Nanotechnology in Energy Applications

  • February 2013
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 151 pages

INTRODUCTION

STUDY BACKGROUND

Nanotechnology is increasingly impacting the U.S. and world energy balance, both on the supply and demand sides. On the supply side, nanotechnology is being used to optimize production from existing energy sources (e.g., crude petroleum) and to exploit new sources such as heavy oil, liquefied coal and solar energy (including using solar energy to produce hydrogen). Nanotechnology is also improving and opening new possibilities for the transmission and storage of energy, especially electricity and possibly hydrogen in the future.

On the supply side, nanotechnologies have the potential to reduce energy consumption by making it possible to manufacture lighter and/or more energy-efficient cards and appliances. Nanotechnologies can also be used to improve energy efficiency in buildings.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This report is an updated edition of a BCC report first published in 2007, whose goal is to identify and quantify the market for nanoscale materials and devices that are used to generate or conserve energy. Specific objectives include the following:

Identifying nanoscale materials and devices that currently are or in the future could be used in energy production or conservation applications.
Analyzing and predicting trends in the most likely application(s) for each of these materials and devices.
Projecting the resulting market for specific nanoscale materials and devices.
Estimating the potential net impact of nanoscale materials and devices on the global energy balance.
Drawing attention to manufacturers of renewable energy systems and associated advanced materials and devices that are most likely to benefit from the trends identified above.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is a business opportunity report intended especially for developers and vendors of nanoscale materials and devices that target the energy systems market. It should also be useful to vendors of energy systems interested in understanding where the market is headed with respect to nanoscale enabling technologies.

Other readers who will find the report’s findings and conclusions informative include:

Investors.
Members of the energy trade, professionals and advocacy organizations.
The general nanotechnology interest community.
Officials of government agencies and multinational organizations concerned with energy developments and nanotechnology.

While the report is oriented to the interests and concerns of a non-technical audience, it contains a great deal of technical information that should also be of interest to scientists and engineers working in the nanotechnology and energy fields.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

The report focuses on the global market for nanoscale materials (e.g., nanopowders, nanocomposites, nanoscale thin films and others) and devices (e.g., nanosensors) used in the following types of energy applications:

Renewable and non-renewable energy production (e.g., petroleum refining, solar energy).
Energy transmission, conversion and storage (e.g., transmission systems, transformers, batteries and fuel cells).
Energy end uses (motor vehicles, building HVAC systems, manufacturing).

The report concentrates on nanotechnology applications that are currently in commercial use or are likely to be commercialized by 2017. Other applications that, while promising, are not likely to make it out of the laboratory by 2017, are not covered in-depth.

The report does not cover nanoscale materials and devices used to monitor and/or control the environmental impacts of energy production, or use such as nanomaterials used in automotive catalytic converters. These technologies are outside the scope of this study and are covered in detail in several other BCC Research reports such as reports NAN039A Nanotechnology in Environmental Applications and NAN035A Nanosensors.

The report also does not cover nanomaterials that may have an indirect impact on energy consumption (e.g., by decreasing weight or resistance). Readers interested in such materials may wish to consult BCC Report EGY051A Petroleum Fuel Optimization Technologies.

The report format includes the following major elements:

Executive summary.
Description of nanomaterials and nanodevices used in energy applications, including properties and fabrication methods.
Overall market size, segmentation and growth trends.
Major energy applications of nanoscale materials and devices.
Description.
Types of nanomaterials/nanodevices used.
Principal developers/manufacturers.
Patents.
Consumption of nanomaterials and nanodevices, 2011–2017.

INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY

The findings and conclusions of this report are based on information gathered from developers and manufacturers of nanoscale materials and devices and the energy systems in which they are used, as well as concerned governmental, industry and professional organizations. Interview data were combined with information gathered through an extensive review of secondary sources such as trade publications, trade associations, company literature and online databases to produce the baseline market estimates contained in this report.

The methodologies and assumptions used to develop the market projections in this report are discussed at length under the various types of nano-energy applications. The report carefully documents data sources and assumptions. This way, readers can see how the market estimates were developed and, if they so desire, test the impact on the final numbers of changing assumptions such as price.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

Andrew McWilliams, the author of this report, is a partner in the Boston-based international technology and marketing consulting firm, 43rd Parallel LLC. He is the author of numerous other BCC Research technology market research reports, including the earlier (2007) edition of this report, as well as several other reports in the areas of nanotechnology and energy such as EGY053C Advanced Materials and Devices for Renewable Energy Systems: Global Markets, EGY051A Petroleum Fuel Optimization Technologies, CHM020D Catalysts for Environmental and Energy Applications, NAN040A Nanomaterials Markets by Type, EGY055B Building the Global Hydrogen Economy: Technologies and Opportunities, AVM066C Superconductors: Technologies and Global Markets and NAN031E Nanotechnology: A Realistic Market Assessment.

Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
STUDY BACKGROUND 1
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1
INTENDED AUDIENCE 1
SCOPE AND FORMAT 2
INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY 2
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 3
BCC ON-LINE SERVICES 4
DISCLAIMER 4
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL ENERGY-RELATED MARKET FOR
NANOTECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 6
SUMMARY FIGURE TRENDS IN GLOBAL ENERGY-RELATED MARKET FOR
NANOTECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 7
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 9
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF NANOMATERIALS AND NANODEVICES 9
NANOMATERIALS 9
TABLE 1 MAJOR TYPES OF NANOMATERIALS 10
Solid Nanoparticles 10
Hollow Nanoparticles 10
Nanoscale Thin Films 11
Nanostructured Monolithics 11
Nanocomposites 11
Other Nanomaterials 11
NANODEVICES 12
Nanosensors 12
SPECIAL PROPERTIES 12
MAJOR ENERGY APPLICATIONS OF NANOMATERIALS AND NANODEVICES 13
ENERGY PRODUCTION, REFINING, STORAGE, TRANSMISSION AND
DISTRIBUTION 13
Synthetic Hydrocarbon Fuels 13
Solar Photovoltaics 13
Ethanol 14
Petroleum Refining 14
Fuel Cells 14
Batteries and Other Energy Storage Devices 14
Energy Transportation And Distribution 15
Miscellaneous Energy Production Applications 15
ENERGY EFFICIENCY 15
Transport Applications 15
Energy-Efficient Buildings 15
Industrial Processes 16
Consumer Products 16
OVERALL MARKET SIZE AND SEGMENTATION 16
MARKET SIZE 16
TABLE 2 GLOBAL ENERGY-RELATED MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGIES,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 16
FIGURE 1 TRENDS IN GLOBAL ENERGY-RELATED MARKET FOR
NANOTECHNOLOGIES, 2011-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 16
NANOTECHNOLOGY SEGMENTS 17
TABLE 3 ENERGY-RELATED MARKETS FOR NANOMATERIALS AND
NANODEVICES BY TYPE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 18
FIGURE 2 ENERGY-RELATED MARKETS FOR NANOMATERIALS AND
NANODEVICES, TECHNOLOGY SEGMENTS 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL
MARKET) 18
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 20
TABLE 4 ENERGY-RELATED MARKETS FOR NANOMATERIALS AND
NANODEVICES BY TYPE OF END USE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 20
FIGURE 3 ENERGY-RELATED MARKETS FOR NANOMATERIALS AND
NANODEVICES END-USE SEGMENTS, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL MARKET) 21
CHAPTER 4 NANOTECHNOLOGIES FOR ENERGY APPLICATIONS 25
SOLID NANOPARTICLES 25
FABRICATION 25
TABLE 5 NANOPARTICLE PRODUCTION PROCESSES 25
TYPES OF SOLID NANOPARTICLES WITH ENERGY APPLICATIONS 26
Metal Nanoparticles 26
TABLE 6 METAL NANOPARTICLES WITH ENERGY APPLICATIONS 26
Nickel and Iron Nanoparticles 26
Other Types of Metal Nanoparticles 26
Simple Oxide Nanoparticles 26
TABLE 7 SIMPLE OXIDE NANOPARTICLES WITH ENERGY APPLICATIONS 26
Titanium Dioxide 27
Vanadium Oxide 27
Cerium Oxide 27
Complex Oxide Nanoparticles 27
TABLE 8 COMPLEX OXIDE NANOPARTICLES WITH ENERGY APPLICATIONS 28
Lithium Titanate Spinel 28
Molybdenum Disulfide 28
Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia 28
Rare Earth Nanophosphors 28
Semiconductor Nanoparticles 29
HOLLOW NANOPARTICLES 29
FABRICATION 29
Arc Discharge 29
Laser Ablation 29
Chemical Vapor Deposition 29
HOLLOW NANOPARTICLES WITH ENERGY APPLICATIONS 30
Carbon Nanotubes 30
Nanohorns 30
NANOSCALE THIN FILMS 30
FABRICATION 30
Nanoparticulate Precursor Methods 30
Direct Production of Nanoscale Thin Films 31
NANOSCALE THIN FILMS WITH ENERGY APPLICATIONS 31
Platinum Thin Films 31
Organic Light Emitting Diode 32
NANOSTRUCTURED MONOLITHICS 32
TABLE 9 TYPES OF NANOSTRUCTURED MONOLITHICS WITH ENERGY
APPLICATIONS 32
ZEOLITES 32
Fabrication 32
Energy Applications 33
TABLE 10 COMMERCIAL ZEOLITES 33
AEROGELS 34
Fabrication 34
Energy Applications 34
NANOPOROUS MEMBRANES 34
Fabrication 35
Energy Applications 35
Petroleum Refining 35
Fuel Cells 35
NANOCOMPOSITES 35
FABRICATION 35
Clay/Polymer Nanocomposites 36
Carbon Nanotube Composites 36
Oriented Nanocomposite Extrusion Process 36
Layered Fabrication 36
TYPES OF NANOCOMPOSITES WITH ENERGY APPLICATIONS 37
TABLE 11 NANOCOMPOSITES WITH ENERGY APPLICATIONS 37
Cadmium Selenide Nanocomposites 37
Quantum Dot Nanocomposites 37
Carbon Fullerene Doped Nanocomposites 38
Nanocomposite Fuel Cell Membranes 38
Nanomagnetic Composites 38
Carbon Nanotube Composites 38
OTHER NANOMATERIALS 38
FABRICATION 38
ENERGY APPLICATIONS 39
NANODEVICES 39
NANOSENSORS 39
TABLE 12 ENERGY APPLICATIONS OF NANOSENSORS 40
CHAPTER 5 SYNTHETIC HYDROCARBON FUELS 42
SUMMARY 42
TABLE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGIES USED IN COAL
LIQUEFACTION, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 42
SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION 42
NANOMATERIALS USED IN SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION 43
SOLID NANOPARTICLES 43
Metal Nanoparticles 43
Technology and Applications 43
Patents 43
Market Analysis 43
TABLE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION NANOCATALYSTS,
THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 44
CHAPTER 6 SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS 46
SUMMARY 46
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOMATERIALS USED IN
PHOTOVOLTAICS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 46
SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES 46
SECOND-GENERATION PHOTOVOLTAICS 47
THIRD-GENERATION PHOTOVOLTAICS 47
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 47
Quantum Dot PVs 47
Organic PVs 48
Hybrid Organic-Metal PVs 49
Hybrid Organic-Organic PVs 49
NANOMATERIALS USED IN SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS 49
SOLID NANOPARTICLES 49
TABLE 16 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOLID NANOPARTICLES IN PHOTOVOLTAIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLION) 50
TiO2 Nanoparticles 50
Technology and Applications 50
Manufacturers 50
TABLE 17 COMPANIES MANUFACTURING OR DEVELOPING DSSC PVS 51
Patents 51
TABLE 18 U.S. PATENTS RELATED TO USE OF TIO2 NANOPARTICLES IN
PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS 51
Market Analysis 52
TABLE 19 CONSUMPTION OF DYE-SENSITIVE SOLAR CELLS, THROUGH 2017
($ MILLIONS) 52
TABLE 20 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF TIO2 NANOPARTICLES IN
DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 53
Quantum Dots 53
Technology and Applications 53
Manufacturer 54
Patents 54
Market Analysis 54
TABLE 21 CONSUMPTION OF EPITAXIALLY GROWN QUANTUM DOT PV
CELLS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 54
TABLE 22 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF EPITAXIALLY GROWN QUANTUM
DOTS IN PV FABRICATION, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 55
NANOCOMPOSITES 55
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOCOMPOSITES IN PHOTOVOLTAIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 56
P3HT/Cadmium Selenide 56
Technology and Applications 56
Manufacturers 56
Patents 57
Market Analysis 57
TABLE 24 CONSUMPTION OF P3HT/CDSE SOLAR CELLS, THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 57
TABLE 25 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF CDSE/P3HT NANOCOMPOSITE
MATERIALS IN SOLAR CELLS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 58
MEH-PPV/PbS Nanocomposites 58
Technology and Applications 58
Manufacturers 58
Patents 58
Market Analysis 58
TABLE 26 CONSUMPTION OF QUANTUM DOT NANOCOMPOSITE PV CELLS,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 59
TABLE 27 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF MEH-PPV/PBS NANOCOMPOSITE
MATERIALS IN SOLAR CELLS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 59
Carbon Fullerene Doped Polymer Solar Cells 59
Technology and Applications 59
Market Analysis 60
TABLE 28 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF CARBON FULLERENE DOPED
POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS IN SOLAR CELLS, THROUGH 2017
(MT/$ MILLIONS) 60
CHAPTER 7 ETHANOL PRODUCTION 62
SUMMARY 62
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGIES USED IN ETHANOL
PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 62
ETHANOL PRODUCTION 62
NANOMATERIALS USED IN ETHANOL PRODUCTION 63
OTHER NANOMATERIALS 63
Enzymes 63
Technology and Applications 63
Manufacturers 63
TABLE 30 PRODUCERS OF ENZYMES FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION 63
Patents 64
Market Analysis 64
FIGURE 4 U.S. ETHANOL PRODUCTION, 2011-2017 (BILLION GALLONS) 64
TABLE 31 CONSUMPTION OF ENZYME CATALYSTS USED IN ETHANOL
PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 65
CHAPTER 8 PETROLEUM REFINING 67
SUMMARY 67
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGIES USED IN
PETROLEUM REFINING, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 67
FIGURE 5 REFINERY NANOMATERIALS DOLLAR MARKET SHARES, 2011 VS.
2017 (% OF TOTAL NANOMATERIALS VALUE CONSUMED IN REFINING) 67
REFINING PROCESSES 68
TABLE 33 NANOCATALYST APPLICATIONS IN PETROLEUM
REFINING/PETROCHEMICALS 69
FLUID CRACKING 69
HYDROTREATING 69
HEAVY OIL UPGRADING 70
OTHER REFINERY PROCESSES 71
NANOMATERIALS USED IN REFINING 72
SOLID NANOPARTICLES 72
Miscellaneous Solid Nanoparticles 72
Technology and Applications 72
Manufacturers 72
Patents 72
Market Analysis 72
TABLE 34 CONSUMPTION OF NON-ZEOLITE NANOCATALYSTS IN REFINING
AND PETROCHEMICALS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 73
NANOSTRUCTURED MONOLITHICS 73
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOSTRUCTURED MONOLITHICS USED
IN REFINING, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 73
Zeolites 74
Technologies and Applications 74
Manufacturers 74
TABLE 36 MANUFACTURERS OF ZEOLITES 74
Patents 74
FIGURE 6 TRENDS IN NUMBER OF U.S. ZEOLITE REFINERY CATALYST
PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY, 2002-2012 75
FIGURE 7 MAJOR ZEOLITE REFINERY CATALYST IP PORTFOLIOS (% OF U.S.
ZEOLITE REFINERY CATALYST PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1976) 76
Market Analysis 76
FIGURE 8 TRENDS IN GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CRACKING CATALYSTS,
2011-2017 ($ BILLIONS) 76
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ZEOLITE CRACKING CATALYSTS, THROUGH
2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 77
Nanoporous Thin Films 78
Technologies and Applications 78
Manufacturers 78
TABLE 38 COMPANIES DEVELOPING OR MANUFACTURING NANOPOROUS
THIN FILMS FOR REFINERY APPLICATIONS 79
Patent Analysis 79
Market Analysis 79
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOPOROUS THIN FILMS FOR REFINERY
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 80
NANODEVICES USED IN REFINING 80
NANOSENSORS 80
Technologies and Applications 80
Manufacturers 80
Patents 81
Market Analysis 81
TABLE 40 MARKET FOR CHEMICAL AND GAS NANOSENSORS IN THE
PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 81
CHAPTER 9 FUEL CELLS 83
SUMMARY 83
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGIES USED IN FUEL
CELLS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 83
FIGURE 9 NANOMATERIAL VOLUME SHARES OF FUEL CELL MARKET, 2011
VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL FUEL CELL NANOMATERIALS CONSUMPTION,
EXCLUDING THIN FILMS IN METRIC TONS) 84
FIGURE 10 NANOMATERIAL DOLLAR SHARES OF FUEL CELL MARKET, 2011
VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL FUEL CELL NANOMATERIALS CONSUMPTION IN
DOLLARS) 85
FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES 86
FIGURE 11 FUEL CELL BASIC PRINCIPLES 87
PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELLS 87
PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS 87
DIRECT METHANE FUEL CELLS 88
SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS 88
NANOMATERIALS USED IN FUEL CELLS 89
SOLID NANOPARTICLES 89
Complex Oxide Nanoparticles 89
Technology and Applications 89
Market Analysis 89
TABLE 42 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOFC FUEL CELLS, THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 89
FIGURE 12 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOFC FUEL CELLS, 2011-2017
($ MILLIONS) 89
TABLE 43 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF COMPLEX OXIDE NANOPARTICLES
FOR SOFC FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 90
NANOSCALE THIN FILMS 91
Platinum Thin Films 91
Technology and Applications 91
Market Analysis 91
TABLE 44 GLOBAL FUEL CELL SALES BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
2017 ($ MILLIONS) 92
TABLE 45 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOSTRUCTURED PLATINUM THIN
FILM MATERIALS IN FUEL CELLS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 92
NANOSCALE MONOLITHICS 93
Polymer Membranes 93
Technology and Applications 93
Market Analysis 93
TABLE 46 FUEL CELL SALES BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 93
TABLE 47 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOPOROUS POLYMER FUEL CELL
MEMBRANE MATERIALS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 94
NANOCOMPOSITES 94
Nanocomposite Membranes 94
Technology and Applications 94
Manufacturers 95
Market Analysis 95
TABLE 48 FUEL CELL MEMBRANE CONSUMPTION, 2017 (MILLION SQ.
METERS) 95
TABLE 49 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOCOMPOSITE FUEL CELL MEMBRANE,
THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 96
CHAPTER 10 BATTERIES AND OTHER ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES 98
SUMMARY 98
TABLE 50 NANOMATERIALS AND NANODEVICES USED IN ENERGY STORAGE
DEVICES, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 98
FIGURE 13 ENERGY STORAGE NANOMATERIALS MARKET SHARES, 2017 (%
OF TOTAL NANOMATERIALS CONSUMPTION IN MT AND $) 98
TYPES OF ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE 99
BATTERIES 100
SUPERCAPACITORS 100
NANOMATERIALS USED IN ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES 100
SOLID NANOPARTICLES 100
Iron Phosphate and Other Nanoparticles 100
Technology and Applications 100
Patents 101
Market Analysis 102
TABLE 51 GLOBAL SALES OF NANOPARTICLE-BASED LITHIUM ION
BATTERIES, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 102
TABLE 52 CONSUMPTION OF NANOPARTICLES USED IN ADVANCED LI-ION
BATTERIES, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 103
HOLLOW NANOPARTICLES 103
Carbon Nanotubes 103
Technology and Applications 103
Patents 104
Markets 104
TABLE 53 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF CARBON NANOTUBE ELECTRODE
MATERIALS USED IN ULTRATHIN BATTERIES AND CAPACITORS, THROUGH
2017 ($ MILLIONS) 105
NANOSTRUCTURED MONOLITHICS 105
Carbon Aerogels 105
Technology and Applications 105
Manufacturers 106
Patents 106
Market Analysis 106
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ADVANCED ELECTRONIC AND CAPACITIVE
ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 55 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF CARBON AEROGELS USED IN
SUPERCAPACITORS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 107
CHAPTER 11 ENERGY TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION 109
SUMMARY 109
TABLE 56 NANOMATERIALS AND NANODEVICES USED IN ENERGY
TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION, THROUGH 2017 (MT IN MILLIONS/$
MILLIONS) 109
FIGURE 14 ENERGY TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION NANOMATERIALS
VOLUME MARKET SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL NANOMATERIALS
CONSUMPTION IN MT) 110
FIGURE 15 ENERGY TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION NANOMATERIALS
VALUE MARKET SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL NANOTECHNOLOGIES
CONSUMPTION IN DOLLARS) 111
ENERGY TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 111
CRYOGENIC PIPELINES AND STORAGE TANKS 112
TRANSFORMERS 112
NANOMATERIALS USED IN ENERGY TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION 112
NANOSTRUCTURED MONOLITHICS 112
Silica Aerogels 112
Technology and Applications 112
Manufacturers 113
Patents 113
Market Analysis 113
TABLE 57 CONSUMPTION OF AEROGEL ENERGY PIPELINE INSULATION,
THROUGH 2017 (MT IN MILLIONS/$ MILLIONS) 113
NANOCOMPOSITES 114
Nanomagnetic Composites 114
Technology and Applications 114
Manufacturers 114
TABLE 58 MANUFACTURERS OF NANOMAGNETIC COMPOSITES 114
Patents 114
Market Analysis 115
TABLE 59 INDUSTRIAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOMAGNETIC COMPOSITES
FOR ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$
MILLIONS) 115
NANODEVICES USED IN ENERGY TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION 115
NANOSENSORS 115
Hydrogen Nano-Sensors 115
Technology and Applications 115
Patents 116
Market Analysis 116
TABLE 60 PROJECTED MARKET FOR HYDROGEN GAS NANOSENSORS USED
IN MONITORING TRANSFORMERS, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION UNITS/$
MILLIONS) 116
CHAPTER 12 MISCELLANEOUS ENERGY PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS 119
SUMMARY 119
TABLE 61 NANOMATERIALS USED IN MISCELLANEOUS ENERGY
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 119
MISCELLANEOUS ENERGY APPLICATIONS OF NANOMATERIALS 119
NANOMATERIALS USED IN MISCELLANEOUS ENERGY APPLICATIONS 120
SOLID NANOPARTICLES 120
Metal Oxide Nanoparticles 120
Technologies and Applications 120
Patents 120
Market Analysis 120
TABLE 62 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOPARTICULATE CERIUM OXIDE DIESEL
FUEL ADDITIVES, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 121
Aluminum Nanoparticles 121
Technologies and Applications 121
Market Analysis 121
TABLE 63 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOPARTICULATE ALUMINA FUEL
ADDITIVES, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 122
CHAPTER 13 ENERGY-EFFICIENT TRANSPORT 124
SUMMARY 124
LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION 124
NANOMATERIALS USED IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT TRANSPORTATION
EQUIPMENT 124
NANOCOMPOSITES 124
Technology and Applications 124
TABLE 64 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS 125
Patents 126
Manufacturers 126
TABLE 65 MANUFACTURERS OF NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS USED IN
AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS 126
Market Analysis 126
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL NANOCOMPOSITE CONSUMPTION IN AUTOMOTIVE
APPLICATIONS, 2011 (% TOTAL CONSUMPTION BY VALUE) 126
TABLE 66 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOCOMPOSITE USED IN AUTOMOTIVE
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 128
CHAPTER 14 ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDINGS 130
SUMMARY 130
TABLE 67 NANOMATERIALS AND NANODEVICES USED TO INCREASE
BUILDINGS' ENERGY EFFICIENCY, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 130
NANOMATERIALS USED TO INCREASE BUILDING ENERGY EFFICIENCY 131
SOLID NANOPARTICLES 131
Light Emitting Diodes 131
Technologies and Applications 131
Manufacturers 131
TABLE 68 COMPANIES DEVELOPING NANOPARTICLE LEDS 132
Patents 132
Market Analysis 132
TABLE 69 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOLID NANOPARTICLES USED IN LED
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 133
NANOSCALE THIN FILMS 133
OLEDs 133
Technologies and Applications 133
Manufacturers 134
TABLE 70 COMPANIES INVOLVED IN OLED ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING 134
Patents 134
Market Analysis 135
TABLE 71 GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF OLED ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 135
NANOSTRUCTURED MONOLITHICS 136
Aerogel Insulation 136
Technologies and Applications 136
Manufacturers 136
TABLE 72 MANUFACTURERS OF AEROGEL BUILDING INSULATION 136
Patents 136
Market Analysis 137
TABLE 73 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF AEROGELS FOR BUILDING
INSULATION APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 137
CHAPTER 15 ENERGY-EFFICIENT INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES 139
SUMMARY 139
NANOCATALYSTS AND INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES 139
NANOMATERIALS 140
OTHER NANOMATERIALS 140
Enzyme Nanocatalysts 140
Technology and Applications 140
Manufacturers 140
TABLE 74 MANUFACTURERS OF INDUSTRIAL ENZYMES 140
Patents 141
Market Analysis 141
TABLE 75 ENZYME CONSUMPTION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS APPLICATIONS
OTHER THAN ETHANOL PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 141
CHAPTER 16 ENERGY-EFFICIENT CONSUMER PRODUCTS 143
SUMMARY 143
ENZYME-BASED DETERGENTS 143
NANOMATERIALS 143
OTHER NANOMATERIALS 143
Enzyme Nanocatalysts 143
Technology and Applications 143
TABLE 76 DETERGENT ENZYMES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 144
Manufacturers 144
Patents 144
Market Analysis 144
TABLE 77 TOTAL DETERGENT SALES IN ADVANCED VS. EMERGING
MARKETS, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 145
TABLE 78 PROJECTED GLOBAL MARKET FOR ENZYME DETERGENTS,
THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 146
TABLE 79 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF DETERGENT ENZYMES, THROUGH
2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 146
CHAPTER 17 COMPANY PROFILES 148
ALBEMARLE CORP. 148
ALPS ELECTRIC CO. LTD. 148
ALTAIR NANOTECHNOLOGIES INC. 148
APPLIED NANOTECH INC. 148
ASPEN AEROGELS INC. 149
BASF AG 149
BAYER MATERIALSCIENCE AG 149
COOPER BUSSMAN 150
CYRIUM TECHNOLOGIES INC. 150
DIVERSA CORP. 150
DOW CHEMICAL CO. 151
DUPONT INDUSTRIAL BIOSCIENCES/GENENCOR DIVISION 151
E.I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS AND CO. 152
ENER1 INC. 152
EVIDENT TECHNOLOGIES 152
EVONIK DEGUSSA GMBH 153
EXXONMOBIL CORP 153
FERROTEC CORP. 154
FORGE EUROPA LTD. 154
G24 INNOVATIONS LTD. 155
HEADWATERS NANOKINETIX INC. 155
HONEYWELL SPECIALTY POLYMERS 156
HYPERION CATALYSIS INTERNATIONAL INC. 156
IOGEN CORP. 156
JOHNSON MATTHEY, PLC 157
LYONDELLBASELL POLYMERS 157
MACH 1 INC. 157
MEDIA AND PROCESS TECHNOLOGY INC. 158
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH INC. 158
NANOGRAM CORP. 158
NANOMIX INC. 159
NANOSOLAR INC. 159
NANOSYS INC. 160
NANOTECHNOLOGIES INC. 160
NEI CORP. 161
NEXTECH MATERIALS LTD. 161
NOBLE POLYMERS 161
NOVOZYMES A/S 162
OCELLUS TECHNOLOGIES 162
OXONICA LTD. 162
PHILIPS LUMILEDS LIGHTING CO. 163
POLYONE CORP. 163
RHODIA SA 164
RTP CO. 164
SABIC INNOVATIVE PLASTICS 164
SIM COMPOSITES INC. 165
SOLARONIX SARUE DE L'OURIETTE 129 165
SOUTHERN CLAY PRODUCTS INC. 165
UBE INDUSTRIES LTD. 166
UNITIKA LTD. 166
ZEOLYST INTERNATIONAL 167

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL ENERGY-RELATED MARKET FOR
NANOTECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 6
TABLE 1 MAJOR TYPES OF NANOMATERIALS 10
TABLE 2 GLOBAL ENERGY-RELATED MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGIES,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 16
TABLE 3 ENERGY-RELATED MARKETS FOR NANOMATERIALS AND
NANODEVICES BY TYPE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 18
TABLE 4 ENERGY-RELATED MARKETS FOR NANOMATERIALS AND
NANODEVICES BY TYPE OF END USE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 20
TABLE 5 NANOPARTICLE PRODUCTION PROCESSES 25
TABLE 6 METAL NANOPARTICLES WITH ENERGY APPLICATIONS 26
TABLE 7 SIMPLE OXIDE NANOPARTICLES WITH ENERGY APPLICATIONS 26
TABLE 8 COMPLEX OXIDE NANOPARTICLES WITH ENERGY APPLICATIONS 28
TABLE 9 TYPES OF NANOSTRUCTURED MONOLITHICS WITH ENERGY
APPLICATIONS 32
TABLE 10 COMMERCIAL ZEOLITES 33
TABLE 11 NANOCOMPOSITES WITH ENERGY APPLICATIONS 37
TABLE 12 ENERGY APPLICATIONS OF NANOSENSORS 40
TABLE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGIES USED IN COAL
LIQUEFACTION, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 42
TABLE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION NANOCATALYSTS,
THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 44
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOMATERIALS USED IN PHOTOVOLTAICS,
THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 46
TABLE 16 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOLID NANOPARTICLES IN PHOTOVOLTAIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLION) 50
TABLE 17 COMPANIES MANUFACTURING OR DEVELOPING DSSC PVS 51
TABLE 18 U.S. PATENTS RELATED TO USE OF TIO2 NANOPARTICLES IN
PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS 51
TABLE 19 CONSUMPTION OF DYE-SENSITIVE SOLAR CELLS, THROUGH 2017
($ MILLIONS) 52
TABLE 20 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF TIO2 NANOPARTICLES IN
DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 53
TABLE 21 CONSUMPTION OF EPITAXIALLY GROWN QUANTUM DOT PV CELLS,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 54
TABLE 22 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF EPITAXIALLY GROWN QUANTUM
DOTS IN PV FABRICATION, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 55
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOCOMPOSITES IN PHOTOVOLTAIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 56
TABLE 24 CONSUMPTION OF P3HT/CDSE SOLAR CELLS, THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 57
TABLE 25 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF CDSE/P3HT NANOCOMPOSITE
MATERIALS IN SOLAR CELLS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 58
TABLE 26 CONSUMPTION OF QUANTUM DOT NANOCOMPOSITE PV CELLS,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 59
TABLE 27 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF MEH-PPV/PBS NANOCOMPOSITE
MATERIALS IN SOLAR CELLS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 59
TABLE 28 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF CARBON FULLERENE DOPED
POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS IN SOLAR CELLS, THROUGH 2017
(MT/$ MILLIONS) 60
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGIES USED IN ETHANOL
PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 62
TABLE 30 PRODUCERS OF ENZYMES FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION 63
TABLE 31 CONSUMPTION OF ENZYME CATALYSTS USED IN ETHANOL
PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 65
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGIES USED IN PETROLEUM
REFINING, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 67
TABLE 33 NANOCATALYST APPLICATIONS IN PETROLEUM
REFINING/PETROCHEMICALS 69
TABLE 34 CONSUMPTION OF NON-ZEOLITE NANOCATALYSTS IN REFINING
AND PETROCHEMICALS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 73
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOSTRUCTURED MONOLITHICS USED IN
REFINING, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 73
TABLE 36 MANUFACTURERS OF ZEOLITES 74
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ZEOLITE CRACKING CATALYSTS, THROUGH
2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 77
TABLE 38 COMPANIES DEVELOPING OR MANUFACTURING NANOPOROUS
THIN FILMS FOR REFINERY APPLICATIONS 79
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOPOROUS THIN FILMS FOR REFINERY
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 40 MARKET FOR CHEMICAL AND GAS NANOSENSORS IN THE
PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGIES USED IN FUEL CELLS,
THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 83
TABLE 42 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOFC FUEL CELLS, THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 89
TABLE 43 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF COMPLEX OXIDE NANOPARTICLES FOR
SOFC FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 90
TABLE 44 GLOBAL FUEL CELL SALES BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2017
($ MILLIONS) 92
TABLE 45 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOSTRUCTURED PLATINUM THIN
FILM MATERIALS IN FUEL CELLS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 92
TABLE 46 FUEL CELL SALES BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 93
TABLE 47 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOPOROUS POLYMER FUEL CELL
MEMBRANE MATERIALS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 94
TABLE 48 FUEL CELL MEMBRANE CONSUMPTION, 2017 (MILLION SQ.
METERS) 95
TABLE 49 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOCOMPOSITE FUEL CELL MEMBRANE,
THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 96
TABLE 50 NANOMATERIALS AND NANODEVICES USED IN ENERGY STORAGE
DEVICES, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 98
TABLE 51 GLOBAL SALES OF NANOPARTICLE-BASED LITHIUM ION BATTERIES,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 102
TABLE 52 CONSUMPTION OF NANOPARTICLES USED IN ADVANCED LI-ION
BATTERIES, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 53 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF CARBON NANOTUBE ELECTRODE
MATERIALS USED IN ULTRATHIN BATTERIES AND CAPACITORS, THROUGH
2017 ($ MILLIONS) 105
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ADVANCED ELECTRONIC AND CAPACITIVE
ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 55 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF CARBON AEROGELS USED IN
SUPERCAPACITORS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 107
TABLE 56 NANOMATERIALS AND NANODEVICES USED IN ENERGY
TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION, THROUGH 2017 (MT IN MILLIONS/$
MILLIONS) 109
TABLE 57 CONSUMPTION OF AEROGEL ENERGY PIPELINE INSULATION,
THROUGH 2017 (MT IN MILLIONS/$ MILLIONS) 113
TABLE 58 MANUFACTURERS OF NANOMAGNETIC COMPOSITES 114
TABLE 59 INDUSTRIAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOMAGNETIC COMPOSITES
FOR ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$
MILLIONS) 115
TABLE 60 PROJECTED MARKET FOR HYDROGEN GAS NANOSENSORS USED IN
MONITORING TRANSFORMERS, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION UNITS/$ MILLIONS) 116
TABLE 61 NANOMATERIALS USED IN MISCELLANEOUS ENERGY
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 119
TABLE 62 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOPARTICULATE CERIUM OXIDE DIESEL
FUEL ADDITIVES, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 63 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOPARTICULATE ALUMINA FUEL
ADDITIVES, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 122
TABLE 64 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS 125
TABLE 65 MANUFACTURERS OF NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS USED IN
AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS 126
TABLE 66 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOCOMPOSITE USED IN AUTOMOTIVE
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 128
TABLE 67 NANOMATERIALS AND NANODEVICES USED TO INCREASE
BUILDINGS' ENERGY EFFICIENCY, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 130
TABLE 68 COMPANIES DEVELOPING NANOPARTICLE LEDS 132
TABLE 69 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOLID NANOPARTICLES USED IN LED
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 133
TABLE 70 COMPANIES INVOLVED IN OLED ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING 134
TABLE 71 GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF OLED ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 135
TABLE 72 MANUFACTURERS OF AEROGEL BUILDING INSULATION 136
TABLE 73 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF AEROGELS FOR BUILDING INSULATION
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 137
TABLE 74 MANUFACTURERS OF INDUSTRIAL ENZYMES 140
TABLE 75 ENZYME CONSUMPTION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS APPLICATIONS
OTHER THAN ETHANOL PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 76 DETERGENT ENZYMES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 144
TABLE 77 TOTAL DETERGENT SALES IN ADVANCED VS. EMERGING MARKETS,
THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 145
TABLE 78 PROJECTED GLOBAL MARKET FOR ENZYME DETERGENTS,
THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 146
TABLE 79 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF DETERGENT ENZYMES, THROUGH
2017 (MT/$ MILLIONS) 146

LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE TRENDS IN GLOBAL ENERGY-RELATED MARKET FOR
NANOTECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 7
FIGURE 1 TRENDS IN GLOBAL ENERGY-RELATED MARKET FOR
NANOTECHNOLOGIES, 2011-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 16
FIGURE 2 ENERGY-RELATED MARKETS FOR NANOMATERIALS AND
NANODEVICES, TECHNOLOGY SEGMENTS 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL
MARKET) 18
FIGURE 3 ENERGY-RELATED MARKETS FOR NANOMATERIALS AND
NANODEVICES END-USE SEGMENTS, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL MARKET) 21
FIGURE 4 U.S. ETHANOL PRODUCTION, 2011-2017 (BILLION GALLONS) 64
FIGURE 5 REFINERY NANOMATERIALS DOLLAR MARKET SHARES, 2011 VS.
2017 (% OF TOTAL NANOMATERIALS VALUE CONSUMED IN REFINING) 67
FIGURE 6 TRENDS IN NUMBER OF U.S. ZEOLITE REFINERY CATALYST
PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY, 2002-2012 75
FIGURE 7 MAJOR ZEOLITE REFINERY CATALYST IP PORTFOLIOS (% OF U.S.
ZEOLITE REFINERY CATALYST PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1976) 76
FIGURE 8 TRENDS IN GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CRACKING CATALYSTS,
2011-2017 ($ BILLIONS) 76
FIGURE 9 NANOMATERIAL VOLUME SHARES OF FUEL CELL MARKET, 2011 VS.
2017 (% OF TOTAL FUEL CELL NANOMATERIALS CONSUMPTION, EXCLUDING
THIN FILMS IN METRIC TONS) 84
FIGURE 10 NANOMATERIAL DOLLAR SHARES OF FUEL CELL MARKET, 2011
VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL FUEL CELL NANOMATERIALS CONSUMPTION IN
DOLLARS) 85
FIGURE 11 FUEL CELL BASIC PRINCIPLES 87
FIGURE 12 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOFC FUEL CELLS, 2011-2017 ($
MILLIONS) 89
FIGURE 13 ENERGY STORAGE NANOMATERIALS MARKET SHARES, 2017 (%
OF TOTAL NANOMATERIALS CONSUMPTION IN MT AND $) 98
FIGURE 14 ENERGY TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION NANOMATERIALS
VOLUME MARKET SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL NANOMATERIALS
CONSUMPTION IN MT) 110
FIGURE 15 ENERGY TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION NANOMATERIALS
VALUE MARKET SHARES, 2011 VS. 2017 (% OF TOTAL NANOTECHNOLOGIES
CONSUMPTION IN DOLLARS) 111
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL NANOCOMPOSITE CONSUMPTION IN AUTOMOTIVE
APPLICATIONS, 2011 (% TOTAL CONSUMPTION BY VALUE) 126

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