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Large and Advanced Battery Technology and Markets

  • June 2015
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 378 pages

Summary

Table of Contents

Use this report to:

Learn about large-and-advanced battery system backgrounds, technical and market challenges, market trends and the latest developments.
Identify established markets such as motive power, portable product power, stationary power and hybrid electric vehicles.
Learn about various categories of large and advanced batteries, including first generation, next generation, specialty and developmental.
Identify leading companies specialized in this field.

Highlights

The global large-and-advanced battery market totaled nearly $23.7 billion in 2014 and is projected to approach $30.9 billion by 2019, registering a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.5% through 2019. The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) battery market totaled nearly $10.3 billion in 2014 and should total nearly $14.5 billion by 2019, with a CAGR of 7.1% for the period 2014-2019. Portable computer, tablet, smartphone, tools and portable military/aerospace batteries as a segment reached $8.9 billion in 2014 and should reach nearly $10.9 billion by 2019, with a CAGR of 4.2% between 2014 and 2019.

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Until the 1980s, the global battery market was considered mature, with demand closely related to sales of either automobiles or various portable consumer products.
Advanced batteries have since helped spark a dramatic change in this relationship.
“Large and advanced battery” is an arbitrary designation developed by BCC Research to describe a market-driven battery classification. As defined in this report, large and
advanced batteries must have three attributes: they must be secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical energy storage devices (batteries), “large” in terms of size and energy capacity, as well as technologically advanced.
This definition excludes all primary (non-rechargeable) batteries and all lead-acid automotive batteries, as well as all A, C and D cylindrical batteries and button cells.
Most non-automotive lead-acid batteries are included. Many portable product batteries are included, such as in computers, smartphones, tablets and portable tools.
Several entirely new classes of advanced batteries have been commercialized during the last 25 years, including lithium-ion, nickel metal hydride and zinc-air designs.

Meanwhile, improved microelectronic battery charger controller technology has allowed for smaller, higher energy density cells — this has often been at the expense
of previously important battery systems (notably nickel-cadmium and portable product lead-acid). This, in turn, has allowed the commercialization of portable products that would have been impossible without these improvements, including hybrid electric vehicles, laptop and tablet computers, smartphones and cordless hand tools.
As this synergy continues to develop, there are areas where the advanced battery industry will experience the explosive growth usually associated with emerging
industries. Examples include plug-in vehicles, as well as utility-load leveling systems and wind-power energy storage.

Battery designers (mainly electrochemists) and battery charger designers (mainly electrical and electronics specialists) will continue to operate together, with better
batteries and improved battery chargers evolving together to produce even higher performance large and advanced batteries.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
Large and advanced battery technical advances, and a realignment of the battery industry players, must be matched by new marketing strategies. Battery designers and
users now must cooperate to meet more demanding design requirements. At the same time, understanding of the competitive forces that help shape the market is needed, along with up-to-date knowledge of competitor activities.
Improved batteries provide power to an ever-growing suite of portable products, including items that were previously powered by primary cells or first-generation
rechargeables (flashlights, radios, etc.). Some products would not be practical or convenient without state-of-the-art batteries (hybrid electric vehicles, cellular phones,
smartphones, laptops and tablets), and there remains the potential for new giant battery markets — plug-in electric vehicles and new military battery applications.
Extremely large batteries are also being evaluated for utility load leveling, wind farm power storage and remote power generation.
Lithium batteries replaced nickel-based and primary batteries for many applications, while ubiquitous lithium-ion battery designs are beginning to be replaced by advanced lithium-ion chemistries such as lithium phosphate, lithium iron phosphate and lithium-polymer systems. Nickel metal hydride batteries have been used in consumer electronics for decades, and in electric vehicles (especially hybrid vehicles). These batteries are now being improved for large stationary applications. Giant sodium-sulfur batteries are being deployed by electric utilities, while the venerable lead-acid battery is being improved using new materials.
Meanwhile, several important trends need to be tracked and analyzed.

First, a number of lithium batteries’ largest and highest growth markets are in transition. An example is the portable tablet, which is replacing portable computers.
Stand-alone cellphones are quickly being replaced by multi-functional smartphones. At the same time, battery-powered plug-in electric vehicles have been commercialized and are competing with conventional internal combustion-powered vehicles and popular internal/combustion/battery hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). After billions of dollars were earmarked for U.S. battery development, several high-profile battery and EV companies either failed outright or were doomed before achieving their goals. The remaining electric vehicle lithium-ion battery companies, sometimes partnering with vehicle makers, have recovered and are poised for much wider adoption.

Some traditional markets declined due to global recessionary forces, including unemployment, difficulty obtaining consumer credit and lower commercial demand. As
the economy began to recover, so did portable consumer product and portable tool sales. At the same time, U.S. gasoline prices peaked and fell from a high of more than
$4 per gallon and then back to well below $2 per gallon. This is proving beneficial for battery-powered consumer products but will be a major disincentive for hybrid and
plug-in battery-powered vehicles.

In China, the world’s largest EV fleet comprises lead-acid battery-powered scooters. The ultimate market for these EVs depends on two possible scenarios: Chinese
legislation may reduce market growth or even outlaw the scooters in some significant markets, or the scooter market could spread, starting with other continental Asian
markets.

CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report is intended to provide a unique analysis of the global large and advanced battery market, and will be of interest to manufacturers of batteries, battery chargers
and battery-powered products, including stationary and portable products, and battery-powered vehicles. It will also benefit those involved in large and advanced
battery development and marketing, as well as individuals offering competing non-rechargeable power sources. Existing or potential battery consumers, as well as
the military and the medical profession, can determine existing or potential battery markets. End-users, such as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and consumers,
will learn about the limitations of battery system design.
This report can provide valuable information in terms of assessing investment in particular technologies and, therefore, should benefit investors directly or indirectly.
Battery suppliers may also find market trends of interest in view of establishing growth strategies. BCC Research wishes to thank those companies, government agencies and university researchers who contributed information for this report.

SCOPE AND FORMAT
This report begins with a discussion of general battery technology. The following categories of large and advanced batteries are discussed:

First-generation large and advanced battery systems.
Lead-acid batteries.
Nickel-cadmium batteries.
Next-generation large and advanced battery systems.
Nickel metal hydride batteries.
Lithium-ion batteries.
Lithium-polymer batteries.

Specialty large and advanced battery systems.
Silver-zinc secondary batteries.
Silver-cadmium secondary batteries.
Nickel-hydrogen secondary batteries.
Nickel-zinc batteries.
Metal-air batteries.

Developmental large and advanced battery systems.
Sodium-sulfur batteries.
High-temperature lithium batteries.
Redox and flow batteries.
Nickel-iron batteries.
Calcium-metal sulfide batteries.
Sodium-metal chloride batteries.
Lithium-sulfur batteries.

Next, the following established markets are considered in this report:
Motive power: traction, marine and aviation.
Portable product power: laptops, tablets, smartphones, hand tools and lawn care products, portable military/aerospace.
Stationary power: uninterruptible power supplies, emergency lighting, remote power, small-scale alternative energy storage.
Hybrid electric vehicles.
Large and advanced batteries will be used in the following emerging markets:
Plug-in vehicles.
Utility load leveling and large-scale alternative energy storage.
Emerging military/aerospace applications.

This report aims to define these market sectors, and will identify leading companies and analyze the markets (including a five-year market forecast). Finally, large and
advanced battery companies are outlined in the Company Profiles chapter.

METHODOLOGY
Primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report, which is based on interviews with commercial and government sources, literature
reviews and patent examinations. Throughout the report, past market data is expressed in current U.S. dollars, and estimates and projections are in constant 2015
dollars. Historic markets and the projected markets for 2019 are provided. Most market summaries are based on a consensus scenario. Pessimistic, consensus and optimistic market scenarios characterize several emerging markets. Totals are rounded to the nearest million dollars. Information from previously published sources are identified, when appropriate, to allow a more detailed examination by clients.


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