Global Ocean Energy Report

  • November 2012
  • -
  • NRG Expert
  • -
  • 202 pages

This new report looks at the key market drivers for the global Ocean Energy market, developments and future projections. 2009 was a good year for the ocean energy sector with US $246 million invested in the industry, up from the 2008 figure. Key areas of development were wave energy, and tidal and marine current projects. For both sectors, more devices reached the prototype stage and were tested out at sea. Considerably more funding has been available for projects to take this leap. Portugal and the UK remain as the main countries for wave energy projects due to generous grants and subsidies, targets and in the case of Portugal, a feed-in tariff. Other countries making significant inroads in the sector last year include Australia, the US, New Zealand and other European countries, especially Ireland.

Table Of Contents

Contents

Executive Summary 11
Background .11
Technology development 12
Market Development .13
Tidal Energy 17
Wave Energy .18
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) .20
Tidal or Marine Current Energy 20
Salinity Gradients 21
Manufacturing 22

2. Tidal Energy 23
Advantages .24
Disadvantages 24
Technical concepts for exploiting Tidal Energy - Tidal Barrages 25
Secondary water storage 26
Current Development of Tidal Barrage Schemes 26
Technical status and experience from operating systems .28
France - La Rance 240 MW Tidal Barrage 28
Canada - Annapolis 17.8 MW Tidal Barrage .29
China - 11 MW of small Tidal Barrages .29
Tidal barrage plant under construction 29
Korea .29
China Yalu River Tidal Barrage .29
Experimental and proposed tidal barrages .29
Scotland 29
United Kingdom - Severn Estuary, Mersey Estuary .30
Scottish schemes .32
Russian Federation - Kislogubsk 400 kW .32
Other tidal flow prospects .33
Australia - Derby 33
United States 33
Argentina 33
Canada .33
China .33
India 34
Korea (Republic) 34
Mexico 34
Economic considerations 34
Environmental aspects 35

3. Wave Energy 36
Wave resources 36
Wave energy technology 37
WECS (Wave energy conversion systems) .37
Oscillating water column (OWC) 38
Wave surge or focussing devices - Tapchan (Tapered channel system) .38
Floats or buoys 38
Oscillating Water Column (OWC) 38
Siadar Wave Energy Project (SWEP) 40
Figure 3.6: MK3PC installed at Port Kembla .53
Source; Oceanlinx .53
Sperboy 53
Voith Hydro (Wavegen) 54
Point Absorber 55
Finavera Renewables 55
Ocean Power Technologies .55
McCabe Wave Pump .59
Pelamis Wave Power Ltd 59
AWS Ocean Energy (Archimedes Wave Swing) 63
Tapchan .64
Wave Dragon 64
Other 66
Searaser .66
Wave Hub 67
Wave Propulsion .69
Synergies with the offshore industry .71
The road to commercial wave power 71
Current status for Wave Energy development - Country Developments .73
Australia 73
China .74
Denmark .75
India 78
Indonesia 78
Ireland 78
Japan .82
Maldives .83
Norway .84
Portugal 85
Romania .87
Spain .87
Sweden .88
United Kingdom .88
United States 96

4. Ocean Thermal Energy 100
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) 100
Additional benefits of OTEC technology - DOWA 101
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) .104
Status of development and funding support 104
Support organisations 104
The International OTEC/DOWA Association (IOA) .104
EU and Maritime Industries Forum 104
Japan Association of Deep Ocean Water Applications 105
Markets for OTEC 105
Country Developments .109
Côte d'Ivoire 109
Cuba 109
Fiji .109
French Polynesia 109
Guadeloupe 110
India .110
Indonesia .110
Jamaica 110
Japan 110
Kiribati .111
Marshall Islands 111
Nauru 111
Netherlands Antilles .112
New Caledonia 112
Puerto Rico .112
Sri Lanka .112
St. Lucia 112
Taiwan 113
United States 113

5. Tidal or Marine Current Energy .116
Marine Current Turbines (MCT) - The world’s first marine current turbine 123
Stingray and the EB Frond, the Engineering Business (EB) 135
The Marine Current resource 137
Status of Marine Current technology 139
Horizontal Axis Turbines (axial flow turbine) 139
Vertical Axis Turbines (cross flow turbine) .139
Synergies with the offshore industry .139
Technical problems for research .140
Experimental marine plant, Korea 141
Future of Tidal and Marine Current Energy .141

6. Salinity Gradients .150
Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO). .150
Vapour compression 151
Reverse dialysis (RED) 151
Demonstration and commercialisation of salinity gradient power 151

7. Ocean Energy Conversion Costs .152

8. National Policies for Renewable Energy .157
Renewable energy targets .157
Feed-in tariffs and RPS 158
EU and feed-in tariffs 194
US and RPS .194
The feed-in tariff in Europe .194
The evolution of RPS Policy in the United States 196
Comparison of feed-in tariffs and RPS .197
Europe - the EU Renewable Energy Directive 197
Investor confidence, price, and policy cost 197
Effectiveness 197
Innovation and technology diversity 197
Ownership structure 197
Conclusion 198
Feed-in tariffs in the United States 198

9. Benefits of Different Forms of Energy .200

10. Acknowledgements .202



Figures

Figure 1.1: Status of ocean energy technologies, December 2007
Figure 1.2: Planned and historical development of wave and tidal projects, MW
Figure 1.3: Project status by country, December 2007
Figure 1.4: Level of Research and Development and Demonstration investment by members of the IEA Implementing Agreement on Ocean Energy Systems
Figure 2.1: The Global Tidal Resource
Figure 2.2: La Rance Tidal Barrage
Figure 2.3: Tidal Current Power
Figure 2.4: Base Data for the Severn Barrage
Figure 2.5: Proposed Severn Barrage
Figure 3.1: Wave power resources of the world
Figure 3.2: The Mighty Whale
Figure 3.3: Offshore test centres for wave energy
Figure 3.4: Proposed European Test Centres
Figure 3.5: Development programme for WECs
Figure 3.6: MK3PC installed at Port Kembla
Figure 3.7: SPERBOY Oscillating Water Column device
Figure 3.8: Limpet shoreline energy module
Figure 3.9: Finavera AquabuOY
Figure 3.10:Floating buoy energy converters
Figure 3.11: CETO device
Figure 3.12: Wavebob
Figure 3.13: Wave Star device
Figure 3.14: Pelamis
Figure 3.15: Archimedes Wave Swing III (AWS III)
Figure 3.16: Wave Dragon Floating Tapchan
Figure 3.17: Waveplane
Figure 3.18: Searaser
Figure 3.19:Wave Hub
Figure 3.20: The Orcelle, sustainably powered ship
Figure 3.21: Pelamis wave farm in Portugal
Figure 3.22: The UK wave power resource
Figure 3.23: Humboldt WaveConnectâ„¢ Pilot Project
Figure 4.1: OTEC resource map
Figure 4.2: The OTEC device
Figure 4.3: Energy Island systems diagram perspective view
Figure 4.4: Makai Ocean Engineering List Open Cycle OTEC plantwww.NRGExpert.com page 8
Figure 5.1: The Seagen Marine Current Turbine
Figure 5.2: SeaGen in Strangford Lough
Figure 5.3: Marine Current Turbine second generation device
Figure 5.4: Third generation SeaGen device
Figure 5.5: Atlantic Resources’ AK 1000 turbine
Figure 5.6: BioSTREAM device
Figure 5.7: Fri-El Green Power ship
Figure 5.8: Hammerfest Strøm HS1000 turbine
Figure 5.9: Early rendering of Hydro Green Energy's dual ducted hydrokinetic turbine array (HTA) as viewed from below the surface of the water
Figure 5.10: Lunar Energy’s Rotech Tidal Turbine
Figure 5.11: Ocean Renewable Power’s RivGen™, TidGen™, and OCGen™ systems
Figure 5.12: Open Hydro seabed mounted open-centre turbine
Figure 5.13: TidEL Tidal Energy Device
Figure 5.14: Stingray and EB Frond Wave Energy Devices
Figure 5.15: Verdant Power’s free flow system
Figure 5.16: Marine Current resource in the UK
Figure 5.17: Comparison of offshore wind turbine and marine or tidal current turbine projects
Figure 7.1: Wave power installed cost curve versus other renewables
Figure 7.2: Generation costs from Ocean Energy Conversion estimated experience
Figure 7.3: EU wind and wave deployment and costs
Figure 7.4: Capital cost breakdown for a particular wave energy device
Figure 7.5: Capital cost breakdown for installation of a particular tidal stream energy device in a tidal stream farm of a certain size
Figure 8.1: National renewable energy policies in EU countries
Figure 8.2: US states with RPS regulations, August 2010www.NRGExpert.com page 9




Tables

Table 1.1: Marine Energy sources and product
Table 1.2: The size of the oceanic energy resource
Table 1.3: Ocean energy projects installed or under construction in IEA Ocean member states, kW, end 2009
Table 1.4: Consent process for ocean energy projects in selected countries
Table 2.1: Prospective Sites for Tidal Energy Projects
Table 2.2: Comparison of World Tidal Schemes in Existence or Proposed
Table 2.3: Identified for Possible Tidal Barrage Plants
Table 3.1: Six types of WEC identified by the EMEC
Table 3.2: List of wave developers
Table 3.3: Status of known wave energy projects in November 2008
Table 3.4: Schedule and budget for the development of a WEC prototype
Table 3.5: Six Pelamis projects at various stages of development
Table 3.6: Comparison of three different wave devices at three sites in Canada
Table 3.7: Required price of electricity for a 10-year simple payback period for three wave devices, C$
Table 3.8: Status of wave energy projects in Denmark at the end of 2009
Table 3.9: Planned development of wave energy devices in Ireland
Table 3.10: Recipients Prototype Development Funds
Table 3.11: Prototype Development Funds for different project phases
Table 3.12: Potential for Marine Energy Converter Technologies in New Zealand
Table 3.13: Recipients of the ‘Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Technologies’ funding round
Table 3.14: Recipients of Round 1 of the WATERS fund
Table 3.15: Wave project developers awarded licences for Crown Estate marine sites
Table 3.16: ROCs received per technology, April 2010
Table 3.17: Wave device testing sites in the UK
Table 3.18: Wave projects included in the Advanced Water Technologies receiving DOE funding, 2009
Table 3.19: Recipients of SBIR funding
Table 4.1: Seawater air conditioning plants
Table 4.2: Reported advantages and challenges for the Energy Island
Table 4.3: OTEC projects included in the Advanced Water Technologies receiving DOE funding, 2009
Table 5.1: Tidal or marine current energy devices
Table 5.2: Methods to fix turbine energy converters to the seabed
Table 5.3: Tidal or marine current developers
Table 5.4: Status of known marine and hydrokinetic projects in November 2008
Table 5.5: Kilowatt of electricity produced per tonne of turbine
Table 5.6: Biopower projects
Table 5.7: Verdant Power tidal projects
Table 5.8: Distribution of potential tidal sites in Canada
Table 5.9: Recipients of Clean Energy Funds
Table 5.10: Ocean projects awarded ICE funds in British Columbia
Table 5.11: Three tidal technology projects in the Netherlands
Table 5.12: Tidal project developers awarded licences for Crown Estate marine sites
Table 5.13: Tidal projects included in the Advanced Water Technologies receiving DOE funding, 2009
Table 8.1 Renewables targets and support schemes of European countries
Table 8.2 Non-European countries with renewable energy targets and plans
Table 8.3: State RPS resource tiers
Table 9.1: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Energy Technologies

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