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Global Markets and Technologies for Photonic Crystals

  • September 2015
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 179 pages

Use this report to:
- Receive market forecast for overall components and modules internalizing photonic crystals in value terms for each individual component and module, as well as in volume terms wherever possible.
- Analyze market dynamics for each of the component and module using photonic crystals, along with theoretical and practical treatises of photonic crystal adoption.
- Examine the individual photonic crystal component and module market along photonic crystal dimensions, including the three–dimensional market.

Highlights
- The global market for components and modules using photonic crystals was valued at nearly $6 billion in 2014. This market is expected to reach $7.3 billion in 2015 and nearly $17.4 billion in 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 18.9% from 2015 to 2020.
- The dollar sales of light-emitting devices or diodes (LEDs) using photonic crystals are expected to increase from $2.2 billion in 2015 to $5 billion in 2020, with a CAGR of 17.6% from 2015 to 2020.
- The global market for biosensors using photonic crystals is expected to increase from $96 million in 2015 to $522 million in 2020, with a highest CAGR of 40.3% from 2015 to 2020.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION
This report is an update of PHO004A, published in February 2013. The distant, yet potent promise of a debut in mobile handsets has added new dimensions to the dynamic of photonic crystals. Photonic crystal stakeholders are eagerly looking forward to Samsung following up on its plan to introduce handset displays based on that technology. Otherwise, photonic crystals have been waiting to get their rightful due after spending almost a century in relative obscurity. A combination of technology and business factors has kept large–scale commercialization of photonic crystals in particular and photonic circuitry in general at bay.
Absence of reliable fabrication methodologies is often cited as the principal reason that hinders the progress of photonic crystals. One should also look at the unwillingness and apprehension involved in exploring alternatives to well–oiled and well–established fabrication processes. Most of these conventional processes, however, are facing the ends of their lives because they have reached their physical limits. It should be
conceded that the last three years have also been marked by an increasingly high proportion of stakeholders willing to hedge upon photonic crystals to deliver design breakthroughs. Photonic crystal–driven sensing, which promises switching at speeds much higher than that delivered by present–day technologies, is therefore poised to gain greater acceptance in various industries.

To be fair, the extent of risk involved in such migration without the technology having being developed to a foolproof state is cripplingly high, but photonic crystal stakeholders have no reason to lose heart, as there are multiple avenues for monetizing them through an array of components and modules. This report, which covers the market potential for such modules and components, does not include an exhaustive list. It is indeed possible for photonic crystals to be employed in other areas. These modules and components have been selected because there are demonstrated instances of successful adoption of photonic crystals in these
applications. By charting the market potential for these modules and components, this report presents the full extent of the promise of photonic crystals through 2020.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This study’s goals and objectives are:
- To measure and forecast the market size for overall components and modules internalizing photonic crystals in value terms for each individual component and module, as well as in volume terms wherever possible.
- To break down the overall photonic crystal market along individual components and modules, including:
- Light–emitting devices or diodes (LEDS).
- Solar and photovoltaic (PV) cells.
- Displays.
- Biosensors.
- Image sensors.
- Optical fibers.
- Discrete and integrated optical components.
- Lasers and supercontinuum sources.
- To break down the individual photonic crystal component and module market along applications, including:
- Automotive.
- Energy, utilities and lighting.
- Medicine.
- Telecom.
- Industrial and scientific.
- Defense, surveillance and aerospace.
- Computing and consumer electronics.
- White goods.
- Office space.
- To break down the individual photonic crystal component and module market along photonic crystal dimensions, including the three–dimensional market.
- To break down the individual photonic crystal component and module market along specific geographic regions:
- Americas.
- Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA).
- Asia–Pacific (APAC).
- To analyze the stakeholder landscape in the photonic crystal commercialization endeavors.
- To analyze the patenting activity involving photonic crystals.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
BCC Research published its earlier report on photonic crystals in the middle of 2011 and followed it up with an update in late 2012. This report marks the second update of the original published in 2011. This update marks a downward revision of the forecasts. The downturn is a result of long gestation periods in the innovation phase, which many small and medium innovators find daunting. The recent lot of patent allocations reveals a greater degree of dominance exercised by educational institutions. Companies are thus displaying a greater propensity towards pooling external resources for photonic crystal innovation. To be sure, the fundamentals of photonic crystals remain unchanged, as does the list of key components that will be monetized earlier than others. The ongoing economic and political crises in the European Union (E.U.), as well
as in the Middle East and the South China Sea, have also contributed to the recalibration of the forecast. The review reassesses the strategies of key stakeholders, and records and analyzes latest developments.

In the larger context, the principal objective of this report is to chart the progress of a technology that is acquiring increasing surety and self–confidence across multiple domains. Photonic crystals have been the classic underachievers in that they have been full of promise and sound in theory but poor on implementation. BCC Research forecasts that photonic crystals will witness an upswing in industry interest across several domains and applications. Photonic crystals can indeed rival electrons in terms of sheer versatility. In this context, it is interesting to note the approach adopted by different stakeholders toward photonic crystals. The report will provide a quantitative roadmap that will unravel this approach. A dilemma that one faces with a technology such as photonic crystals is to accurately chart its scope. The simplicity of its technical premise opens doors to numerous integration possibilities. This report aims to sift out the most relevant and timely integration approaches by identifying specific components and modules that are most likely to emerge as the largest adopters of photonic crystals in near future. Thus, the reader can derive an accurate estimate of the market size of not just the overall picture, but also of specific components and modules in terms of applications,
geography to regions and dimensions of the photonic crystals employed.

SCOPE OF THE REPORT
The report forecasts the size of the market in current U.S. dollars for overall components and modules internalizing photonic crystals in value terms for each individual component, as well as in module and volume terms wherever possible, from 2014 through 2020.
The report forecasts the market size for:
- Photonic crystal–enabled components and modules such as LEDs, solar and PV cells, displays, biosensors, image sensors, optical fibers, discrete and integrated optical components, and lasers and supercontinuum sources.
- Forecasts are classified on the basis of application vertical, photonic crystal dimension, and geographic region.
The Executive Summary provides a snapshot of key findings. The chapter discussing the theoretical overview of photonic crystals provides an overview of the market size of components and modules internalizing photonic crystals from 2014 through 2020. It also lays down the theoretical ground for better appreciation of the technology and commercial promise of photonic crystals across applications and domains. The chapter on global markets for photonic crystal components and modules provides a detailed analysis of the present–day state of the art in photonic crystal applications. It also deals with individual components and modules in which photonic crystals are poised to make the most prominent marks. It discusses the market potential in terms of verticals, dimensions and geographic regions. It uncovers the basic theory behind the running of these modules, and then emphasizes the advantages ushered by photonic crystals over conventional methods and materials. The chapter on vendor and stakeholder analysis lists and explains the major stakeholder classes engaged in photonic crystal commercialization. It also analyzes the activities of key players in this domain.

The U.S. Patent Analysis chapter highlights the patenting activity underway in the area of photonic crystals. The chapter classifies the patents awarded according to functional categories such as design innovations; energy applications of photonic crystals; fabrication and synthesis methodologies; integrated circuits and quantum dots; laser applications of photonic crystals; lighting applications of photonic crystals; photonic
crystal fiber applications; sensor applications of photonic crystals and telecommunications applications of photonic crystals.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report will be relevant to:
- Photonic crystal technology experts to identify the key components and modules that hold greatest promise for their technology adoption.
- Experts and those involved with the development of components and modules to assess the benefits of employment of photonic crystals in their offerings and the market potential for such adoptions.
- Application device vendors that can benefit from the superior material attributes of photonic crystals and enhance the value of their products.

Table Of Contents

Global Markets and Technologies for Photonic Crystals
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 3
SCOPE OF THE REPORT 4
INTENDED AUDIENCE 5
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 5
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 5
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 6
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 6
DISCLAIMER 6
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 8
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR COMPONENTS AND MODULES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR COMPONENTS AND MODULES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 8
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 12
PHOTONIC CRYSTAL BASICS 12
WHY ARE PHOTONIC CRYSTALS PROMISING? 12
LARGER CONTEXT 12
SPECIFIC ATTRIBUTES OF PHOTONIC CRYSTALS 13
TABLE 1 IMPORTANT BENEFITS OF THE PHOTONIC BAND GAP IN PHOTONIC
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES 14
TABLE 2 MARKETABLE FUNCTIONAL ATTRIBUTES OF PHOTONIC CRYSTALS 14
MARKET OVERVIEW 15
APPLICATIONS 15
TABLE 3 GLOBAL MARKET FOR COMPONENTS AND MODULES USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 16
PHOTONIC CRYSTAL DIMENSIONS 17
TABLE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR COMPONENTS AND MODULES USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 17
GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS 18
TABLE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR COMPONENTS AND MODULES USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 18
Americas 19
Europe, Middle East and Africa 19
Asia-Pacific 19
ANALOGY OF PHOTONICS WITH ELECTRONICS 20
THEORETICAL PREMISE 20
ELECTRON MOVEMENT IN SEMICONDUCTORS 20
WHERE DO PHOTONIC CRYSTALS FIT IN? 21
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE 21
EFFECT OF THE DIELECTRIC CONSTANT OF THE MEDIUM ON LIGHT 22
THEORETICAL PREMISE 22
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE REFRACTIVE INDEX AND THE DIELECTRIC
CONSTANT 22
PHO004B - Global Markets and Technologies for Photonic Crystals
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE 23
DIFFRACTION 23
THEORETICAL PREMISE 23
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE 24
PHOTONIC BANDS AND BAND GAP 24
THEORETICAL PREMISE 24
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE 25
CRYSTAL MATERIAL 25
THEORETICAL PREMISE 25
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE 25
Silicon and the Carbon Family 26
Titanium Family 26
Boron Family 26
DIMENSIONAL ASPECT 27
THEORETICAL PREMISE 27
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE 27
TABLE 6 PHOTONIC CRYSTAL STRUCTURE TYPES 28
Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals 28
FABRICATION AND ITS GENERATIONS 29
PHOTONIC CRYSTAL DEVELOPMENT HISTORY 29
PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FABRICATION MECHANICS 29
Designed Defects 30
Point Defects 30
Linear Defects 30
Superprism Effect 30
PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBER FABRICATION 31
ELECTRON BEAM LITHOGRAPHY 32
INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FABRICATION 33
NANOIMPRINT LITHOGRAPHY 33
Nanoimprint Lithography Solutions from Obducat 34
DIRECT THREE-DIMENSIONAL MOLDING 35
MULTIPLEX EXPOSURE HOLOGRAPHIC RECORDING 35
AUTOCLONING 35
SELF-ASSEMBLY 36
COLLOIDAL SUSPENSION 37
SPATIALLY VARIANT PHOTONIC CRYSTALS (SVPCS) 37
CHAPTER 4 GLOBAL PHOTONIC CRYSTAL COMPONENT AND MODULE MARKETS 39
LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES 40
MARKET DYNAMICS 40
Overall Picture 40
TABLE 7 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE AND SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR LIGHT-EMITTING
DEVICES USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/UNIT MILLIONS) 40
Vertical Breakdown 41
TABLE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 41
TABLE 9 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 42
Dimension Breakdown 42
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 43
TABLE 11 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 43
Regional Breakdown 43
TABLE 12 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 43
TABLE 13 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 44
INTRODUCTION 45
Appealing Factors 45
Theory behind Light-Emitting Device Operations 45
Organic Light-Emitting Diodes 46
VALUE ADDED BY PHOTONIC CRYSTALS 47
Photonic Crystals as Diffraction Gratings 49
Photonic Band Gap-Based Filtering 49
Benefits of Applications of Photonic Crystals in Light-Emitting Devices 49
SOLAR AND PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS 50
MARKET DYNAMICS 50
Overall Picture 50
TABLE 14 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE AND SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR SOLAR AND
PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS/UNIT MILLIONS)
50
Vertical Breakdown 51
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOLAR AND PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 51
TABLE 16 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR SOLAR AND PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS
USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 52
Dimension Breakdown 53
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOLAR AND PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 53
TABLE 18 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR SOLAR AND PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS
USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT
MILLIONS)
54
Regional Breakdown 54
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOLAR AND PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 54
TABLE 20 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR SOLAR AND PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS
USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 55
INTRODUCTION 55
Traditional Solar Cells 56
Thin Film Cells: The Path toward Silicon Alternatives 56
Organic Solar and Photovoltaic Cells 57
VALUE ADDED BY PHOTONIC CRYSTALS 57
Implications of Employment of Photonic Crystals in Solar Cells 58
DISPLAYS 59
MARKET DYNAMICS 59
Overall Picture 59
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE AND SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISPLAY PANELS
USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/UNIT MILLIONS) 59
Vertical Breakdown 60
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DISPLAY PANELS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 60
TABLE 23 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISPLAY PANELS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 61
Dimension Breakdown 62
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DISPLAY PANELS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 62
TABLE 25 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISPLAY PANELS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 62
Regional Breakdown 63
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DISPLAY PANELS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 63
TABLE 27 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISPLAY PANELS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 64
INTRODUCTION 64
Liquid-Crystal Display 64
VALUE ADDED BY PHOTONIC CRYSTALS 66
Colloidal Photonic Crystals (CPC) 66
Photonic Inks 67
Photonic Ink from Opalux 67
Electrical Activation 67
BIOSENSORS 68
MARKET DYNAMICS 68
Overall Picture 68
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOSENSORS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 68
Vertical Breakdown 69
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOSENSORS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 69
Dimension Breakdown 70
TABLE 30 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOSENSORS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 70
Regional Breakdown 71
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOSENSORS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 71
INTRODUCTION 71
VALUE ADDED BY PHOTONIC CRYSTALS 72
SRU Biosystems (Assets presently owned by Juno Therapeutics) 72
University of Illinois 73
IMAGE SENSORS 73
MARKET DYNAMICS 73
Overall Picture 73
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE AND SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR IMAGE SENSORS
USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/UNIT MILLIONS) 74
Vertical Breakdown 74
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR IMAGE SENSORS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 34 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR IMAGE SENSORS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 76
Dimension Breakdown 76
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET FOR IMAGE SENSORS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 77
TABLE 36 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR IMAGE SENSORS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 77
Regional Breakdown 77
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR IMAGE SENSORS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 77
TABLE 38 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR IMAGE SENSORS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 78
INTRODUCTION 79
Lenses 79
Image Sensors 80
Charged Coupled Devices 80
Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Sensors 81
Red Blue Green (RGB) Readout 82
VALUE ADDED BY PHOTONIC CRYSTALS 83
Limitations of Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Sensors 83
Suitability of Photonic Crystal Sensors 83
Suitability of Photonic Crystal Lenses 84
Photonic Crystal-Image Sensor from Panasonic 84
Photonic Crystal Lens from Aptina (acquired by ON Semiconductor) 84
Autocloning Technology from Photonic Lattice 84
OPTICAL FIBERS 85
MARKET DYNAMICS 85
Overall Picture 85
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE AND SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR OPTICAL FIBERS
USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/ KM-PAIR MILLIONS) 85
Vertical Breakdown 86
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OPTICAL FIBERS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 86
TABLE 41 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR OPTICAL FIBERS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (KM-PAIR MILLIONS) 87
Dimension Breakdown 87
TABLE 42 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OPTICAL FIBERS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 88
TABLE 43 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR OPTICAL FIBERS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 (KM-PAIR MILLIONS) 88
Regional Breakdown 88
TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OPTICAL FIBERS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 88
TABLE 45 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR OPTICAL FIBERS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (KM-PAIR MILLIONS) 89
INTRODUCTION 90
VALUE ADDED BY PHOTONIC CRYSTALS 92
Benefits of Usage of Photonic Crystals 93
Birefringence Value Addition 93
Low Birefringence 93
Large Birefringence 93
Photonic Crystal Fiber Classes 94
TABLE 46 IMPORTANT FEATURES OF PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBERS 95
Commercialization Issues 95
Photonic Crystal Fiber Sensors 96
Medical Application of Photonic Crystal Fiber: OmniGuide 96
DISCRETE AND INTEGRATED OPTICAL COMPONENTS 96
MARKET DYNAMICS 96
Overall Picture 96
TABLE 47 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE AND SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISCRETE AND
INTEGRATED OPTICAL COMPONENTS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS/UNIT MILLIONS)
97
Vertical Breakdown 97
TABLE 48 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DISCRETE AND INTEGRATED OPTICAL
COMPONENTS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS)
98
TABLE 49 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISCRETE AND INTEGRATED OPTICAL
COMPONENTS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020
(UNIT MILLIONS)
99
Dimension Breakdown 100
TABLE 50 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DISCRETE AND INTEGRATED OPTICAL
COMPONENTS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS)
100
TABLE 51 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISCRETE AND INTEGRATED OPTICAL
COMPONENTS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH
2020 (UNIT MILLIONS)
100
Regional Breakdown 101
TABLE 52 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DISCRETE AND INTEGRATED OPTICAL
COMPONENTS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS)
101
TABLE 53 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISCRETE AND INTEGRATED OPTICAL
COMPONENTS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT
MILLIONS)
101
INTRODUCTION 102
Photonic Integration Drivers 102
VALUE ADDED BY PHOTONIC CRYSTALS 103
Transceivers 103
Polarizers 103
Planar Polarizers 104
Fiber Polarizers 104
Multiplexers 104
Modulators 105
Photonic-Integrated Circuits from NeoPhotonics 105
LASERS AND SUPERCONTINUUM SOURCES 105
MARKET DYNAMICS 106
Overall Picture 106
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LASERS AND SUPERCONTINUUM SOURCES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 106
Vertical Breakdown 106
TABLE 55 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LASERS AND SUPERCONTINUUM SOURCES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 107
Dimension Breakdown 107
TABLE 56 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LASERS AND SUPERCONTINUUM SOURCES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 108
Regional Breakdown 108
TABLE 57 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LASERS AND SUPERCONTINUUM SOURCES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 108
INTRODUCTION 109
Laser Applications 109
Operating Principle 110
Continuous Wave and Pulsed Lasers 111
Lasers Types 111
VALUE ADDED BY PHOTONIC CRYSTALS 111
Fiber Lasers: The Template for Photonic Crystals to Penetrate into the
Laser Domain 111
Fiber Laser Benefits 111
Fiber Laser Morphology 112
Double-Clad Optical Fibers: A Special Case for Fiber Lasers 112
Photonic Crystal Fiber in Fiber Laser Applications 113
Benefits of Photonic Crystal Fiber Lasers over Conventional Fiber
Lasers 114
Photonic Crystal Fiber Lasers and Supercontinuum Generation 116
Self-Phase Modulation 116
Raman Scattering 117
Four-Wave Mixing 117
Photonic Crystal Fibers and Supercontinuum 117
NKT Photonics Photonic Crystal Fiber Portfolio for Powering Fiber
Lasers and Supercontinuum 118
CHAPTER 5 VENDOR AND STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS 121
UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH LABORATORIES 121
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FROM RESEARCH LABORATORIES 121
TABLE 58 RESEARCH CENTERS WITH EXTENSIVE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS 122
OPTICAL FIBER AND LASER SPECIALISTS 123
INTEGRATED SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE MANUFACTURERS 123
OPTIC-FOCUSED STARTUPS 123
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ACCUMULATORS 124
LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICE MAJORS 124
HIGH-TECH DEFENSE AND AEROSPACE SUPPLIERS 124
END-USER DEVICE DEVELOPERS 124
COMPANY PROFILES 124
CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA 125
Focus on Photonic Crystals 125
Business Profiles Catered 126
Qualitative Analysis 126
CORNING INC. 126
Focus on Photonic Crystals 127
Business Profiles Catered 127
Qualitative Analysis 127
EPISTAR 128
Focus on Photonic Crystals 128
Business Profiles Catered 128
Qualitative Analysis 129
FIANIUM 129
Focus on Photonic Crystals 129
Business Profiles Catered 130
Qualitative Analysis 130
FURUKAWA ELECTRIC 130
Focus on Photonic Crystals 131
Business Profiles Catered 131
Qualitative Analysis 131
GLOPHOTONICS 132
Focus on Photonic Crystals 132
Business Profiles Catered 132
Qualitative Analysis 132
HEWLETT-PACKARD DEVELOPMENT COMPANY L.P. 133
Focus on Photonic Crystals 133
Business Profiles Catered 133
Qualitative Analysis 134
JUNO THERAPEUTICS (SRU BIOSYSTEMS) 134
Focus on Photonic Crystals 134
Business Profiles Catered 134
Qualitative Analysis 135
KEYSIGHT TECHNOLOGIES 135
Focus on Photonic Crystals 135
Business Profiles Catered 135
Qualitative Analysis 136
LG INNOTEK 136
Focus on Photonic Crystals 136
Business Profiles Catered 137
Qualitative Analysis 137
LOCKHEED MARTIN AND SANDIA CORP. 137
Focus on Photonic Crystals 137
Business Profiles Catered 138
Qualitative Analysis 138
LUMILEDS (FORMERLY PHILIPS LUMILEDS LIGHTING COMPANY LLC) 138
Focus on Photonic Crystals 139
Business Profiles Catered 139
Qualitative Analysis 140
LUMINUS DEVICES INC. 140
Focus on Photonic Crystals 140
Business Profiles Catered 140
Qualitative Analysis 141
MICROCONTINUUM AND LIGHTWAVE POWER 141
Focus on Photonic Crystals 141
Business Profiles Catered 142
Qualitative Analysis 142
NANOBRICK 143
Focus on Photonic Crystals 143
Business Profiles Catered 143
Qualitative Analysis 144
NEC CORP. 144
Focus on Photonic Crystals 144
Business Profiles Catered 145
Qualitative Analysis 145
NKT PHOTONICS 145
Focus on Photonic Crystals 145
Business Profiles Catered 146
Qualitative Analysis 146
OBDUCAT 146
Focus on Photonic Crystals 146
Business Profiles Catered 147
Qualitative Analysis 147
OMNIGUIDE 147
Focus on Photonic Crystals 147
Business Profiles Catered 148
Qualitative Analysis 148
OPALUX 148
Focus on Photonic Crystals 148
Radio wave activation 149
Laser-based tuning 149
Mechanical Activation (Compressible Photonic Colors) 149
Chemical Activation 149
Business Profiles Catered 150
Qualitative Analysis 150
PANASONIC (PREVIOUSLY MATSUSHITA ELECTRIC INDUSTRIAL CO. LTD.) 151
Overall Profile of the Institution 151
Focus on Photonic Crystals 151
Business Profiles Catered 151
Qualitative Analysis 152
PANORAMA SYNERGY 152
Focus on Photonic Crystals 152
Business Profiles Catered 153
Qualitative Analysis 153
PHOTONIC LATTICE INC. 153
Focus on Photonic Crystals 153
Business Profiles Catered 154
Qualitative Analysis 154
ROHM CO. LTD. 154
Focus on Photonic Crystals 154
Business Profiles Catered 155
Qualitative Analysis 155
SAMSUNG 155
Focus on Photonic Crystals 156
Business Profiles Catered 156
Qualitative Analysis 156
SRICO 157
Focus on Photonic Crystals 157
Business Profiles Catered 157
Qualitative Analysis 157
TDK CORP. 158
Focus on Photonic Crystals 158
Business Profiles Catered 158
Qualitative Analysis 159
XEROX CORP. AND PALO ALTO RESEARCH CENTER 159
Focus on Photonic Crystals 159
Business Profiles Catered 160
Qualitative Analysis 160
CHAPTER 6 U.S. PATENT ANALYSIS 162
INTRODUCTION 162
TRENDS BY FUNCTIONAL CATEGORIES 162
TABLE 59 U.S. PATENTS IN PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY PATENT CATEGORY,
1976-JUNE 2015 168
TRENDS BY YEAR 169
TABLE 60 U.S. PATENT TRENDS IN PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY GRANT YEAR,
1976-JUNE 2015 (NO. OF PATENTS AWARDED) 169
TRENDS BY COUNTRY 169
TABLE 61 U.S. PATENT SHARES IN PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY COUNTRY OF GRANT,
1976-JUNE 2015 (%/NO. OF PATENTS AWARDED) 170
TRENDS BY ASSIGNEE 171
TABLE 62 ASSIGNEES FOR THE U.S. IN PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, 1976-JUNE 2015 172
TABLE 63 ASSIGNEES OF FIVE OR MORE U.S. PATENTS IN PHOTONIC CRYSTALS,
1976-JUNE 2015 177

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR COMPONENTS AND MODULES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 8
TABLE 1 IMPORTANT BENEFITS OF THE PHOTONIC BAND GAP IN PHOTONIC CRYSTAL
STRUCTURES 14
TABLE 2 MARKETABLE FUNCTIONAL ATTRIBUTES OF PHOTONIC CRYSTALS 14
TABLE 3 GLOBAL MARKET FOR COMPONENTS AND MODULES USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 16
TABLE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR COMPONENTS AND MODULES USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 17
TABLE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR COMPONENTS AND MODULES USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 18
TABLE 6 PHOTONIC CRYSTAL STRUCTURE TYPES 28
TABLE 7 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE AND SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR LIGHT-EMITTING
DEVICES USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/UNIT MILLIONS) 40
TABLE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 41
TABLE 9 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 42
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 43
TABLE 11 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 43
TABLE 12 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 43
TABLE 13 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR LIGHT-EMITTING DEVICES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 44
TABLE 14 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE AND SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR SOLAR AND
PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS/UNIT MILLIONS)
50
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOLAR AND PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 51
TABLE 16 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR SOLAR AND PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS
USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 52
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOLAR AND PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 53
TABLE 18 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR SOLAR AND PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS
USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT
MILLIONS)
54
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOLAR AND PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 54
TABLE 20 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR SOLAR AND PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS
USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 55
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE AND SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISPLAY PANELS
USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/UNIT MILLIONS) 59
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DISPLAY PANELS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 60
TABLE 23 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISPLAY PANELS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 61
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DISPLAY PANELS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 62
TABLE 25 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISPLAY PANELS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 62
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DISPLAY PANELS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 63
TABLE 27 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISPLAY PANELS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 64
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOSENSORS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 68
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOSENSORS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 69
TABLE 30 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOSENSORS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 70
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOSENSORS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE AND SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR IMAGE SENSORS
USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/UNIT MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR IMAGE SENSORS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 34 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR IMAGE SENSORS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 76
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET FOR IMAGE SENSORS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 77
TABLE 36 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR IMAGE SENSORS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 77
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR IMAGE SENSORS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 77
TABLE 38 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR IMAGE SENSORS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT MILLIONS) 78
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE AND SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR OPTICAL FIBERS
USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/ KM-PAIR MILLIONS) 85
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OPTICAL FIBERS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 86
TABLE 41 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR OPTICAL FIBERS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (KM-PAIR MILLIONS) 87
TABLE 42 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OPTICAL FIBERS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY
CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 88
TABLE 43 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR OPTICAL FIBERS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 (KM-PAIR MILLIONS) 88
TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OPTICAL FIBERS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 88
TABLE 45 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR OPTICAL FIBERS USING PHOTONIC
CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (KM-PAIR MILLIONS) 89
TABLE 46 IMPORTANT FEATURES OF PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBERS 95
TABLE 47 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE AND SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISCRETE AND
INTEGRATED OPTICAL COMPONENTS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS/UNIT MILLIONS)
97
TABLE 48 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DISCRETE AND INTEGRATED OPTICAL
COMPONENTS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS)
98
TABLE 49 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISCRETE AND INTEGRATED OPTICAL
COMPONENTS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT
MILLIONS)
99
TABLE 50 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DISCRETE AND INTEGRATED OPTICAL
COMPONENTS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS)
100
TABLE 51 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISCRETE AND INTEGRATED OPTICAL
COMPONENTS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH
2020 (UNIT MILLIONS)
100
TABLE 52 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DISCRETE AND INTEGRATED OPTICAL
COMPONENTS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS)
101
TABLE 53 GLOBAL SHIPMENT VOLUME FOR DISCRETE AND INTEGRATED OPTICAL
COMPONENTS USING PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (UNIT
MILLIONS)
101
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LASERS AND SUPERCONTINUUM SOURCES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 55 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LASERS AND SUPERCONTINUUM SOURCES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY APPLICATION, 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 107
TABLE 56 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LASERS AND SUPERCONTINUUM SOURCES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY CRYSTAL DIMENSION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 57 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LASERS AND SUPERCONTINUUM SOURCES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 58 RESEARCH CENTERS WITH EXTENSIVE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS 122
TABLE 59 U.S. PATENTS IN PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY PATENT CATEGORY, 1976-JUNE
2015 168
TABLE 60 U.S. PATENT TRENDS IN PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY GRANT YEAR,
1976-JUNE 2015 (NO. OF PATENTS AWARDED) 169
TABLE 61 U.S. PATENT SHARES IN PHOTONIC CRYSTALS BY COUNTRY OF GRANT,
1976-JUNE 2015 (%/NO. OF PATENTS AWARDED) 170
TABLE 62 ASSIGNEES FOR THE U.S. IN PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, 1976-JUNE 2015 172
TABLE 63 ASSIGNEES OF FIVE OR MORE U.S. PATENTS IN PHOTONIC CRYSTALS,
1976-JUNE 2015 177

LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR COMPONENTS AND MODULES USING
PHOTONIC CRYSTALS, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 8

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