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Large and Advanced Battery Technology and Markets

  • June 2015
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 378 pages

Use this report to:

Learn about large-and-advanced battery system backgrounds, technical and market challenges, market trends and the latest developments.
Identify established markets such as motive power, portable product power, stationary power and hybrid electric vehicles.
Learn about various categories of large and advanced batteries, including first generation, next generation, specialty and developmental.
Identify leading companies specialized in this field.

Highlights

The global large-and-advanced battery market totaled nearly $23.7 billion in 2014 and is projected to approach $30.9 billion by 2019, registering a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.5% through 2019. The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) battery market totaled nearly $10.3 billion in 2014 and should total nearly $14.5 billion by 2019, with a CAGR of 7.1% for the period 2014-2019. Portable computer, tablet, smartphone, tools and portable military/aerospace batteries as a segment reached $8.9 billion in 2014 and should reach nearly $10.9 billion by 2019, with a CAGR of 4.2% between 2014 and 2019.

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Until the 1980s, the global battery market was considered mature, with demand closely related to sales of either automobiles or various portable consumer products.
Advanced batteries have since helped spark a dramatic change in this relationship.
“Large and advanced battery” is an arbitrary designation developed by BCC Research to describe a market-driven battery classification. As defined in this report, large and
advanced batteries must have three attributes: they must be secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical energy storage devices (batteries), “large” in terms of size and energy capacity, as well as technologically advanced.
This definition excludes all primary (non-rechargeable) batteries and all lead-acid automotive batteries, as well as all A, C and D cylindrical batteries and button cells.
Most non-automotive lead-acid batteries are included. Many portable product batteries are included, such as in computers, smartphones, tablets and portable tools.
Several entirely new classes of advanced batteries have been commercialized during the last 25 years, including lithium-ion, nickel metal hydride and zinc-air designs.

Meanwhile, improved microelectronic battery charger controller technology has allowed for smaller, higher energy density cells — this has often been at the expense
of previously important battery systems (notably nickel-cadmium and portable product lead-acid). This, in turn, has allowed the commercialization of portable products that would have been impossible without these improvements, including hybrid electric vehicles, laptop and tablet computers, smartphones and cordless hand tools.
As this synergy continues to develop, there are areas where the advanced battery industry will experience the explosive growth usually associated with emerging
industries. Examples include plug-in vehicles, as well as utility-load leveling systems and wind-power energy storage.

Battery designers (mainly electrochemists) and battery charger designers (mainly electrical and electronics specialists) will continue to operate together, with better
batteries and improved battery chargers evolving together to produce even higher performance large and advanced batteries.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
Large and advanced battery technical advances, and a realignment of the battery industry players, must be matched by new marketing strategies. Battery designers and
users now must cooperate to meet more demanding design requirements. At the same time, understanding of the competitive forces that help shape the market is needed, along with up-to-date knowledge of competitor activities.
Improved batteries provide power to an ever-growing suite of portable products, including items that were previously powered by primary cells or first-generation
rechargeables (flashlights, radios, etc.). Some products would not be practical or convenient without state-of-the-art batteries (hybrid electric vehicles, cellular phones,
smartphones, laptops and tablets), and there remains the potential for new giant battery markets — plug-in electric vehicles and new military battery applications.
Extremely large batteries are also being evaluated for utility load leveling, wind farm power storage and remote power generation.
Lithium batteries replaced nickel-based and primary batteries for many applications, while ubiquitous lithium-ion battery designs are beginning to be replaced by advanced lithium-ion chemistries such as lithium phosphate, lithium iron phosphate and lithium-polymer systems. Nickel metal hydride batteries have been used in consumer electronics for decades, and in electric vehicles (especially hybrid vehicles). These batteries are now being improved for large stationary applications. Giant sodium-sulfur batteries are being deployed by electric utilities, while the venerable lead-acid battery is being improved using new materials.
Meanwhile, several important trends need to be tracked and analyzed.

First, a number of lithium batteries’ largest and highest growth markets are in transition. An example is the portable tablet, which is replacing portable computers.
Stand-alone cellphones are quickly being replaced by multi-functional smartphones. At the same time, battery-powered plug-in electric vehicles have been commercialized and are competing with conventional internal combustion-powered vehicles and popular internal/combustion/battery hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). After billions of dollars were earmarked for U.S. battery development, several high-profile battery and EV companies either failed outright or were doomed before achieving their goals. The remaining electric vehicle lithium-ion battery companies, sometimes partnering with vehicle makers, have recovered and are poised for much wider adoption.

Some traditional markets declined due to global recessionary forces, including unemployment, difficulty obtaining consumer credit and lower commercial demand. As
the economy began to recover, so did portable consumer product and portable tool sales. At the same time, U.S. gasoline prices peaked and fell from a high of more than
$4 per gallon and then back to well below $2 per gallon. This is proving beneficial for battery-powered consumer products but will be a major disincentive for hybrid and
plug-in battery-powered vehicles.

In China, the world’s largest EV fleet comprises lead-acid battery-powered scooters. The ultimate market for these EVs depends on two possible scenarios: Chinese
legislation may reduce market growth or even outlaw the scooters in some significant markets, or the scooter market could spread, starting with other continental Asian
markets.

CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report is intended to provide a unique analysis of the global large and advanced battery market, and will be of interest to manufacturers of batteries, battery chargers
and battery-powered products, including stationary and portable products, and battery-powered vehicles. It will also benefit those involved in large and advanced
battery development and marketing, as well as individuals offering competing non-rechargeable power sources. Existing or potential battery consumers, as well as
the military and the medical profession, can determine existing or potential battery markets. End-users, such as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and consumers,
will learn about the limitations of battery system design.
This report can provide valuable information in terms of assessing investment in particular technologies and, therefore, should benefit investors directly or indirectly.
Battery suppliers may also find market trends of interest in view of establishing growth strategies. BCC Research wishes to thank those companies, government agencies and university researchers who contributed information for this report.

SCOPE AND FORMAT
This report begins with a discussion of general battery technology. The following categories of large and advanced batteries are discussed:

First-generation large and advanced battery systems.
Lead-acid batteries.
Nickel-cadmium batteries.
Next-generation large and advanced battery systems.
Nickel metal hydride batteries.
Lithium-ion batteries.
Lithium-polymer batteries.

Specialty large and advanced battery systems.
Silver-zinc secondary batteries.
Silver-cadmium secondary batteries.
Nickel-hydrogen secondary batteries.
Nickel-zinc batteries.
Metal-air batteries.

Developmental large and advanced battery systems.
Sodium-sulfur batteries.
High-temperature lithium batteries.
Redox and flow batteries.
Nickel-iron batteries.
Calcium-metal sulfide batteries.
Sodium-metal chloride batteries.
Lithium-sulfur batteries.

Next, the following established markets are considered in this report:
Motive power: traction, marine and aviation.
Portable product power: laptops, tablets, smartphones, hand tools and lawn care products, portable military/aerospace.
Stationary power: uninterruptible power supplies, emergency lighting, remote power, small-scale alternative energy storage.
Hybrid electric vehicles.
Large and advanced batteries will be used in the following emerging markets:
Plug-in vehicles.
Utility load leveling and large-scale alternative energy storage.
Emerging military/aerospace applications.

This report aims to define these market sectors, and will identify leading companies and analyze the markets (including a five-year market forecast). Finally, large and
advanced battery companies are outlined in the Company Profiles chapter.

METHODOLOGY
Primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report, which is based on interviews with commercial and government sources, literature
reviews and patent examinations. Throughout the report, past market data is expressed in current U.S. dollars, and estimates and projections are in constant 2015
dollars. Historic markets and the projected markets for 2019 are provided. Most market summaries are based on a consensus scenario. Pessimistic, consensus and optimistic market scenarios characterize several emerging markets. Totals are rounded to the nearest million dollars. Information from previously published sources are identified, when appropriate, to allow a more detailed examination by clients.


Table Of Contents

Large and Advanced Battery Technology and Markets
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE AND FORMAT 4
METHODOLOGY 5
INFORMATION SOURCES 5
ANALYST' S CREDENTIALS 6
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 6
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 6
DISCLAIMER 7
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 9
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 9
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY BY
APPLICATION, 2009-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 10
CHAPTER 3 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 12
BATTERY BACKGROUND 12
TABLE 1 LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY SYSTEMS 13
BATTERY SYSTEMS 14
GENERAL BATTERY CHARACTERISTICS 14
Voltage 14
Capacity 14
Shelf Life 15
Drain 15
Safety 15
Lithium Portable Product Battery Safety Issues (including
Aircraft Carry-on Issues) 16
Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit Battery Safety Issues 17
Plug-in Vehicle Battery Safety Issues 18
Utility-scale Power Storage Battery Safety Issues 19
Material Safety Issues 21
Energy Density 23
Power 23
Recharge Time 24
Cycle Life 24
Disposal Factors 24
COMMERCIAL SECONDARY BATTERY CHARACTERISTICS 25
TABLE 2 COMMERCIAL SECONDARY BATTERY TYPES 25
BATTERY DESCRIPTIONS 27
LEAD-ACID BATTERIES 27
Lead-Acid Traction Batteries 31
Lead-Acid Sealed Appliance Batteries 31
Lead-Acid UPS Batteries 31
State-of-the-Art and Recent Developments 32
Firefly Energy Composite Foam 33
Magnesium-antimony/Lead-antimony Battery 34
KFOAM Mesophase Pitch 34
Next Alternative Carbon Nanotube Lead-Acid and Lithium
Battery 35
Axion Power Lead Carbon (PbC) 35
Developments at Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium 36
Lead-Acid Battery Companies 38
TABLE 3 LEAD-ACID BATTERY COMPANIES 38
Applications and Markets 38
Lead-Acid Electric Scooter and Motorcycle Batteries 39
Lead-Acid Industrial Motive Power Batteries 39
Lead-Acid Portable Product Batteries 40
Lead-Acid Stationary Batteries 40
Technical and Market Challenges 41
Large and Advanced Lead-Acid Market Summary 41
TABLE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED LEAD-ACID BATTERY BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 41
NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERIES 42
State of the Art and Recent Developments 43
Nickel-Cadmium Battery Companies 43
TABLE 5 NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY COMPANIES 43
Applications/Markets 43
Large and Advanced Nickel-Cadmium Market Summary 44
TABLE 6 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY
BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 44
NICKEL METAL HYDRIDE BATTERIES 45
State-of-the-Art and Recent Developments 46
Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Companies 47
TABLE 7 NICKEL METAL HYDRIDE BATTERY COMPANIES 47
TABLE 8 OVONIC NICKEL METAL HYDRIDE TECHNOLOGY LICENSEES 48
Applications and Markets 48
Technical and Market Challenges 49
Large and Advanced Nickel Metal Hydride Market Summary 49
TABLE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED NICKEL METAL HYDRIDE
BATTERIES BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 49
LITHIUM-ION AND LITHIUM-POLYMER BATTERIES 50
Lithium-Ion Compared with Lithium-Ion Polymer 51
TABLE 10 CONDUCTIVE POLYMER BATTERY ENERGY DENSITIES 52
Lithium Metal Polymer Batteries 53
Lithium-Ion as Smart Batteries 55
State-of-the-Art and Recent Developments 57
Blue Current: Berkeley Lab and UNC-Chapel Hill Nonflammable
Electrolyte 58
Lithium-Ion Battery and Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery Companies 59
TABLE 11 LITHIUM-BASED BATTERY COMPANIES 60
Applications and Markets 61
Technical and Market Challenges 61
Large and Advanced Lithium Market Summary 61
TABLE 12 GLOBAL LARGE AND ADVANCED LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET
PROJECTIONS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 61
SILVER-BASED BATTERIES 62
Silver-Zinc Batteries 62
Silver-Cadmium Batteries 64
Silver Battery State of the Art and Recent Developments 64
Silver-Based Battery Companies 65
TABLE 13 SILVER BATTERY COMPANIES 65
Silver Battery Applications and Markets 65
NICKEL-HYDROGEN BATTERIES 65
State-of-the-Art and Recent Developments 66
Nickel Hydrogen Battery Companies 67
Applications and Markets 67
Technical and Market Challenges 67
NICKEL-ZINC BATTERIES 68
State-of-the-Art and Recent Developments 68
TABLE 14 BENEFITS COMPARISON OF POWERGENIX (NIZN) HIGH DISCHARGE
BATTERY 70
Nickel-Zinc Battery Companies 71
Applications/Markets 71
Technical and Market Challenges 71
METAL-AIR BATTERIES 71
Aluminum-Air Batteries 72
Developments at Europositron 73
TABLE 15 EUROPOSITRON ALUMINUM-AIR BATTERY ESTIMATED COSTS (EUROS) 74
Developments at Phinergy 75
Developments at Fuji Pigment 75
Developments at Metalectrique 76
Summary of Historic and Current Aluminum-Air Battery Activity 76
TABLE 16 SUMMARY OF CURRENT AND HISTORIC ALUMINUM-AIR BATTERY
COMPANIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 76
Zinc-Air Batteries 77
Summary of Historical and Current Zinc-Air and other Metal-Air
Battery Activity 78
TABLE 17 SUMMARY OF CURRENT AND HISTORIC ZINC-AIR BATTERY COMPANIES
AND DEVELOPMENTS 78
Hybrid Zinc-Air/Manganese-Dioxide Batteries 80
Iron-Air Batteries 80
Lithium-Air Batteries 81
Original Developments at Driesbach Electromotive 81
Developments at IBM 81
Developments at Japan' s National Institute of Advanced
Industrial Science and Technology 82
Developments at PolyPlus Battery Co. 83
Other Recent Developments 84
Magnesium-Air Batteries 84
Metal-Air Battery Companies 85
TABLE 18 METAL-AIR BATTERY COMPANIES 85
Metal-Air Battery Market Trends 86
LARGE AND ADVANCED SPECIALTY MARKET SUMMARY 86
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED SPECIALTY BATTERY BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 86
SODIUM-SULFUR BATTERIES 87
State-of-the-Art and Recent Developments 88
Sodium-Sulfur Battery Companies 91
TABLE 20 SUMMARY OF CURRENT AND HISTORICAL SODIUM-SULFUR BATTERY
COMPANIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 91
Sodium-Sulfur Battery Market Trends 92
HIGH-TEMPERATURE LITHIUM BATTERIES 93
TABLE 21 HISTORICAL HIGH-TEMPERATURE LITHIUM-IRON SULFIDE BATTERY R andD 93
Applications and Markets 94
REDOX AND FLOW BATTERIES 94
Zinc-Chloride Batteries 95
Zinc-Bromine Redox Batteries 96
Chromium-Chloride/Iron-Chloride Redox Batteries 100
Vanadium Redox Batteries (VRBs) 100
Developments at VRN Power Systems and Prudent 100
TABLE 22 VRB SPECIFICATIONS 102
Developments at Imergy Power System 103
Sodium-Bromide Batteries 103
Redox Battery Companies 104
TABLE 23 REDOX FLOW BATTERY COMPANIES 104
NICKEL-IRON BATTERIES 104
CALCIUM-METAL-SULFIDE BATTERIES 105
SODIUM-METAL CHLORIDE BATTERIES (ZEBRA) 105
LITHIUM-SULFUR BATTERIES 106
Developments at University of Waterloo 107
LARGE AND ADVANCED EMERGING MARKET SUMMARY 107
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR EMERGING LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 108
COMPETING ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS 108
Capacitive Energy Storage 108
TABLE 25 COMPARISON BETWEEN CAPACITIVE ENERGY STORAGE AND LARGE
ELECTROCHEMICAL STORAGE BATTERIES 109
TABLE 26 COMPARISON OF CAPACITOR, ULTRACAPACITOR AND BATTERY
CHARACTERISTICS 110
Developments at ALTes 110
Developments at Ioxus 111
Developments at Maxwell Technologies 111
Developments at Kemet 112
Nuclear Batteries 112
Flywheel Energy Storage 112
Developments at the University of Texas 113
Developments at Pentadyne and Beacon Power 113
Developments at AFS Trinity Power 114
Developments at Volvo 114
Fuel Cells 115
Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 115
Alkaline Fuel Cells 116
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells 116
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 116
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 117
Formic Acid Reforming Fuel Cells 117
CHAPTER 4 LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY MARKET APPLICATIONS 120
SUMMARY OF LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY MARKETS 120
LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY MARKET ANALYSIS CONVENTIONS 120
Market Value Model 120
Definitions of Regions 122
Analysis Duration 122
Monetary Conventions 122
MOTIVE POWER LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY MARKETS 122
TRACTION AND MARINE BATTERIES 122
Traction and Marine Battery Background 122
Traction and Marine Battery Market Summary 123
TABLE 27 MOTIVE/TRACTION BATTERY MARKET DRIVERS 124
TABLE 28 CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC MOTIVE/TRACTION BATTERY
SCENARIOS 125
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED TRACTION AND MARINE
BATTERY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 126
TABLE 30 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED TRACTION AND MARINE
BATTERY BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 126
AVIATION BATTERIES 126
Aviation Battery Background 126
Aviation Battery Market Summary 128
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED AVIATION BATTERY BY
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 128
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED AVIATION BATTERY BY
REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 129
PORTABLE PRODUCT LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY MARKETS 129
COMPUTER, TABLET AND SMARTPHONE BATTERIES 129
Computer, Tablet and Smartphone Battery Background 129
Computer, Tablet and Smartphone Battery Market Summary 130
TABLE 33 DRIVING FORCES AND DEVELOPMENTS IN PORTABLE COMPUTER,
TABLET AND SMARTPHONE MARKET 131
TABLE 34 DRIVING FORCES AND DEVELOPMENTS IN PORTABLE COMPUTER,
TABLET AND SMARTPHONE BATTERY MARKET 132
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED PORTABLE COMPUTER,
TABLET AND SMARTPHONE BATTERY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS)
132
TABLE 36 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED PORTABLE COMPUTER,
TABLET AND SMARTPHONE BATTERY BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 133
HAND TOOLS AND LAWN CARE PRODUCT BATTERIES 133
Hand Tools and Lawn Care Product Background 133
Hand Tools and Lawn Care Product Market Summary 134
TABLE 37 DRIVING FORCES AND DEVELOPMENTS IN THE PORTABLE TOOLS
MARKET 135
TABLE 38 DRIVING FORCES AND DEVELOPMENTS IN THE PORTABLE TOOL
BATTERIES MARKET 135
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED HAND TOOL AND LAWN
CARE PRODUCT BATTERY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 136
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED HAND TOOL AND LAWN
CARE PRODUCT BATTERY BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 136
MILITARY/AEROSPACE PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERIES 137
Military/Aerospace Portable Product Battery Background 137
Military/Aerospace Portable Product Battery Market Summary 138
TABLE 41 DRIVING FORCES AND DEVELOPMENTS IN PORTABLE MILITARY PRODUCT
MARKET 138
TABLE 42 DRIVING FORCES AND DEVELOPMENTS IN PORTABLE MILITARY PRODUCT
BATTERIES MARKET 139
TABLE 43 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED PORTABLE MILITARY
PRODUCT BATTERY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 139
TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED PORTABLE MILITARY
PRODUCT BATTERY BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 140
STATIONARY POWER LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY MARKETS 140
UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY BATTERIES 141
UPS Battery Background 141
UPS Battery Market Summary 141
TABLE 45 GLOBAL MARKET FOR UPS BATTERY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019
($ MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 46 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED UPS BATTERY BY REGION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 142
EMERGENCY LIGHTING BATTERIES 143
Emergency Lighting Battery Background 143
Emergency Lighting Battery Market Summary 143
TABLE 47 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED EMERGENCY LIGHTING
BATTERY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 143
TABLE 48 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED EMERGENCY LIGHTING
BATTERY BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 144
REMOTE POWER AND ALTERNATIVE ENERGY STORAGE BATTERIES 144
Remote Power and Alternative Energy Storage Battery Background 144
Solar 145
TABLE 49 TECHNOLOGIES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER STORAGE 150
Wind 152
Tidal and Wave 155
Geothermal 156
Remote Power and Alternative Energy Storage Battery Market
Summary 156
TABLE 50 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED REMOTE AND
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS)
157
TABLE 51 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED REMOTE AND
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS)
157
HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES 157
HEV BACKGROUND 157
HEV BATTERY MARKET SUMMARY 158
TABLE 52 HEV AND HEV BATTERY MARKET DRIVERS 158
HEV Pricing Model 159
HEV Battery Market Forecast 160
TABLE 53 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED HEV BATTERY BY
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 160
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED HEV BATTERY BY REGION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 160
EMERGING MARKETS 161
PLUG-IN VEHICLE BATTERIES 161
Why Plug-in Vehicles? 161
Pollution Abatement 161
TABLE 55 PROJECTED ANNUAL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM
PHEVS IN THE YEAR 2050 (MILLION MT) 163
TABLE 56 PEAK NEW VEHICLE MARKET SHARE IN 2050 FOR THE THREE PHEV
ADOPTION SCENARIOS (%) 164
Electric Utility Efficiency 164
Promotion of Domestic Energy Sources 165
Maintaining Technological Competitiveness 165
Types of Plug-ins 165
Plug-in Battery Background 166
Plug-in Vehicle Battery Market Summary 168
TABLE 57 PHEV AND EV BATTERY MARKET DRIVERS 168
TABLE 58 CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC PHEV AND EV SCENARIOS 169
PHEV Reception 170
Continuing Pure EV reception 171
BYD Timing and Reception 171
Implementation of Charging Infrastructure 171
Continued Worldwide Government Purchase Subsidies 171
U.S. By-Mile Taxes Replace Fuel Taxes 172
General Gasoline and Diesel Prices 172
General Electricity Prices 172
Success of Fuel Cell Vehicles Introduced over the Next Five Years 172
Implementation of Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure 172
General Power Source Cost Control Issues 172
TABLE 59 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED PLUG-IN BATTERY BY
TECHNOLOGY, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 174
TABLE 60 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED PLUG-IN BATTERY BY
REGION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 174
TABLE 61 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED PLUG-IN BATTERY BY
TECHNOLOGY, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 175
TABLE 62 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED PLUG-IN BATTERY BY
REGION, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 175
TABLE 63 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED PLUG-IN BATTERY BY
TECHNOLOGY, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 175
TABLE 64 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED PLUG-IN BATTERY BY
REGION, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 176
UTILITY LOAD LEVELING 176
Utility Load Leveling Background 176
TABLE 65 LOAD LEVELING AND PEAK SHIFTING APPROACHES 177
FIGURE 1 COMPARISON OF POWER STORAGE APPROACHES 179
TABLE 66 POWER STORAGE FUNCTIONALITY 181
Utility Load-leveling Battery Market Summary 181
TABLE 67 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED LOAD-LEVELING BATTERY
BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 182
TABLE 68 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED LOAD-LEVELING BATTERY
BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 182
EMERGING MILITARY/AEROSPACE ADVANCED BATTERIES 182
Emerging Military/Aerospace Background 182
Emerging Military/Aerospace Market Summary 183
Military Electric Vehicles Scenario 183
Battery-Powered Fighting Vehicle Scenario 184
Military Automated Factory Scenario 187
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Revival Scenario 187
Emerging Military Battery Market Summary 188
TABLE 69 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED EMERGING MILITARY
BATTERY BY TECHNOLOGY, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 188
TABLE 70 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED EMERGING MILITARY
BATTERY BY REGION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 188
TABLE 71 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED EMERGING MILITARY
BATTERY BY TECHNOLOGY, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 189
TABLE 72 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED EMERGING MILITARY
BATTERY BY REGION, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 189
LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY MARKET SUMMARY 189
TABLE 73 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY BY
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 190
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY BY TECHNOLOGY,
2014 ($ MILLIONS) 190
TABLE 74 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 191
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY, 2009-2019 ($
MILLIONS) 191
TABLE 75 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY BY REGION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 192
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY BY REGION,
2014 (%) 192
CHAPTER 5 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ASPECTS 195
THE DRIVING FORCES OF THE INDUSTRY 195
TREND ANALYSIS 195
TABLE 76 LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY MARKET (END-USE) TRENDS (%) 195
DRIVING FORCE NUMBER 1: PATENT SITUATION 196
University of Texas, Hydro Quebec, NTT, and Others 196
3M, Sony and Lenovo 197
3M and Panasonic 198
Valence versus Phostech Lithium and Hydro Quebec 198
DRIVING FORCE 2: IMPROVING BATTERY TECHNICAL MATURITY 199
DRIVING FORCE 3: DEVELOPING NEW APPLICATIONS FOR LARGE AND
ADVANCED BATTERIES 200
DRIVING FORCE 4: ADVANCED MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED BATTERIES 200
Fullerenes 201
Conductive Polymers 202
TABLE 77 CONDUCTIVE POLYMER BATTERY ENERGY DENSITIES 203
Battery Material and Component Simulations 203
Porous Aluminum-Celmet for Battery Electrodes 205
Silicon Nanocomposites 206
Battery Separators 208
Rare Earths 208
DRIVING FORCE 5: PUBLIC SECTOR RandD 211
Public Sector RandD Entities 211
DRIVING FORCE 6: BATTERY QUALITY CONTROL 240
The Manufacturing and Assembly Process 240
TABLE 78 GENERIC BATTERY MANUFACTURING TREE 241
MARKET SEGMENTATION 241
TABLE 79 LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY MARKET SEGMENTATION AND MARKET
FORCES 242
INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE PRACTICES 244
DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 245
TABLE 80 LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 245
INDUSTRY PURCHASING INFLUENCES 247
PRICE INFLUENCE 247
TABLE 81 LARGE AND ADVANCED BATTERY PURCHASING INFLUENCES 247
RETAIL PRICE TRENDS 247
TABLE 82 TYPICAL RETAIL ADVANCED BATTERY PRICES, 1996-2015 ($) 248
CHAPTER 6 COMPANY PROFILES AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 251
A123 SYSTEMS 251
WANXIANG AMERICA 251
TABLE 83 COMPARISON OF A123 SYSTEMS' BATTERY WITH OTHER HIGH-CAPACITY
BATTERY SYSTEMS 252
TABLE 84 A123 SYSTEMS' BATTERY PULSE DURATION AND POWER DENSITY 253
AC DELCO 261
ADVANCED BATTERY CONCEPTS 261
ADVANCED BATTERY TECHNOLOGIES INC. (ABAT) 262
ABAT (U.S) 262
ALL POWER BATTERY 263
AMBRI 263
AMPRIUS 264
ANZODE 265
APOLLO ENERGY SYSTEMS 266
AROTECH CORP. 266
ATLANTIC BATTERY CO. 268
AXION POWER INTERNATIONAL INC. 268
BASF BATTERY MATERIALS 270
OVONIC BATTERY CO. 270
TABLE 85 OVONIC' S NICKEL METAL HYDRIDE TECHNOLOGY LICENSEES 273
BATTERY BUILDERS INC. 273
BATTERY SYSTEMS INC. 274
B.B. BATTERY 274
BELL CITY BATTERIES 274
BOLLORE GROUP 275
BOSTON-POWER 276
BYD COMPANY LIMITED 278
CHINA BAK BATTERY INC. 282
CONTINENTAL CORP. 283
CROWN BATTERY MANUFACTURING CO. 284
CSB BATTERY (CBS) 284
DELTRAN BATTERY TENDER 285
DENCHI POWER LTD. (ABSL POWER) 285
DOUGLAS BATTERY MANUFACTURING CO. 285
DYNACELL CORP. 286
DYNO BATTERY INC. 286
EAST PENN MANUFACTURING CO. (DEKA BATTERIES) 286
ECOLOCAP SOLUTIONS 288
ELECTROVAYA 288
ENER1 INC. (ENERDEL) 293
ENERIZE CORP. (FIFE BATTERIES) 296
ENERSYS INC. 297
QUALLION 297
ENERVAULT 300
ENSTORAGE 301
ENVIA SYSTEMS INC. 302
ERRA INC. 303
EVEREXCEED INDUSTRIAL CO. LTD. 304
EXIDE TECHNOLOGIES 305
FARASIS ENERGY 306
FIAMM TECHNOLOGIES INC. 308
FIREFLY INTERNATIONAL ENERGY CO. 308
FLUIDIC ENERGY 309
FLUX POWER 309
FURUKAWA BATTERY CO. 311
GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. 311
GENERAL MOTORS 312
GOLDEN ENERGY FUEL CELL CO. LTD. 315
GP BATTERIES (GOLD PEAK INTERNATIONAL) 316
HITACHI MAXELL CORP. 316
HIGHPOWER INTERNATIONAL 317
HYB BATTERY CO. LTD. 318
INDUSTRIAL BATTERY ENGINEERING 318
INDUSTRIAL BATTERY PRODUCTS 319
IQ POWER 319
JOHNSON CONTROLS 320
JOHNSON MATTHEY BATTERY SYSTEMS (AXEON) 323
K2 ENERGY 324
LG CHEMICAL 326
LITHIUM TECHNOLOGY CORP. (LTC) 327
MAGNA INTERNATIONAL INC. 328
MES-DEA 329
MICROVAST POWER SYSTEMS LTD. 329
MINING CORPORATION OF BOLIVIA (COMIBOL) 330
LINYI DAKE TRADE 330
MINMAX ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD. 331
MITSUBISHI CORP. 331
NAMIL BATTERY 333
NEC ENERGY DEVICES LTD. 333
NEC ENERGY SOLUTIONS 333
NEXCELL BATTERY CO. 336
NGK INSULATORS LTD. 336
AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER (AEP) 336
NISSAN MOTOR CO. 339
ODYNE SYSTEMS LLC. 341
PANASONIC 342
PANASONIC (AMERICA) and PANASONIC ENERGY CO. 342
POLYPLUS BATTERY CO. 344
POWER JAPAN PLUS 346
POWERGENIX 347
PRIMEARTH EV ENERGY 349
SAFT 350
SAFT AMERICA INC. 351
SAKTI 353
SAMSUNG SDI 354
SEEO 355
SION POWER 356
SOLIDENERGY 357
SONY COPR. 357
SONY BROADCAST AND BUSINESS SOLUTIONS CO. 357
TABLE 86 COMPARISON BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL BATTERY AND NEXELION 359
STORAGE BATTERY SYSTEMS INC. 360
SUPERIOR BATTERY MANUFACTURING 361
SWIFT INDUSTRIAL POWER 361
TIAX LLC 361
TIANJIN LISHEN BATTERY JOINT-STOCK CO. LTD. 363
TOSHIBA 364
TOSHIBA AMERICA INC. 364
TABLE 87 SCIB SPECIFICATIONS 365
TROJAN BATTERY CO. 365
UNIENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 366
U.S. BATTERY MANUFACTURING CO. 367
VALANCE TECHNOLOGY INC. 367
VARTA AUTOMOTIVE (JOHNSON CONTROLS) 372
VIZN ENERGY SYSTEMS 372
WINSTON BATTERY LTD. 373
XALT ENERGY LLC 373
YARDNEY (LITHION, ALUPOWER) 375
YUASA BATTERY INC. 376
ZAF ENERGY SYSTEMS 379
ZBB ENERGY CORP. 379
ZENTRIC INC. 384

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