Global Renewable Energy Report

  • November 2012
  • -
  • NRG Expert
  • -
  • 596 pages

This global renewables market research report provides a full overview of all of the renewable energies, and technologies, and the renewable energy companies that provide them. The report analyses their current stages of development for each renewable energy resource, their advantages and disadvantages and their current and potential contribution.

Table Of Contents

Contents

1. Overview of Renewable Energy .26
Renewable energy in world primary energy supply 26
TPES - Total Primary Energy Supply 26
Annual growth of primary energy sources 27
TFEC - Total final energy consumption 28
Secondary energy, Bioenergy power generation 30
Types of renewable energy 31
Hydro power 31
Wind power 33
Solar photovoltaic energy 34
Solar thermal energy .35
Solar thermal heat for water and buildings 36
Solar thermal cooling 37
Solar thermal power generation 37
Biomass energy 37
Biofuels 39
Geothermal energy 41
Ocean energy conversion 42
Distributed generation 44
Renewable energy issues 44
Advantages and disadvantages of renewable forms of energy 47

2. Hydropower 49
Overview of hydropower 49
Technologies .49
Large hydropower (LHP) .50
Small hydropower (SHP) .50
Development of SHP in Europe 51
Turbine technologies for small-, mid- and large-scale hydro plants 52
Pelton Turbine 52
Francis Turbine 52
Bulb Turbine 52
Propeller or Kaplan Turbine 53
Security of supply 53
Environmental concerns 53
The potential size of the hydroelectric market 54
The hydro electricity market 54
Europe 58
SHP electricity prices 60
SHP investment costs 60
Albania .61
Austria 61
Belgium 61
Bosnia and Herzegovina .61
Bulgaria 61
Croatia .62
Czech Republic 62
Denmark .62
Finland .62
France 62
Germany .63
Greece .64
Hungary 64
Iceland .64
Ireland 64
Italy .65
Latvia .65
Lithuania .65
Luxembourg 65
Macedonia .65
Netherlands 66
Norway .66
Poland 66
Portugal 66
Romania 67
Serbia 67
Slovakia 68
Slovenia 68
Spain .68
Sweden 68
Switzerland 68
Turkey 69
United Kingdom 70
CIS 71
Armenia 72
Azerbaijan 72
Georgia 72
Kazakhstan 72
Kyrgyzstan .73
Moldova 73
Russia 73
Tajikistan .73
Turkmenistan 74
Ukraine .74
Uzbekistan .74
North America 74
Canada 75
United States 77
Mexico 78
LAC, Latin America and Caribbean 78
Argentina .80
Bolivia 81
Brazil .81
Chile 82
Colombia .82
Costa Rica .83
Dominican Republic 83
Ecuador 83
El Salvador .83
Guatamala .83
Honduras 83
Nicaragua 84
Panama 84
Paraguay .84
Peru 84
Puerto Rico 85
Surinam 85
Uruguay 85
Asia Pacific .85
Afghanistan 87
Bangladesh 87
Bhutan 87
China .88
Large hydropower 88
Additional large hydro developments in China 89
Small hydropower 89
The current status of SHP in China 89
SHP practice and experience in China 90
Decentralised development and management mechanism focusing on local stakeholders 90
Policy stimulates development 90
Funding sources .90
Close relationship with rural electrification programme 90
Emphasis on cost-effective SHP technology 91
Local grid development and SHP own supply area 91
Size matters 91
Tibet (Xizang) 91
Known ownership 91
New hydropower plant development in China .91
Hong Kong .92
India 92
Indonesia 95
Laos 95
Malaysia 96
Myanmar .96
Nepal .96
Korea, North 98
Korea, South .98
Pakistan 98
Papua New Guinea 98
Philippines 98
Sri Lanka .99
Thailand 99
Vietnam 99
Industrialised Asia Pacific .100
Australia 100
Japan .100
New Zealand 101
Taiwan 101
Africa 101
Angola 104
Cameroon 104
Congo DR 104
Ethiopia .104
Ghana 105
Kenya .105
Mali 105
Mozambique 105
Nigeria 105
South Africa 106
Sudan .106
Tanzania 106
Uganda .106
Zambia 106
Middle East 106

3. Wind Power .108
Overview of wind power 108
Wind power development in 2009 108
Outlook to 2012 .108
The leading wind power countries in 2009 109
Offshore developments to 2012 111
Long term outlook: 2020 111
Europe 112
North America .112
Latin America 112
Asia 112
Pacific .113
Africa and Middle East 113
Factors affecting wind power 118
Grid balancing 118
Grid extension 118
Storage .119
Capacity credit 119
Mis-match of supply and demand 119
Load following 119
Dispersion 119
Inadequacy of weather forecasting .119
Spinning reserve/back-up 119
Wake effects 120
The operational experiences of wind power 120
E.On Netz Wind Report, 2004 120
Grid balancing 120
Grid balancing congestion 120
E.On Netz Wind Report, 2005 120
E.On conclusions about wind power 121
Western Denmark 2005 .121
ESB report in Ireland 2004 122
USA experience .122
Spain 122
Reduction in carbon emissions .123
Contribution and target of renewables in reducing carbon emissions 123
ENTSO-E 124
Rare Earth Metals .124
United States 125
The start of wind power .126
Market size and forecast 126
Offshore 128
Manufacturers 129
Developers 129
China 130
Installed wind capacity 130
Future targets .131
Wind resources .132
Barriers to growth .132
Offshore wind power 132
Wind turbine size .133
Chinese manufacturing capability 133
Xinjiang Goldwind Co .134
Sinovel Wind Co. .134
Dongfang Electric Group .135
Germany 135
Market size and forecast 135
Market share in Germany 136
Repowering trend .136
Offshore 137
Wind turbine size .139
Regional distribution of wind turbines 140
Spain 141
Future targets for wind power in Spain .142
Manufacturing industry 142
Wind developers 143
India .144
Market size and forecast 144
Future targets .147
Wind energy resources in India 147
Government support 148
2009 developments .149
2010 developments .149
Renewable Portfolio Standard 149
MNES - Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources 149
IREDA - Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd .149
State incentives .149
Manufacturing base 150
Suzlon 150
National wind power markets and support plans; Intermediate countries - Europe 151
Austria 151
Denmark 152
France .154
Greece 155
Ireland .156
Italy 158
Netherlands .159
Norway 160
Poland 161
Portugal .163
Sweden .163
Turkey 165
United Kingdom 165
National wind power markets and support plans Intermediate countries - Asia Pacific 168
Australia 168
Japan .169
Korea, South 171
Ship builders 173
Taiwan 174
National wind power markets and support plans Intermediate countries - Africa 176
Egypt 176
Morocco 177
National wind power markets and support plans Intermediate countries - Americas 179
Brazil 179
Canada .181
Wind farm developers and owners 183
Development of wind turbine size 186
Offshore wind power - the new frontier .188
Operating offshore wind farms 188

4. Solar PV 196
Silicon feedstock 197
Country Profiles .198
Germany 198
Spain 199
Japan .200
United States .201
China 204
India 205
Other country profiles .206
Europe 206
Asia Pacific .209
North America 210
Africa 211
Technical background 211
Solar energy 211
Solar photovoltaics 212
Solar cell materials 212
Conditions of use .213
Isolated generation .214
PV and the environment 215
Applications of Solar PV Technology .215
Manufacturing .218
Production capacity, MW 219
Future projections .223
Government and industry support programmes 225
United States - Federal incentives 226
Japan .228
Europe - targets 229
Prices 229
Forecasting a new technology 232

5. Solar Thermal Energy 233
Solar Thermal Power Generation Technology 233
Concentrators and Receivers .233
Parabolic Trough 233
Mechanical Tracking 235
Fresnel Principle Solar Collectors 236
Parabolic Dish Systems 236
Central Receiver Systems - Solar Tower .237
Solar Chimney Power Plants .239
Rooftop installations 240
Solar thermal hydrogen production .244
Power Conversion System 244
Rankine-Cycle Systems 244
ISCC, Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Systems .245
Peak thermal-to-electric efficiency can exceed 70% for an ISCC plant compared to 50-55% for a
conventional gas-fired combined cycle plant. 245
TES Thermal Energy Storage 246
Types of storage 248
Development of TES for CSP 252
Current Status of Solar Thermal Electricity Generation - 2009 253
Solar thermal projects by country .255
Spain 255
United States .255
Solar thermal projects in operation, under construction or approved for construction 256
Algeria 256
Australia 256
China 257
Denmark 257
Egypt 257
Germany 257
India 258
Iran 258
Israel 259
Jordan 259
Mexico 259
Morocco 259
United Arab Emirates .260
Costs of STP Solar Thermal Power 260
Commercialisation World Bank .262
Sargent and Lundy Study 263

6. Biomass 266
Overview of biomass energy conversion 266
TFEC - Total Final Energy Consumption .268
Usage patterns by region .269
The Fuel Ladder 271
Rural usage .271
Urban usage 271
Bioenergy power generation 273
Benefits and constraints of bioenergy 275
Factors encouraging the development of biomass energy .276
Biomass resources 277
Agricultural crops .278
Agricultural residues 278
Sugar industry wastes (Bagasse) 278
Forestry crops 278
Forestry residues .279
Cereal straw 279
Energy cropping 279
Black liquor .280
Animal waste 280
Sewage .280
Industrial waste .280
Municipal solid waste (MSW) .280
Biomass conversion technologies 280
Direct use .281
Transformation 282
Technology developments 285
Biomass electricity and heat 285
Biomass heat 286
Future primary biomass energy production and consumption 291
Biomass markets by technology per application 294
Biomass heat .294
Europe 297
Technology for biomass heat .297
Domestic heat production 299
Larger scale use of biomass fuel for heating .300
District heating 300
Industrial use of biomass electricity and heat 300
European competitiveness .300
Market characteristics 301
Infrastructure constraints .301
USA .301
Rest of world 301
Biogas .301
Biogas in the developing world .303
MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) 305
Technology .305
Waste reduction 306
Environmental issues .306
Recession 307
Global picture .307
Manufacture and competition 323
Future prospects 323
Landfill gas 323
Environment 324
Technology .324
Landfill gas market 325
Market problems 330
Future prospects for landfill gas 331
Biopower 331
Technology .333
Regional development 334

7. Biofuels .352
First generation biofuels 355
Ethanol (Bioethanol) 355
Biodiesel 357
Energy Crops and others .358
Next generation .361
Cellulosic biofuels (lignocellulosic biofuels) 361
Algae 362
Environmental Impact .364
Market .367
Biofuel production .368
Europe 371
USA .380
Argentina 384
Brazil 385
Indonesia .389
Malaysia 390
Aviation sector 391
Air force and the military 392
Oil and Gas Involvement 392

8. Geothermal Energy .394
Overview of geothermal energy 394
Overview of geothermal energy capacity and utilisation 395
Geothermal direct use 395
Ground-Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) 401
Geothermal electricity generation .403
Technical background 408
Dry steam .408
Binary cycle .409
Hot dry rock/enhanced geothermal systems (HDR) 410
Location of resources .410
Geothermal energy efficiency .411
Geothermal generation costs .412
North America .413
United States .413
Canada .420
Mexico 421
Asia Pacific 425
Australia 425
Indonesia .425
Japan .435
Philippines 439
China 447
New Zealand 452
Latin America 458
Costa Rica 458
El Salvador 460
Nicaragua .462
Europe 465
France 465
Germany 466
Iceland 468
Italy 471
Africa 474
Kenya .474

9. Ocean Energy Conversion 477
Overview of ocean energy conversion 477
Tidal Energy 480
Technical concepts for exploiting Tidal Energy - Tidal Barrages 481
Secondary water storage .482
Current Development of Tidal Barrage Schemes 482
Technical status and experience from operating systems 484
Tidal barrage plant under construction .485
Experimental and proposed tidal barrages .486
Economic considerations .488
Environmental aspects 489
Wave Energy 489
Wave energy technology .490
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) 511
Markets for OTEC 513
Additional benefits of OTEC technology - DOWA 514
Status of Marine Current technology .515
Salinity Gradients .519
Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) 520
Vapour compression 520
Reverse dialysis (RED) .520
Demonstration and commercialisation of salinity gradient power 520

10. Distributed Generation 521

11. National Policies for Renewable Energy 523
Renewable energy targets 523
Feed-in tariffs and RPS .524
EU and feed-in tariffs .592
US and RPS 592
The feed-in tariff in Europe .592
The evolution of RPS Policy in the United States 593
Comparison of feed-in tariffs and RPS .595
Europe - the EU Renewable Energy Directive .595
Investor confidence, price, and policy cost .595
Effectiveness 595
Innovation and technology diversity 596
Ownership structure 596
Conclusion 596
Feed-in tariffs in the United States .596



Tables

Table 1.1: Advantages and disadvantages of different types of renewable energy
Table 2.1: Hydroelectric installed capacity and generation by regions and major countries, 2008,
capacity >2,500 MW
Table 2.2: Europe, hydroelectric net installed capacity and generation, 2008
Table 2.3: CIS, hydroelectric installed capacity and generation, 2008
Table 2.4: North America, hydroelectric installed capacity and generation, 2008
Table 2.5: South and Central America, hydroelectric installed capacity and generation, 2008
Table 2.6: Asia Pacific, hydroelectric installed capacity and generation, 2008
Table 2.7: Africa, hydroelectric installed capacity and generation, 2008
Table 2.8: Middle East, hydroelectric installed capacity and generation, 2008
Table 3.1: Installed wind generating capacity, MW, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 to 2010
Table 3.2: Major owners of wind facilities in the United States, 2009
Table 3.3: Installed capacity of wind power by state, MW, 2003 to 2009
Table 3.4: Operational wind farms in South Korea, 2009
Table 3.5: Projects under development in South Korea, 2009
Table 3.6: Planned phase 3 projects in Taiwan
Table 3.7: Wind energy developers
Table 3.8: Development of offshore and near shore in future key markets based on planned activity to
2020, as of April 2010
Table 4.1: Solar PV production capacity, MW, 2002 to 2012
Table 4.2: Top 10 PV cell manufacturers, MW, 2009
Table 4.3: Summary of key support measures
Table 4.4: Indicative module prices (current prices) in national currencies per watt in selected
countries, 1996 to 2009
Table 4.5: Indicative installed system prices in euro and USD in selected countries in 2008, USD per
W
Table 5.1: Comparison of Solar Thermal Power Technologies
Table 5.2: Focus and Receiver types for Solar Thermal Power Technologies
Table 5.3: Comparison of the main CSP technologies
Table 5.4: Sensible storage materials, solid and liquid, temperature, average heat capacity and media
cost
Table 5.5: Selected low temperature inorganic salt hydrate PCMs , with melting points and average
heat capacity
Table 5.6: Selected low temperature inorganic salt hydrate PCMs, with melting points
Table 5.7: Selected low temperature organic PCMs, with melting points
Table 5.8: Cost of parabolic trough STPP in recent feasibility studies
Table 5.9 Estimated cost of central receiver STPP in USD per kW
Table 5.10: Estimated current US cost and performance of conventional power plants
Table 5.11: Required investment in STP by Phase
Table 6.1: Biomass resources
Table 6.2: Biomass consumption in European countries, ktoe, 1990 to 2009
Table 6.3: Final energy projections (after transformation) including biomass by region, Mtoe
Table 6.4: Biomass consumption in European countries, ktoe, 1990 to 2009
Table 6.5: Biomass consumption in the USA and Europe, ktoe, 2009
Table 6.6: Production of biogas in OECD regions, TJ, 2009
Table 6.7: Project structure for waste-to-energy projects
Table 6.8: History of renewables in the EU, 1991 to 2008
Table 6.9: Waste-to-energy plants in Europe
Table 6.10: Costs for waste-to-energy plants in selected European countries
Table 6.11: Net generation fro

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