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INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This study provides a review of the global markets and technologies for wastewater recycling and reuse at the regional level, along with additional breakdowns for select relevant national-level markets. It seeks to quantify markets for wastewater recycling technologies based on available data and anticipated trends in global and regional market development in the wastewater recycling industry.

REASONS FOR COMPLETING THIS STUDY

BCC’s goal in conducting this study is to assess and describe the current status of the global market for wastewater recycling and reuse technologies, as well as to assess the potential growth of this industry. More specifically, the study’s objectives are:
• To summarize existing wastewater recycling and reuse technologies and promising technologies under development.
• To evaluate the existing wastewater recycling and reuse industry, with a focus on producers of each major viable technology.
• To assess market potential for wastewater recycling and reuse over a five-year period from 2012 through 2017.
• To provide regional market breakdowns with select sub-regional breakdowns for countries with promising wastewater recycling industries, as well as market demand.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

Global interest in wastewater recycling technologies has been steadily on the rise since the early 1990s due to an increasing scarcity of available water supplies, which affects many global regions and increases in the stringency of the regulatory environment in both developing and developed nations. Many cities, local governments and nations are looking to wastewater recycling as a potential source of water for various uses, especially non-potable uses such as landscaping, toilet flushes, and industrial processes and reuse. This study is anticipated to be useful to industry players, researchers, corporations and others who have stakes in wastewater recycling and reuse technologies, as well as those who are considering expanding into these markets. This study provides critical information to decision makers regarding regional- and national-level investment strategies, along with the level of anticipated returns that will result from continued market development.

OVERVIEW, SCOPE AND FORMAT OF THIS REPORT

The scope of this report includes the following categories of wastewater reuse and recycling technologies:
• Conventional treatment and recycling technologies.
• Membrane filtration technologies.
• Membrane-bioreactor technologies.
• Chemical treatments and disinfection technologies.
• Demineralization technologies.

Within the scope of this report, BCC analyzes each technology, determines its current market status, examines its impact on future markets and presents forecasts of growth over the ensuing five years. Technological issues, including the latest trends, are assessed and discussed, as is the current and likely ongoing regulatory environment in support of this industry.

BCC analyzes anticipated market values in light of regional and global markets for wastewater recycling and reuse. This report examines governments’ roles with respect to wastewater quality management, wastewater recycling and reuse, and support and incentives for the utilization of reclaimed wastewater. It provides a review of the most relevant recycling and reuse technologies; discusses recent trends in technology development, implementation and deployment; and provides overviews and market assessments for each technology.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in the preparation of this study. Background information, including reviews of municipal and industrial wastewater installed bases, water scarcity and water stress, and technological reviews of the various technologies and technology categories considered in this report, was collected from government and industry sources. Economic indicators, including industrial productivity, industry-specific economic trends, and larger-scale geopolitical and economic trends (e.g., economic recovery, Middle East regime changes) were also reviewed based on available government and industry sources. Specific citations and references are provided throughout this report as needed to support this study.

BCC's research of present and historic market trends was conducted primarily via personal interviews and Internet research, as well as reliance upon available governmental and industry data. Internal company data and annual documentation of sales relevant to a particular wastewater recycling technology were also reviewed to prepare market assessments. Based on the results of these surveys and research, BCC analyzed the potential applications for each technology and then forecast remaining 2012 sales and projected sales through 2017.

Market sizes, installed capacity figures and annual installations were calculated based upon data obtained from surveyed parties. When data were not available, especially for existing industrial wastewater treatment bases in some nations, estimates were made based on available data from other countries, national industrial productivity, national industrial structure, national-level economic trends, existing regulations and other factors relevant to wastewater treatment in a given country or region. Additionally, when possible, the data provided in this report were compared with other industry data to ensure relevance, applicability and accuracy.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

Robert Eckard has more than 10 years of experience working in the water, energy and environmental industries. Currently pursuing a PhD in Water and Energy Resources at the University of California at Davis, Mr. Eckard also runs a small industry research and technical consulting company, with an emphasis on energy, water and environmental sectors. He has provided economic analysis market assessments, environmental analysis, and technical water and energy reports to state and local governments, the U.S. Department of Energy, other consultants, and private companies and individuals throughout the U.S., as well as in the Middle East, Asia and Australia. He has produced reports for BCC Research on an array of global markets, including for residential and commercial solar thermal (ST) technologies, industrial and utility-scale ST technologies, distributed-generation technologies, energy-efficiency technologies, unconventional natural gas markets, enhanced oil-recovery markets and energy-storage technologies.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

This report provides:
• An overview of the most prevalent water recycling and reuse technologies in the global market, as well as the markets and applications those technologies serve
• Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2011 and 2012, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2017
• A detailed look at the factors that will drive the growth of the market, as well as sources of project funding and regulation requirements
• A breakdown of the industry structure
• A patent analysis
• Comprehensive company profiles of major players in the industry.

Table Of Contents

Global Markets and Technologies for Water Recycling and Reuse
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1
REASONS FOR COMPLETING THIS STUDY 1
INTENDED AUDIENCE 1
OVERVIEW, SCOPE AND FORMAT OF THIS REPORT 1
GLOBAL MARKETS 2
TABLE A GLOBAL MARKETS CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY 2
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 2
TABLE B RESEARCH INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC REPORTS 3
BCC ON-LINE SERVICES 4
DISCLAIMER 4

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 7

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10

GLOBAL WATER AND WASTEWATER 10
GLOBAL WATER SUPPLIES 10
TABLE 1 VARIOUS WATER-CONSUMPTION USES (% WATER WITHDRAWN) 10
TABLE 2 RENEWABLE WATER RESROUCES AND TOTAL WATER WITHDRAWALS BY REGION,
2011 11
Water Shortages and Drought 12
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL DROUGHT FREQUENCY AND DISTRIBUTION, 1980-2000 12
Water Supply Sources 13
Global Water Demand 14
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL WATER DEMAND AND DEFICIT, 2010-2030 14
FIGURE 3 HISTORIC U.S. WATER WITHDRAWALS, 1950-2005 15
GLOBAL WASTEWATER PRODUCTION AND TREATMENT 16
Global Wastewater Production Overview 16
Global Wastewater Treatment Overview 17
FIGURE 4 PROPORTION OF POPULATION CONNECTED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT
FACILITIES, 2011 17
Human Health Effects of Wastewater Discharge 18
GLOBAL WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING 19
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE TECHNOLOGIES 20
WASTEWATER REUSE, RECYCLING AND RECLAMATION 20
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE HISTORY 20
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTEWATER AND ASSOCIATED TREATMENT
SYSTEMS 21
Industrial 21
Municipal 22
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS 23
TABLE 3 COMMON WASTEWATER CONSTITUENTS TARGETED FOR MEASUREMENT,
REMOVAL AND INACTIVATION 23
Wastewater Treatment Technologies 24
Conventional Wastewater Treatment Processes 25
TABLE 4 CONVENTIONAL PRIMARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS 25
TABLE 5 CONVENTIONAL SECONDARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS 26
TABLE 6 CONVENTIONAL TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS 28
Wastewater recycling Technologies 28
TABLE 7 WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING TECHNOLOGIES CONSIDERED IN THIS
REPORT 29
Recycling Based on Conventional Wastewater Treatment 29
Membrane Filtration 29
TABLE 8 MEMBRANE FILTRATION SIZE CATEGORIES 30
Microfiltration 30
Ultrafiltration 31
Nanofiltration 31
Reverse Osmosis 32
Chemical Treatments 32
TABLE 9 COMMON CHEMICAL TREATMENT APPLICATIONS 33
Demineralization 33
Disinfection 34
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE BENEFITS 35
WATER SUPPLY ENHANCEMENT, AUGMENTATION AND BENEFICIAL REUSE 35
Municipal Water Supply Enhancement 35
Industrial Water Supply Enhancement 35
Agricultural Water Supply Enhancement 36
Groundwater Recharge 36
Environmental Enhancement 36
WASTEWATER DISCHARGE REDUCTION 36
ENHANCED REGULATORY COMPLIANCE 37
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE DRAWBACKS 37
EXPOSURE TO HARMFUL POLLUTANTS 37
PUBLIC PERCEPTION 38
COST AND ECONOMIC RISK 38
RELEVANT EMERGING TECHNIQUES AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR MARKET READINESS 38
TABLE 10 SELECT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES RELEVANT TO WASTEWATER RECYCLING
AND REUSE 39

CHAPTER 4 GLOBAL WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET 41

GLOBAL MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKETS 41
TABLE 11 GLOBAL WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2017 (ANNUAL INCREMENTAL TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE IN MGD) 42
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017
(ANNUAL INCREMENTAL TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE IN MGD) 43
TABLE 12 GLOBAL WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2017 ($ MILLIONS) 44
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017
($ MILLIONS) 44
GLOBAL WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING: TECHNOLOGY-SPECIFIC MARKETS 44
GLOBAL CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE AND
RECYCLING MARKET 45
TABLE 13 GLOBAL CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 45
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 45
GLOBAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE AND
RECYCLING MARKET 46
TABLE 14 GLOBAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 47
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 47
GLOBAL MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE AND
RECYCLING MARKET 47
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 48
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 48
GLOBAL CHEMICAL TREATMENTS AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
REUSE AND RECYCLING MARKET 49
TABLE 16 CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 50
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 50
GLOBAL DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE AND RECYCLING
MARKET 50
TABLE 17 GLOBAL DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 51
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 51

CHAPTER 5 NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING TECHNOLOGIES

MARKET 54
NORTH AMERICAN INSTALLED WASTEWATER TREATMENT BASES 54
FIGURE 12 NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS, 2011 (UNITS) 54
NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING DRIVERS 56
NORTH AMERICAN WATER SCARCITY 56
FIGURE 13 NORTH AMERICAN WATER STRESS INTENSITY, 2012 57
NORTH AMERICAN WATER-SUPPLY COST 58
FIGURE 14 CALIFORNIA ENERGY USAGE PER ACRE-FOOT OF WATER BY SUPPLY SOURCE,
2009 58
TABLE 18 U.S. WEST COST RANGES FOR MUNICIPAL WATER SOURCES, ($ PER ACRE FOOT) 59
NORTH AMERICAN REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT 59
TABLE 19 U.S. REGULATIONS SUPPORTING WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING 61
EXISTING NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER-INFRASTRUCTURE STATUS 64
TABLE 20 WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENT DESIGN LIFE (YEARS) 65
NORTH AMERICAN POPULATION TRENDS 66
NORTH AMERICAN GREENING 66
NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING INDUSTRY TRENDS 66
EXISTING NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING PLANT STATUS 67
NORTH AMERICAN RECYCLED WASTEWATER END USES 67
FIGURE 15 CALIFORNIA RECYCLED MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER END USES, 2009 68
North American Agricultural Irrigation 68
North American Landscape Irrigation 68
Groundwater Recharge 69
North American Industrial Uses 69
Natural System Restoration 70
Recreational Impoundment 70
NORTH AMERICAN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TRENDS 70
NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING TECHNOLOGIES MARKET 71
NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MUNICIPAL AND
INDUSTRIAL MARKETS 71
TABLE 21 NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL INCREMENTAL TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE IN MGD) 73
FIGURE 16 NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
2009-2017 (ANNUAL INCREMENTAL TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE IN MGD) 73
TABLE 22 NORTH AMERICAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY
TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 74
FIGURE 17 NORTH AMERICAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY
TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 74
TABLE 23 NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 75
FIGURE 18 NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 24 NORTH AMERICAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY
MARKET VALUE, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 76
FIGURE 19 NORTH AMERICAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY
MARKET VALUE, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 76
NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING: TECHNOLOGY-SPECIFIC
MARKETS 76
NORTH AMERICAN CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE
AND RECYCLING MARKET 77
TABLE 25 NORTH AMERICAN CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 77
FIGURE 20 NORTH AMERICAN CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 77
NORTH AMERICAN MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE AND
RECYCLING MARKET 78
TABLE 26 NORTH AMERICAN MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 79
FIGURE 21 NORTH AMERICAN MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 79
NORTH AMERICAN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE
AND RECYCLING MARKET 79
TABLE 27 NORTH AMERICAN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 80
FIGURE 22 NORTH AMERICAN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 80
NORTH AMERICAN CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES
FOR THE REUSE AND RECYCLING MARKET 81
TABLE 28 NORTH AMERICAN CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES
FOR THE WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 82
FIGURE 23 NORTH AMERICAN CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION
TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 82
NORTH AMERICAN DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE AND
RECYCLING MARKET 82
TABLE 29 NORTH AMERICAN DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 83
FIGURE 24 NORTH AMERICAN DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 83

CHAPTER 6 EUROPEAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING TECHNOLOGIES MARKET 85

EUROPEAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT INSTALLED BASES 85
FIGURE 25 EUROPEAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS, 2011 (UNITS) 85
EUROPEAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING MARKET DRIVERS 86
EUROPEAN WATER SCARCITY 86
FIGURE 26 EUROPEAN WATER STRESS INTESITY, 2012 87
FIGURE 27 CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN SALINE GROUNDWATER INTRUSION, 2009 88
EUROPEAN WATER SUPPLY COST 89
TABLE 30 EUROPEAN AVERAGE MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY COST BY REGION (U.S.
DOLLARS PER CUBIC METER) 89
EUROPEAN REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT 90
TABLE 31 EUROPEAN REGULATORY SUPPORT FOR WASTEWATER RECYCLING BY REGION 90
EXISTING EUROPEAN WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE STATUS 91
TABLE 32 WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENT DESIGN LIFE (YEARS) 91
EUROPEAN POPULATION TRENDS 92
EUROPEAN GREENING 92
EUROPEAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING INDUSTRY TRENDS 92
EXISTING EUROPEAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING 93
EUROPEAN RECYCLED WASTEWATER END USES 93
European Agricultural Irrigation 93
Landscape Irrigation 94
Groundwater Recharge 94
European Industrial Uses 94
Natural-System Restoration 95
EUROPEAN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TRENDS 95
EUROPEAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING TECHNOLOGIES MARKET 96
EUROPEAN MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE
MARKETS 97
TABLE 33 EUROPEAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL INCREMENTAL TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE IN MGD) 98
FIGURE 28 EUROPEAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
2009-2017 (ANNUAL INCREMENTAL TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE IN MGD) 98
TABLE 34 EUROPEAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY
TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 99
FIGURE 29 EUROPEAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY
TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 99
TABLE 35 EUROPEAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 100
FIGURE 30 EUROPEAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 36 EUROPEAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY MARKET
VALUES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 102
FIGURE 31 EUROPEAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY MARKET
VALUES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 102
EUROPEAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING: TECHNOLOGY-SPECIFIC
MARKETS 102
EUROPEAN CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE AND
RECYCLING MARKET 103
TABLE 37 EUROPEAN CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 103
FIGURE 32 EUROPEAN CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 103
EUROPEAN MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE AND
RECYCLING MARKET 104
TABLE 38 EUROPEAN MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 105
FIGURE 33 EUROPEAN MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 105
EUROPEAN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE AND
RECYCLING MARKET 106
TABLE 39 EUROPEAN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 106
FIGURE 34 EUROPEAN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 107
EUROPEAN CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
REUSE AND RECYCLING MARKET 107
TABLE 40 EUROPEAN CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR
THE WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 108
FIGURE 35 EUROPEAN CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR
THE WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 108
EUROPEAN DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE AND RECYCLING
MARKET 109
TABLE 41 EUROPEAN DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 109
FIGURE 36 EUROPEAN DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 109

CHAPTER 7 MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING TECHNOLOGIES

MARKET 112
MIDDLE EASTERN INSTALLED WASTEWATER TREATMENT BASES 112
FIGURE 37 MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS BY REGION, 2011 (UNITS) 113
MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING DRIVERS 113
MIDDLE EASTERN WATER SCARCITY AND POPULATION TRENDS 114
FIGURE 38 MIDDLE EASTERN WATER STRESS INTENSITY, 2012 114
MIDDLE EASTERN WATER SUPPLY COST 116
MIDDLE EASTERN REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT 117
TABLE 42 MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER RECYCLING GUIDELINES, 2010-2012 117
EXISTING MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE STATUS 118
TABLE 43 WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENT DESIGN LIFE (YEARS) 119
MIDDLE EASTERN FACILITY PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS 119
MIDDLE EASTERN GREENING 120
ARAB SPRING 120
MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING INDUSTRY TRENDS 120
EXISTING MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER RECYCLING PLANTS 121
MIDDLE EASTERN RECYCLED WASTEWATER END USES 121
Agricultural Irrigation 121
Landscape Irrigation 122
Groundwater Recharge 122
Industrial Uses 122
Natural System Restoration 123
MIDDLE EASTERN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TRENDS 123
MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING TECHNOLOGIES MARKET 124
MIDDLE EASTERN MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL MARKETS FOR WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE 125
TABLE 44 MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL INCREMENTAL TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE IN MGD) 125
FIGURE 39 MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
2009-2017 (ANNUAL INCREMENTAL TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE IN MGD) 126
TABLE 45 MIDDLE EASTERN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY
TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 126
FIGURE 40 MIDDLE EASTERN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY
TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 126
TABLE 46 MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 128
FIGURE 41 MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 128
TABLE 47 MIDDLE EASTERN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY
MARKET VALUES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 129
FIGURE 42 MIDDLE EASTERN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY
MARKET VALUES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 129
MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING: TECHNOLOGY-SPECIFIC
MARKETS 129
MIDDLE EASTERN CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE
AND RECYCLING MARKET 130
TABLE 48 MIDDLE EASTERN CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 130
FIGURE 43 MIDDLE EASTERN CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 130
MIDDLE EASTERN MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE AND
RECYCLING MARKET 131
TABLE 49 MIDDLE EASTERN MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 132
FIGURE 44 MIDDLE EASTERN MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 132
MIDDLE EASTERN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE AND
RECYCLING MARKET 132
TABLE 50 MIDDLE EASTERN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 133
FIGURE 45 MIDDLE EASTERN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 134
MIDDLE EASTERN CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES
FOR THE REUSE AND RECYCLING MARKET 134
TABLE 51 MIDDLE EASTERN CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES
FOR THE WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 135
FIGURE 46 MIDDLE EASTERN CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES
FOR THE WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($
MILLIONS) 135
MIDDLE EASTERN DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE AND
RECYCLING MARKET 135
TABLE 52 MIDDLE EASTERN DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 136
FIGURE 47 MIDDLE EASTERN DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 137

CHAPTER 8 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING

TECHNOLOGIES MARKET 139
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN INSTALLED WASTEWATER TREATMENT BASES 139
FIGURE 48 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS, 2010 (UNITS) 140
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING DRIVERS 141
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WATER SCARCITY 141
FIGURE 49 ASIAN WATER-STRESS INTENSITY, 2012 141
FIGURE 50 AUSTRALIAN AND OCEANIC WATER-STRESS INTENSITY, 2012 142
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WATER SUPPLY COST 142
TABLE 53 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY AVERAGE COST BY REGION
(U.S. DOLLARS PER CUBIC METER) 143
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT 143
EXISTING ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE STATUS 145
TABLE 54 WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENT DESIGN LIFE (YEARS) 146
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN POPULATION TRENDS 146
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN GREENING 146
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING INDUSTRY TRENDS 147
EXISTING ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING 147
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN RECYCLED WASTEWATER END USES 147
Asian and Australian Agricultural Irrigation 147
Landscape Irrigation 148
Groundwater Recharge 148
Industrial Uses 149
Asian and Australian Environmental Uses 149
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TRENDS 149
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING TECHNOLOGIES
MARKET 150
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER RECYCLING
AND REUSE MARKETS 151
TABLE 55 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY
REGION, THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL INCREMENTAL TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE IN
MGD) 152
FIGURE 51 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY
REGION, 2009-2017 (ANNUAL INCREMENTAL TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE IN MGD) 152
TABLE 56 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKET BY
TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 153
FIGURE 52 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS
BY TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 153
TABLE 57 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY
REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 154
FIGURE 53 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY
REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 154
TABLE 58 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS
BY MARKET VALUES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 155
FIGURE 54 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS
BY MARKET VALUES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 155
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING:
TECHNOLOGY-SPECIFIC MARKETS 156
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
REUSE AND RECYCLING MARKET 156
TABLE 59 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 157
FIGURE 55 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR
THE WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 157
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
REUSE AND RECYCLING MARKET 158
TABLE 60 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 159
FIGURE 56 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 159
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
REUSE AND RECYCLING MARKET 160
TABLE 61 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 160
FIGURE 57 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 161
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION
TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REUSE AND RECYCLING MARKET 161
TABLE 62 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION
TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 162
FIGURE 58 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION
TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET, 2009-2017 ($
MILLIONS) 162
ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES 162
TABLE 63 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 163
FIGURE 59 ASIAN AND AUSTRALIAN DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 164

CHAPTER 9 COMPANY PROFILES 166

ABENGOA 166
TABLE 64 ABENGOA 167
ALFA LAVAL CORPORATE AB 167
TABLE 65 ALFA LAVAL 168
AMIAD WATER SYSTEMS LTD. 168
TABLE 66 AMIAD WATER SYSTEMS LTD. 169
AQUA SYSTEMS MARKETING AND SERVICES 169
TABLE 67 AQUA SYSTEMS 170
AQUA-AEROBIC SYSTEMS INC. 170
TABLE 68 AQUA-AEROBIC SYSTEMS INC. 171
AQUATECH 171
TABLE 69 AQUATECH 172
AXINE WATER TECHNOLOGIES INC. 172
TABLE 70 AXINE WATER TECHNOLOGIES INC. 173
BIO-MICROBICS INC. 173
TABLE 71 BIO-MICROBICS INC. 173
BLUE PLANET/ECOLOGICAL LABORATORIES 174
TABLE 72 BLUE PLANET/ECOLOGICAL LABORATORIES 175
CALGON CARBON CORPORATION 175
TABLE 73 CALGON CARBON CORPORATION 176
CH2M HILL OMI 176
TABLE 74 CH2M HILL OMI 177
CHEMTREAT INC. (DANAHER CORPORATION) 177
TABLE 75 CHEMTREAT INC. 178
DEGREMONT TECHNOLOGIES LTD 178
TABLE 76 DEGREMONT TECHNOLOGIES LTD 179
DOW WATER AND PROCESS SOLUTIONS 179
TABLE 77 DOW WATER AND PROCESS SOLUTIONS 180
GE WATER AND PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES 180
TABLE 78 GE WATER AND PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES 181
GRAVER TECHNOLOGIES LLC 181
TABLE 79 GRAVER TECHNOLOGIES LLC 182
H2O INNOVATION 182
TABLE 80 H2O INNOVATION 183
HAMWORTHY 183
TABLE 81 HAMWORTHY 184
HUBBARD-HALL 184
TABLE 82 HUBBARD-HALL 185
HYDRANAUTICS (A NITTO DENKO CORPORATION) 185
TABLE 83 HYDRANAUTICS (A NITTO DENKO CORPORATION) 186
HYFLUX LTD 186
TABLE 84 HYFLUX LTD 187
INGE GMBH (BASF) 187
TABLE 85 INGE GMBH (BASF) 188
ION EXCHANGE INDIA 188
TABLE 86 ION EXCHANGE INDIA 189
KOCH MEMBRANE SYSTEMS INC. 189
TABLE 87 KOCH MEMBRANE SYSTEMS INC. 190
KUBOTA 190
TABLE 88 KUBOTA 191



KURITA WATER INDUSTRIES LTD. 191
TABLE 89 KURITA WATER INDUSTRIES LTD. 192
MITSUBISHI RAYON 192
TABLE 90 MITSUBISHI RAYON CO. LTD. 193
NALCO HOLDING COMPANY 193
TABLE 91 NALCO HOLDING COMPANY 194
NANO H2O 194
TABLE 92 NANO H2O 195
NEW LOGIC RESEARCH INC. 195
TABLE 93 NEW LOGIC RESEARCH INC. 196
NORWALK WASTEWATER EQUIPMENT COMPANY (NORWECO) 196
TABLE 94 NORWALK WASTEWATER EQUIPMENT COMPANY (NORWECO) 197
OVIVO (GLV INC.) 197
TABLE 95 OVIVO 198
PALL CORPORATION 198
TABLE 96 PALL CORPORATION 199
PENTAIR X-FLOW 199
TABLE 97 PENTAIR X-FLOW 200
SAEHAN CORPORATION 200
TABLE 98 SAEHAN CORPORATION 201
SEPROTECH SYSTEMS 201
TABLE 99 SEPROTECH SYSTEMS 202
SEVERN TRENT SERVICES 202
TABLE 100 SEVERN TRENT SERVICES 203
SIEMENS WATER TECHNOLOGIES 203
TABLE 101 SIEMENS WATER TECHNOLOGIES 204
SINOMEM TECHNOLOGY LTD. 204
TABLE 102 SINOMEM TECHNOLOGY LTD. 205
SUEZ ENVIRONMENT 205
TABLE 103 SUEZ ENVIRONMENT 206
TRISEP CORPORATION 206
TABLE 104 TRISEP CORPORATION 207
TROJANUV (DANAHER CORPORATION) 207
TABLE 105 TROJANUV (DANAHER CORPORATION) 208
UV GUARD AUSTRALIA (NUBIAN WATER) 208
TABLE 106 UV GUARD AUSTRALIA 209
VEOLIA WATER SOLUTIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES 209
TABLE 107 VEOLIA WATER SOLUTIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES 210
WEDECO 210
XYLEM 210
TABLE 108 XYLEM 211

CHAPTER 10 REFERENCES 213



LIST OF TABLES

TABLE A GLOBAL MARKETS CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY 2
TABLE B RESEARCH INFORMATION SOURCES 3
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 VARIOUS WATER-CONSUMPTION USES (% WATER WITHDRAWN) 10
TABLE 2 RENEWABLE WATER RESROUCES AND TOTAL WATER WITHDRAWALS BY REGION,
2011 11
TABLE 3 COMMON WASTEWATER CONSTITUENTS TARGETED FOR MEASUREMENT,
REMOVAL AND INACTIVATION 23
TABLE 4 CONVENTIONAL PRIMARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS 25
TABLE 5 CONVENTIONAL SECONDARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS 26
TABLE 6 CONVENTIONAL TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS 28
TABLE 7 WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING TECHNOLOGIES CONSIDERED IN THIS
REPORT 29
TABLE 8 MEMBRANE FILTRATION SIZE CATEGORIES 30
TABLE 9 COMMON CHEMICAL TREATMENT APPLICATIONS 33
TABLE 10 SELECT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES RELEVANT TO WASTEWATER RECYCLING
AND REUSE 39
TABLE 11 GLOBAL WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2017 (ANNUAL INCREMENTAL TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE IN MGD) 42
TABLE 12 GLOBAL WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2017 ($ MILLIONS) 44
TABLE 13 GLOBAL CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 45
TABLE 14 GLOBAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 47
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 48
TABLE 16 CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 50
TABLE 17 GLOBAL DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER RECYCLING
AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, 2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 51
TABLE 18 U.S. WEST COST RANGES FOR MUNICIPAL WATER SOURCES, ($ PER ACRE FOOT) 59
TABLE 19 U.S. REGULATIONS SUPPORTING WASTEWATER REUSE AND RECYCLING 61
TABLE 20 WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENT DESIGN LIFE (YEARS) 65
TABLE 21 NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL INCREMENTAL TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE IN MGD) 73
TABLE 22 NORTH AMERICAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY
TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 74
TABLE 23 NORTH AMERICAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 24 NORTH AMERICAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY
MARKET VALUE, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 76
TABLE 25 NORTH AMERICAN CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 77
TABLE 26 NORTH AMERICAN MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 79
TABLE 27 NORTH AMERICAN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 28 NORTH AMERICAN CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES
FOR THE WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 82
TABLE 29 NORTH AMERICAN DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 83
TABLE 30 EUROPEAN AVERAGE MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY COST BY REGION (U.S. DOLLARS PER CUBIC METER) 89
TABLE 31 EUROPEAN REGULATORY SUPPORT FOR WASTEWATER RECYCLING BY REGION 90
TABLE 32 WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENT DESIGN LIFE (YEARS) 91
TABLE 33 EUROPEAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL INCREMENTAL TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE IN MGD) 98
TABLE 34 EUROPEAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY TREATMENT
CAPACITY INCREASES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 99
TABLE 35 EUROPEAN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
2009-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 36 EUROPEAN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY MARKET
VALUES, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 102
TABLE 37 EUROPEAN CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 38 EUROPEAN MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 105
TABLE 39 EUROPEAN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES* FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 40 EUROPEAN CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE
WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 41 EUROPEAN DEMINERALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE WASTEWATER
RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 109
TABLE 42 MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER RECYCLING GUIDELINES, 2010-2012 117
TABLE 43 WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENT DESIGN LIFE (YEARS) 119
TABLE 44 MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL INCREMENTAL TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE IN MGD) 125
TABLE 45 MIDDLE EASTERN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY
TREATMENT CAPACITY INCREASE, 2012 AND 2017 (%) 126
TABLE 46 MIDDLE EASTERN WASTEWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 128
TABLE 47 MIDDLE EASTERN MUNICIPAL MARKETS VERSUS INDUSTRIAL MARKETS BY
MARKET VALUES, 2012 AND 20

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