World Biomass Report

  • November 2012
  • -
  • NRG Expert
  • -
  • 521 pages

The biomass market suffered during the economic downturn in the face of low coal prices, logistic barriers and supply issues. 2010 saw more movement in the sector as coal prices are beginning to rise once again making co-firing coal plants with biomass more attractive. Furthermore, the biomass component of a coal-fired plant may be eligible for feed-in tariff or count towards renewable portfolio standards.Most of these plants rely on wood pellets, often transported at great distance, rather than wood chips or other less dense biomass sources. In the wood pellets market, supplies from the US and Canada are cheaper than their European counterparts and thus North America is a major suppli- ers for European biomass plants. CIS countries, Russia, Australia and South Africa have entered as significant suppliers, which if they could ramp up supply, could be serious competitors to the US and Canada. Or in the case of Russia, resolve supply delay issues, could be one of the biggest players in the market.

Table Of Contents

Contents

Technologies and transformation 23
Pyrolysis 23
Gasification . 23
Charcoal production 24
Briquetting and pelletizing 24
Bioheat 24
MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) 24
LFG (Landfill Gas) . 24
Biopower 24
Biomass legislation 25

1. Introduction . 26

2. Biomass as a primary fuel 28
TPES - Total Primary Energy Supply 28
TFEC - Total Final Energy Consumption 30
Biomass . 31
Usage patterns by region 33
The Fuel Ladder . 37
Rural usage . 37
Urban usage 37
Future primary energy production and consumption 38
Bioenergy power generation 40

3. Benefits and constraints of bioenergy . 42
Factors encouraging the development of biomass energy 43

4. Biomass resources 44
Agricultural crops 45
Agricultural residues 45
Sugar industry wastes/Bagasse 46
Forestry crops . 47
Forestry residues 47
Cereal straw 47
Energy cropping . 47
Black liquor 48
Animal waste 48
Sewage . 48
Industrial waste 48
Municipal solid waste (MSW) . 49

5. Biomass conversion technologies . 51
Direct use 53
Combustion . 53
Cogeneration 53
Transformation 54
Electricity generation . 54
Conventional steam boiler 55
Co-firing . 56
Anaerobic digestion 58
Gasification . 59
Pyrolysis 60
Charcoal production 60
Briquetting and pelletizing 60
Modular systems 61
Biofuels for transportation 61
Bio-based products 61
Technology developments 63

6. Logistics 64
Prices 67
Freight 70
Price Indexes 73
Ocean Vessel Categories 73
Trade . 75
Barriers 87
Development 90

7. Competitiveness . 93

8. Investments 106
Clean Development Mechanism . 107

9. Biomass usage and technologies 111
Biomass electricity and heat 111
Biomass heat 111
MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) 121
South and Central America 166
Manufacture and competition 166
Future prospects . 166
Landfill gas . 167
Environment 167
Technology 168
Landfill gas market 169
EU 169
EU environmental regulations . 170
USA . 170
Developing Countries and CERs 174
Africa 174
China 174
Other East Asia and Pacific . 175
South West Asia 175
Latin America and the Caribbean 175
Market problems . 175
Future prospects for landfill gas 175
Biogas . 176
Biogas in the developing world 179
Specific countries and regions 181
Biopower . 200
Technology 202
Conventional steam cycle plant 202
Gasification and other advanced processes 202
Co-firing with fossil fuels 203
Advantages of co-firing . 203
Disadvantages of co-firing 203
Regional development 203
10. Regional and national biomass market and technology review 218
North America 218
Canada 219
Mexico . 234
United States . 236
Biomass Consumption by Energy Source and Use Sector 246
Electricity generation from biomass 248
Ownership . 256
Europe . 264
Electricity generation from biomass 268
National market characteristics in the EU . 299
Austria . 299
Belgium 306
Czech Republic 307
Denmark . 308
Finland 309
France . 314
Germany 320
Greece 326
Hungary 327
Ireland . 328
Italy 329
Netherlands 337
Norway 339
Poland . 341
Portugal 342
Slovakia 343
Spain 344
Sweden 348
Switzerland 354
Turkey . 355
United Kingdom 359
Non-OECD Europe 368
Bulgaria 370
Estonia 370
Latvia 370
Lithuania . 371
Romania . 371
CIS 371
Belarus 372
Russia . 372
Ukraine 375
Asia Pacific, major economies . 378
Australia . 379
China 402
India 416
Japan 426
Korea, South . 441
New Zealand . 442
Taiwan . 446
Asia Pacific, other countries 447
Bangladesh 449
Cambodia 451
Indonesia 452
Malaysia . 456
Myanmar 458
Nepal 459
Pakistan . 459
Philippines . 460
Sri Lanka 464
Thailand . 465
Vietnam 471
Latin America 473
Argentina 476
Brazil 476
www.NRGExpert.com
page 7
Chile 480
Cuba 480
Peru . 480
Middle East . 481
Africa 481
Democratic Republic of Congo 483
Ethiopia 484
Kenya 484
Nigeria . 484
South Africa 485
Tanzania 486

11. Companies 487

12. National Targets and Subsidies . 490

13. Environmental issues 510
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992 . 510
Kyoto Protocol 510
Status of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by Annex 1 countries . 512
The ‘Hockey Stick Effect’ and the ‘Medieval Warming’ 512
Comment on Climate Report 2001 and Paris Report 2007 514
USA environmental legislation 514
EU Environmental Directives 514
LCPD - Large Combustion Plant Directive . 515
ETS - Emissions Trading Directive 515
IPPC - Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive 516
The EU Landfill Directive 516
Hazardous Waste Directive . 516
Incineration of Waste (2000/76/EC) (implemented December 2002) . 516
Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive (94/62/EC) 516
End of Life Vehicles Directive (2000/53/EC) (implemented April 2002) . 516
The technology and other abatement measures for carbon dioxide - CO2 517
Carbon sequestration . 517
Sleipner Project 518

14. Comments on biomass statistics 520

15. Sources . 521



Tables

Table 2-1: Final energy projections (after transformation) including biomass by region, Mtoe
Table 4-1: Biomass resources
Table 5-1: Key figures and data for biomass-based technologies
Table 5-2: Technical features of biomass CHP or power
Table 5-3: Characteristics of coal-fired power plants
Table 6-1: Prices of pellets and chips in Denmark
Table 6-2: Breakdown of costs for wood pellets from port to Denmark (CIF Denmark), EUR per ton
Table 6-3: Breakdown of costs for wood pellets from port to Denmark (CIF Denmark), EUR per ton
Table 6-4: Maximum, minimum and the latest charter rates, USD per day
Table 6-5: Capacities of the Bulk Carrier Fleet Forecast Based on Order Books and Delivery Dates
Table 6-6: Dry bulk carriers and their use
Table 6-7: Economies of scale in bulk shipping
Table 6-8: Relationship between ship size, draught and port access
Table 6-9: Main solid biomass traded in Europe
Table 6-10: Overview of trade flows about or above 100,000 tonnes, 2009
Table 6-11: Pellet production, imports and exports for European countries, thousand m3, 2009
Table 6-12: Market Types and Characteristics, 2009
Table 6-13: Logistics for wood pellets into Europe
Table 6-14: Global wood pellets market, 2009
Table 7-1: Comparison of coal and wood pellets
Table 7-2: Fuel prices per kWh in the UK, excluding VAT, December 2010
Table 7-3: North West Europe biomass pricing, CIF Rotterdam, March 2010
Table 7-4: Industrial biomass delivery prices to 2012, CIF Europe
Table 7-5: Electricity price projections for the EU, EUR cent per kWh
Table 7-6: Estimated energy and fuel yields for different feedstocks
Table 7-7: Electricity generation costs for three bio energy resources
Table 8-1: Biomass projects registered with the Clean Development Mechanism fund or pending a
decision, 2010
Table 9-1: Biomass consumption in North American countries, ktoe, 1990 to 2009
Table 9-2: Biomass consumption in European countries, ktoe, 1990 to 2009
Table 9-3: Biomass consumption in the USA and Europe, ktoe, 2009
Table 9-4: Technology and risks involved for waste-to-energy plants
Table 9-5: Evolution of cost and technical performance for MSW combustion
Table 9-6: Comparison of total power generated from landfill and waste-to-energy technologies
Table 9-7: Landfill taxes and bans in Europe, September 2010
Table 9-8: Waste-to-energy fees in selected European countries
Table 9-9: Project structure for waste-to-energy projects
Table 9-10: History of renewables in the EU, 1991 to 2008
Table 9-11: Waste-to-energy plants in Europe, 2008
Table 9-12: Costs for waste-to-energy plants in selected European countries
Table 9-13: Development of energy production from incineration of MSW in Europe, ktoe, 1998 to
2008
Table 9-14: Development of European MSW electricity generation capacity, 1990 to 2008
Table 9-15: MSW plants treated with direct conversion to power generation in selected EU countries
Table 9-16: Gross electricity production from renewable municipal waste combustion in the European
Union, GWh, 2008 and 2009
Table 9-17: Heat production from renewable municipal waste combustion in the European Union in
the transformation sector, ktoe, 2008 and 2009
Table 9-18: Capacity development in selected EU countries
Table 9-19: Representative firms of the incineration sector in Europe
Table 9-20: Net generation from MSW biogenic and other biomass in the USA, 2005 to 2009
Table 9-21: Waste-to-energy facilities in operation in the United States, 2010
Table 9-22: Disposal methods for MSW in selected ASEAN countries
Table 9-23: Development of MSW electricity generation capacity in Japan, 1990 to 2008
Table 9-24: Suppliers of waste-to-energy technologies in India
Table 9-25: Incentives for the development of waste-to-energy projects in Australia
Table 9-26: Selected waste-to-energy facilities in Australia
Table 9-27: Net generation from landfill in the USA, 2005 to 2009
Table 9-28: Landfill gas projects in operation or being considered for development in the US,
February 2010
Table 9-29: Production of biogas in OECD regions, TJ, 2009
Table 9-30: Potential analysis of biogas resources in the livestock and poultry industry in China
Table 9-31: Central Government Investment in Biogas Development in Rural Areas in China, 2001 to
2008
Table 9-32: ‘Family-type’ biogas plants in India
Table 9-33: Biogas input into city gas pipelines and reduction of CO2 emissions
Table 9-34: Methane-Fermentation Projects Utilising Biomass in Japan
Table 9-35: Energy Recovery Methods from Sewage Sludge in Japan
Table 9-36: Primary biogas energy output in the European Union, ktoe, 2008 and 2009*
Table 9-37: Biomethane feed-in projects in Germany
Table 9-38: Biomethane feed-in projects elsewhere in Europe
Table 9-39: Gross biogas electricity output in the European Union, GWh, 2008 and 2009*
Table 9-40: Biogas heat output in the European Union in 2008 and 2009* in the transformation sector,
2008 and 2009**
Table 9-41: Representative firms of the methanisation sector in Europe
Table 9-42: Installed generating capacity from biomass for major countries, GW, 2009 and 2010
Table 9-43: Installed generating capacity from biomass in the OECD countries, MW, 2000 to 2008
Table 9-44: Installed generating capacity from biomass in the USA, MW, 2000 to 2008
Table 9-45: Installed generating capacity from biomass in OECD Europe, MW, 2000 to 2008
Table 9-46: Installed generating capacity from biomass in European countries, MW, 2000 to 2008
Table 9-47: EU Member State Biomass Plans as set out in the National Action Plans, MW
Table 10-1: Sawmill Production in Canada by Province, thousand m3
Table 10-2: Wood Pellet Plants in Canada
Table 10-3: Biomass CHP plants in Canada
Table 10-4: Comparison of the economics of heavy fuel and wood pellets in Canada
Table 10-5: Canadian provincial incentives for biomass
Table 10-6: Energy from MSW Biomass in Canada
Table 10-7: Wood pellet producers that are members of the Pellet Fuels Institute in the United States
Table 10-8: Wood pellet mills in the USA
Table 10-9: Biomass energy consumption by energy source and energy use sector in the United
States, trillion Btu, 2005 to 2009
Table 10-10: List of biomass power plants in the USA
Table 10-11: USA Industrial Biomass Energy Consumption and Electricity Net Generation by Primary
Purpose of Business and Energy Source, Trillion Btus and GWh, 2008
Table 10-12: Gross electricity production from solid biomass in the European Union in GWh in 2008
and 2009
Table 10-13: Feed-in tariffs for renewables across Europe, EUR per kWh, 1st April 2010
Table 10-14: Heat production from solid biomass in the European Union in Mtoe in 2008 and 2009* in
the transformation sector
Table 10-15: Comparison of different biomass sources for the EU
Table 10-16: Major characteristics of European pellet market types
Table 10-17: Wood pellets producers in operation in Europe
Table 10-18: Production of wood chips by country, thousand m3, 2000 to 2009
Table 10-19: Targets for Bio energy in Belgium
Table 10-20: Market price of supplied wood fuels, EUR per measure unit, 2009
Table 10-21: Biomass plants or projects under development in Germany, October 2010
Table 10-22: Number of pellet producers in Italy
Table 10-23: Biomass plants or projects under development in Italy, October 2010
Table 10-24: Characteristics of traditional and new raw materials for Swedish pellet production
Table 10-25: Biomass and co-fired power plants in operation in the UK
Table 10-26: Biomass plants or projects under development in the UK, October 2010
Table 10-27: Biomass commodity balance in 2009 in the UK, thousand tonnes of oil equivalent
Table 10-28: Estimated technical potential of biomass energy sources and for energy crop production,
TWh of primary energy
Table 10-29: Fuel prices and municipal boiler efficiency in the St Petersburg region
Table 10-30: Bulk industrial pellet prices, FOB and CPT Seaport St Petersburg, EUR per ton, 2003 to
2009
Table 10-31: Comparison of prices of natural gas and solid biofuels in the Ukraine
Table 10-22: Potential of biomass in the Ukraine
Table 10-33: Biomass plants in operation in the Ukraine
Table 10-34: Conception for the introduction of bio energy equipment until 2015 in the Ukraine
Table 10-35: Capacity of electricity generation from bio energy by state in Australia, MW, 2009
Table 10-36: Biomass power plants in operation in Australia, August 2010
Table 10-37: Proposed biomass power plants in Australia, August 2010
Table 10-38: Current and future bio energy resources in Australia
Table 10-39: Australian Biomass Resources
Table 10-40: Chinese biomass targets
Table 10-41: Major Biomass Power Stations in China
Table 10-42: Biomass in China
Table 10-43: Available for forest biomass for energy in China
Table 10-44: Development of installed biomass capacity in India, MW
Table 10-45: Tariff for biomass power and cogeneration in India
Table 10-46: Central financial assistance for biomass in India
Table 10-47: Capital subsidies for bagasse projects in India
Table 10-48: List of biomass gasifier manufacturers in India
Table 10-49: TGC Wood Biomass Power Contracted by SONY
Table 10-50: Raw material used by domestic mills in Japan
Table 10-51: Utilisation of woody biomass by different municipalities in Japan
Table 10-52: Present state and trend of biomass energy in Japan
Table 10-53: Amount of woody waste biomass generated and its fate in Japan
Table 10-54: Heat Utilisation of Woody Biomass in Local Areas of Japan
Table 10-55: Proof project for biomass-coal co-firing power generation using forestry residue
Table 10-56: Woody Biomass Co-firing Power Generation projects in Japan
Table 10-57: Use of EFB by Japanese Companies
Table 10-58: Main wood fuel producers in New Zealand
Table 10-59: Major power plants using EFB
Table 10-60: Renewable Energy Resources in Malaysia
Table 10-61: Biomass power plants in operation in the Philippines
Table 10-62: Outline of two big project plans for biomass power generation in the Philippines
Table 10-63: Thailand's National Alternative Energy Plan, 2008 to 2020
Table 10-64: Biomass plants in operation in Thailand
Table 10-65: Current State of Rice-Chaff-Burning Power Generation in Thailand
Table 11-1: Key suppliers of biomass plants
Table 12-1: Renewables targets and support schemes for biomass for European countries
Table 12-2: Renewables targets and support schemes for biomass for Non-European countries
Table 13-1: Key greenhouse gases affected by human activity



Figures

Figure 2-1: 2008 fuel shares in world total primary energy supply
Figure 2-2: Annual growth of renewable energy supply, 1990 to 2008
Figure 2-3: Annual growth of renewable energy supply, 1990 to 2008
Figure 2.4: 2009 share of total final consumption
Figure 2-5: World Total Final Energy Consumption) by fuel, Mtoe, 1970 to 2009
Figure 2-6: World primary energy demand by fuel in the New Policies Scenario
Figure 2-7: Production of biomass energy by type and region, 2008
Figure 2-8: Estimated biomass consumption in EU 15 countries, ktoe, 2009
Figure 2-9: Estimated biomass consumption in EU 15 countries and Switzerland, ktoe, 2009
Figure 2-10: Estimated biomass consumption in other European countries, ktoe, 2009
Figure 2-11: Final energy demand projections by fuel, Mtoe, 1980 to 2030
Figure 2-12: Electricity production by source, GWh, 1980 to 2008
Figure 2-13: Renewables in electricity production 2008
Figure 4-1: Regional level woody biomass potential
Figure 4-2: Estimated potential availability of bagasse, thousand tonnes
Figure 4-3: Technical and sustainable biomass supply potential and expected demand for biomass
(primary energy) based on global energy models and expected total primary energy demand in 2050
Figure 5-1: Status of major biomass technologies
Figure 5-2: Size of CFBC Boilers, MW, 1970 to 2010
Figure 5-3: Co-firing options
Figure 5-4: Biomass resources and conversion routes to produce bio energy
Figure 6-1: Global view on future biomass harvesting potential
Figure 6-2: Bio energy Trade 2009
Figure 6-3: Development of global wood pellet trade
Figure 6-4: FOEX Wood Pellets (Austria, AUT) price index, minimum 15 ton deliveries, EUR per ton
Figure 6-5: PIX Indexes Pellet Nordic, CIF Index History, EUR per MWh and SEK per MWh
Figure 6-6: Logistics for wood pellets
Figure 6-7: Typical supply curve for a given size of fleet
Figure 6-8: New build tanker prices, USD million
Figure 6-9: New build and 5-year Asset Values, US $ million, 2000 to 2010
Figure 6-10: Baltic Dry Index, 2000 to November 2010
Figure 6-11: Price development for bulk pellets for power production in Europe
Figure 6-12: Trading of refired biomass fuels in Europe
Figure 6-13: European wood pellet markets for heating and power production
Figure 6-14: Price developments for wood fuels in Europe
Figure 6-15: Distribution of wood pellets
Figure 6-16: Average growth rate of pellet demand, 2000 to 2008
Figure 6-17: Overview of the main barriers for increased utilisation and trade of solid biomass fuels as
perceived by traders in different EU countries
Figure 6-18: Cost of electricity per unit output from a biomass plant
Figure 6-19: Power from field sourced biomass in Alberta
Figure 6-20: Cost of power from biogas plants
Figure 6-21: Future vision on global bio energy
Figure 6-22: Pellet demand in Europe
Figure 6-23: Potential volumes of wood pellets in the market, 2010 to 2014, tonnes
Figure 7-1: Price history of woody biomass, heating oil and natural gas in Germany, EUR cent per 10
kWh (litre heating oil), 2003 to 2010
Figure 7-2: Long-term development of heating oil and pellet prices, EUR cent per kWh, 2000 to 2010
Figure 7-3: Price delivered wood pellet and coal prices CIF Rotterdam, EUR per GJ, August 2007 to
2010
Figure 7-4: Rotterdam coal swaps forward curve to 2013, USD per tonne
Figure 7-5: Carbon footprint of wood pellets from cradle to grave, kg CO2 emissions per GJ
Figure 7-6: Price of wood pellets in the UK with moisture content
Figure 7-7: Costs of electricity generated from renewables, USD cents per kWh
Figure 7-8: Costs of heating or cooling generated from renewables, USD cents per kWh
Figure 7-9: Costs of rural energy generated from renewables, USD cents per kWh
Figure 7-10: Average generation cost of a few renewable energy technologies, EUR per MWh
Figure 8-1: Global investment in renewables (annual), USD billion, 2004 to 2009
Figure 8-2: Global financial new investment quarterly trend, USD billion, Q1 2004 to Q2 2010
Figure 9-1: World use of biomass, ktoe, 2008
Figure 9-2: Transformation into electricity, heat and other fuel carriers, ktoe, 2008
Figure 9-3: Percentage transformation of bio energy into heat and electricity by OECD country, 2009
Figure 9-4: Heat production from biomass in the OECD region, TJ, 2009
Figure 9-5: Biomass consumption by region, ktoe, 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2009
Figure 9-6: Landfill gate fees in the USA, USD per ton, 2008
Figure 9-7: Growth of renewable energy from waste-to-energy for the EU 27, Terawatt hours (TWh),
2006 to 2020
Figure 9-8: Development of EU energy policies over time
Figure 9-9: Established waste policy in Europe
Figure 9-10: Fate of municipal solid waste in the EU, 2008
Figure 9-11: Energy production from the incineration of MSW in the EU-27, ktoe, 1998 to 2008
Figure 9-12: Primary energy production from renewable municipal waste combustion in Europe, ktoe,
2008 and 2009*
Figure 9-13: Composition of MSW in the US, 2008
Figure 9-14: Composition of 'waste' facilities in the USA, 2009
Figure 9-15: Generation of electricity from MSW biogenic and other biomass sources in the USA,
2008
Figure 9-16: US States involved in MSW imports or exports with Canada
Figure 9-17: Number of landfills in the United States, 1988 to 2008
Figure 9-18: Generation of electricity from landfill gas in the USA, MWh, 2008
Figure 9-19: Breakdown of production of biogas by region, TJ and %, 2008
Figure 9-20: Biogas production in selected countries, TJ, 2009
Figure 9-21: Number of installed family-use biogas plants in India, ten thousand units
Figure 9-22: Primary biogas energy output in the EU, ktoe, 2009*
Figure 9-23: Global electricity generation from biomass and waste, GWh 1970 to 2015
Figure 9-24: Global electricity generation from biomass in OECD and non-OECD countries, GWh,
1980 to 2008
Figure 9-25: Major countries electricity generated from biomass, GWh, 1980 to 2009
Figure 9-26: Electricity generated from biomass by region, GWh, 1980 to 2009
Figure 9-27: Global generating capacity by region, MW, 1990 to 2020
Figure 9-28: Global generating capacity from biomass and waste, MW, 1990 to 2020
Figure 10-1: Biomass and waste, and non-biomass renewables in North American countries, Mtoe,
2009
Figure 10-2: Installed biomass capacity in North America, MW, 1990 to 2020
Figure 10-3: Biomass and waste as a proportion of renewable primary energy supply in Canada,
Mtoe, 2001 to 2009
Figure 10-4: Biomass and waste, and non-biomass renewables in Canada, Mtoe, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-5: Composition of biomass supply in Canada, ktoe, 1900 to 2009
Figure 10-6: Location of wood pellet plants in Canada
Figure 10-7: Canadian Pellet Manufacturing thousand tonnes per annum
Figure 10-8: Generation of electricity from biomass in Canada, GWh, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-9: Dry Bulk Market Trends, time charter rates in USD per day, January 2000 - February
2009
Figure 10-10: Biomass and waste as a proportion of renewable primary energy supply in, Mtoe, 1990,
2001 to 2009
Figure 10-11: Composition of biomass supply in Mexico, ktoe, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-12: Generation of electricity from biomass in Mexico, GWh, 1980 to 2009
Figure 10-13: Biomass and waste as a proportion of renewable primary energy supply in the United
States, Mtoe, 2001 to 2009
Figure 10-14: Biomass and waste, and non-biomass renewables in the United States, Mtoe, 2002 to
2009
Figure 10-15: US FOB export prices in US dollars per tonne for industrial pellets by region, June 2010
Figure 10-16: Generation of electricity from biomass in the United States, GWh, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-17: Biomass Energy Resource Hierarchy
Figure 10-18: Generation of electricity from biomass in the USA, GWh, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-19: Generation of electricity from woody and woody waste sources in the USA, 2008
Figure 10-20: Location of biomass power plants in the USA
Figure 10-21: Top twelve owners of biomass power facilities in the US by capacity, MW
Figure 10-22: Biomass power plants in operation and under construction in the United States, MW,
2009
Figure 10-23: Top ten US states in terms of biomass power capacity under construction, MW, 2009
Figure 10-24: Planned capacity additions of wood-fuelled and other biomass power plants in the US,
MW, 2010 to 2014
Figure 10-25: Average size planned wood-fuelled and other biomass power plants in the US, MW,
2010 to 2014
Figure 10-26: Biomass and waste, and non-biomass renewables in Europe, ktoe, 1990, 2001 to 2009
Figure 10-27: Biomass and waste, and non-biomass renewables in Europe, Mtoe, 1990, 2002 to 2009
Figure 10-28: Supply of renewable energy and biomass in Europe, Mtoe, 2009
Figure 10-29: Primary energy supply and electricity generation from biomass and waste in Europe,
1990, 1995, 2000, 2006 to 2009
Figure 10-30: Generation of electricity from biomass in the EU 27 countries, GWh, 1980 to 2009
Figure 10-31: Installed biomass capacity in OECD Europe, MW, 1990 to 2020
Figure 10-32: Projections of new installed biomass demand and subsidies
Figure 10-33: Potential electricity generation from biomass in TWh in the EU by 2020
Figure 10-34: Biomass use in the EU and targets in 2020, 2030 and 2050
Figure 10-35: EU targets for heat, electricity and fuels, Mtoe to 2020
Figure 10-36: European wood pellets market
Figure 10-37: Biomass and waste as a proportion of renewable primary energy supply in Austria,
Mtoe, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-38: Biomass and waste, and non-biomass renewables in Austria, Mtoe, 1990, 2002 to 2009
Figure 10-39: Composition of biomass supply in Austria, ktoe, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-40: Generation of electricity from biomass in Austria, GWh, 1980 to 2009
Figure 10-41: Average annual pellet prices for consumers in Austria, (bulk delivery 6 Mt, 10% VAT
included), EUR per tonne, 2005 to 2009
Figure 10-42: Cumulative number of residential pellet boilers in Austria, 1997 to 2009
Figure 10-43: Generation of electricity from biomass in Belgium, GWh, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-44: Generation of electricity from biomass in the Czech Republic, GWh, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-45: Generation of electricity from biomass in Denmark, GWh, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-46: Biomass and waste as a proportion of renewable primary energy supply in Finland,
1990 to 2009
Figure 10-47: Composition of biomass supply in Finland, ktoe, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-48: Generation of electricity from biomass in Finland, GWh, 1980 to 2009
Figure 10-49: Biomass and waste as a proportion of renewable primary energy supply in France,
Mtoe, 2001 to 2009
Figure 10-50: Biomass and waste, and non-biomass renewables in France, ktoe, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-51: Composition of biomass supply in France, ktoe, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-52: Wood pellet production in France, million tonnes, 2001 to 2011/2012
Figure 10-53: Generation of electricity from biomass in France, GWh, 1980 to 2009
Figure 10-54: Biomass and waste as a proportion of renewable primary energy supply in Germany,
Mtoe, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-55: Biomass and waste, and non-biomass renewables in Germany, Mtoe, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-56: Wood pellet prices in Germany, EUR per tonne including 7% VAT, 2008 to March 2010
Figure 10-57: Pellet production capacity and production in Germany, thousand tonnes, 2006 to 2010
Figure 10-58: Composition of biomass supply in Germany, Mtoe, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-59: Generation of electricity from biomass in Germany, GWh, 1980 to 2009
Figure 10-60: Generation of electricity from biomass in Greece, GWh, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-61: Generation of electricity from biomass in Hungary, GWh, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-62: Generation of electricity from biomass in Ireland, GWh, 1990 to 2009
Figure 10-63: Biomass

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