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Site Potentials for Biomass Power Plants in Poland (Analyst version)

The Polish market for renewable energies has reached a turning point. The new Polish Act on Renewable Energy Sources entails new opportunities for developing biomass power plant projects, for instance at locations of the wood or furniture industry.
At present, mono-incinerators at such locations produce less than five per cent of the Polish electricity from biomass. Most potentially favourable locations have not yet been developed.
Instead, almost 80 per cent of the biomass electricity and more than a third of the renewable energies in Poland are generated through co-incinerating biomass in coal power plants.
The new Polish Act on Renewable Energy Sources is scheduled to come into effect in the second half of 2013. According to this law, the support of co-incinerators should decrease significantly in the future. By contrast, smaller biomass power plants, mono-incinerators and electricity generation by using CHP technology should receive stronger support. At the same time, the goals in terms of developing and boosting renewable energies are once again increasing.
In light of this development, ecoprog and local partners have jointly analysed the market for electricity generation from solid biomass in detail. The report focuses on the identification of industrial locations that produce large amounts of biomass.

The analyst version of the report “Site Potentials for Biomass Power Plants in Poland” includes:
• A detailed analysis of the current and future legislation for promoting renewable energies and electricity generation from solid biomass in Poland.
• An evaluation of the biomass streams that are currently being used as fuel in biomass power plants, including their amounts and sources.






Table Of Contents

Site Potentials for Biomass Power Plants in Poland (Analyst version)
Content

Preface for the analyst version 8

Preface 9

Management Summary 10

Part 1: Legislation and market 15

1 Country data 16

1.1 Population 16
1.2 Administration 17
1.3 Economic structure and development 18

2 The electricity market in Poland 21

2.1 Electricity consumption 21
2.2 Electricity generation 22
2.3 Key players in the energy market 24

3 Renewable energy and CHP legislation 29

3.1 European background 29
3.2 General system of green certificates 31
3.3 Biomass requirements 33
3.4 CHP support 35
3.5 Green heat support 36
3.6 Future legislation 37

4 Current market 41

4.1 Renewable energy and certificate prices 41
4.2 Biomass plants and capacities 43
4.3 Competition 47
4.4 Biomass consumption 48
4.5 Outlook 52

Part 2: Solid biomass streams 55

5 Forest wood residues 56

5.1 Forest area 56
5.2 Players 57
5.3 Amounts 58
5.4 Energetic use 59
5.5 Market and prices 59

6 Wood processing industry 62

6.1 Sawmills: amounts and sources of residues 63
6.2 Furniture industry: amounts and sources of residues 67
6.3 Panel industry: amounts and sources of residues 70
6.4 Pulp and paper industry: amounts and sources of residues 73
6.5 Pellet producers: amounts and sources 77

7 Agricultural biomass 80

7.1 Straw: amounts and sources 81
7.2 Rapeseed meal and oil cake: amounts and sources 85
7.3 Cereal bran: amounts and sources 89
7.4 Energy crops: amounts and sources 93

8 Recycling wood and landscape residues 95

8.1 Players and competition 95
8.2 Waste amounts 95
8.3 Energetic use 99
8.4 Prices / gate fees 101
8.5 Biomass plants 101
8.6 Reforms of the waste business 101
8.7 Landscape residues 106

9 Export / import 108

9.1 Export 108
9.2 Import 108

Glossary 111



Table of figures

Figure 1: Density of population and 10 largest cities 16
Figure 2: Voivodeships in Poland 17
Figure 3: Voivodeship borders 18
Figure 4: Shares of national income 19
Figure 5: Forecast of GDP development in Poland 20
Figure 6: Demand for electricity in Poland [TWh] 21
Figure 7: Estimated demand for electricity in Poland [TWh] 22
Figure 8: Electricity production in Poland [TWh] 22
Figure 9: Structure of electricity production in Poland (2011) 23
Figure 10: Structure of renewable electricity production in Poland (2011) 24
Figure 11: Business breakdown structure of electricity production in Poland (2011) 25
Figure 12: Prices of electricity for final consumers who do not exercise the right to choose the seller [PLN/MWh] 26
Figure 13: Number of customers who exercise the right to choose the seller 26
Figure 14: Number of public tenders for the purchase of electricity 27
Figure 15: Value of contracts signed in 2010 by the largest market participants [million PLN] 28
Figure 16: Targets of the EU member states for the development of electricity generation from solid biomass 30
Figure 17: Scheme of the process of issuing RES certificates 32
Figure 18: Development of Renewable Energy Obligations 33
Figure 19: Minimal shares of biomass from agriculture 34
Figure 20: Quotas for CHP certificates 36
Figure 21: Comparison of target levels 37
Figure 22: Initial values of correction indices for new biomass plants 38
Figure 23: Minimal share of agricultural biomass of the total fuel stream fed to the boiler 39
Figure 24: Demand and supply in the Polish electricity business 41
Figure 25: Price development of green certificates 42
Figure 26: Estimated income of producers per unit of renewable electricity 42
Figure 27: Current and planned biomass incinerators in Poland 43
Figure 28: Development of electricity production from solid biomass per type of plant 44
Figure 29: Biomass co-incinerating power plants in Poland 45
Figure 30: Biomass mono-incinerating plants in cooperation with coal power plants 46
Figure 31: Biomass mono-incinerating plants 46
Figure 32: Competition in the biomass-to-power market 47
Figure 33: Development of biomass consumption 48
Figure 34: Type of biomass consumption 49
Figure 35: Biomass streams for power generation 50
Figure 36: Price development of biomass in the commercial power business 51
Figure 37: Biomass power plants planned or under construction 52
Figure 38: Land cover in Poland 56
Figure 39: Woodland in Europe 57
Figure 40: Forest area and wood yield in Poland 57
Figure 41: State Forests administration areas 58
Figure 42: Wood yield and its management in certain RDLP regions 60
Figure 43: Comparison of forestation rate, wood yield and prices in certain RDLP areas 61
Figure 44: Wood residues from wood processing industries 62
Figure 45: Structure of sawmill and planing industry in Poland 63
Figure 46: The largest companies of the sawmill industry in Poland 64
Figure 47: Sawmills in Poland 65
Figure 48: Prices of round softwood for pallets 66
Figure 49: Structure of the furniture industry in Poland 67
Figure 50: Furniture manufacturers in Poland 68
Figure 51: Structure of wood waste generated in the furniture industry 69
Figure 52: Structure of the panel industry in Poland 70
Figure 53: Locations of the panel producing industry in Poland 71
Figure 54: Structure of wood waste generated in the wood-based panels industry 72
Figure 55: Structure of the pulp and paper industry in Poland 73
Figure 56: Main locations of the pulp and paper industry in Poland 74
Figure 57: Polish wood pellet producers 77
Figure 58: Polish wood pellet production 78
Figure 59: Producers of straw pellets in Poland 82
Figure 60: Cereal crops by cultivated area 83
Figure 61: Structure of the fat and oil industry in Poland 85
Figure 62: Large producers of rapeseed meal in Poland 86
Figure 63: Manufacturers of grain mill products 89
Figure 64: The largest cereal bran mills in Poland 90
Figure 65: Cereal bran price development in Poland 91
Figure 66: Distribution of energy crops in Poland (hectares) 93
Figure 67: Sources of non-MSW waste in Poland 96
Figure 68: Structure of construction waste in Poland 97
Figure 69: MSW amounts and separately collected waste streams 98
Figure 70: MSW production and generation 99
Figure 71: Waste disposal and treatment 100
Figure 72: Landfill and incinerator gate fees in Poland 101
Figure 73: Fees for the disposal on landfill sites 103
Figure 74: Implementation of new municipal responsibilities 104
Figure 75: Waste-to-Energy projects in Poland 105
Figure 76: Volume of imported biomass from the oil and fats industry 109
Figure 77: Volume of imported biomass from the oil and fats industry 109

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