014 Market Research Report on Global Biodiesel Industry

2014 Market Research Report on Global Biodiesel Industry

  • $ 3 600
  • Industry report
  • September 2014
  • by QY Research Group

Summary "2014 Market Research Report on Global Biodiesel Industry" was professional and depth research report on Global Biodiesel industry. The report firstly introduced Biodiesel basic information included ...


ReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution that finds, filters and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - quickly, in one place.