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Analyzing the Global Diamond Industry

  • March 2013
  • -
  • Aruvian's R'search
  • -
  • 240 pages

The global diamond industry is expected to do well in the coming five years ahead. Despite lingering concerns about the global economy, the diamond industry was surprisingly resilient in the past years. Although it appeared the recession would slow sales of diamond jewelry, overall demand has continued to grow. Diamonds were as resilient as the overall luxury category. Last year it was projected that sales of diamond jewelry would return to pre-crisis levels by 2013, a projection that can be called over-optimistic. In fact, sales surpassed their pre-crisis peak in 2011, two years earlier than anticipated. Overall, 2011 saw retail sales of diamond jewelry reach a new high, growing 18% from 2010. Diamonds were as resilient as the overall luxury category. 2012 saw retail sales of diamond jewelry reach a new high, growing 18% from 2010.

Powered by strong demand, the diamond market in all countries is developing rapidly. The number of retail jewelry outlets is soaring, and a growing number of consumers are adopting the Western practice of giving gifts of diamond jewelry to celebrate engagements, weddings and anniversaries. Many consumers are coming to view diamonds as investments. Some more established markets grew more slowly or suffered setbacks in 2011.

The US, the world’s largest diamond jewelry market, posted a 7% gain in sales as the country’s economy rebounded, with a 1.7% increase in 2011 GDP. Consumer confidence there continues to strengthen. European sales of diamond jewelry fell slightly from 2010 to 2011, while sales in Japan slid by 6%. De Beers announced plans to decrease output to between 28 million and 30 million carats—a cut of 5% to 10% compared with 2011. Rio Tinto expects to post growth based on the performance of the first nine months of 2012, because of a 17% increase in output from the Argyle mine and a 5% increase from the Diavik mine. ALROSA is expected to maintain current production levels.

ALROSA, BHP Billiton, De Beers, Rio Tinto are the top players in the industry. The diamond industry opposed stringent government regulation when the Kimberley Process diamond certification scheme was being negotiated ten years ago, and the trade was largely left to police itself. Companies committed to put in place a system of self-regulation to help combat blood diamonds and to support the government-led scheme. Global diamond trade bodies developed the ‘System of Warranties’, a voluntary industry scheme which encourages companies to place a statement on invoices declaring the enclosed diamonds to be conflict-free. But a statement simply assuring consumers that diamonds are not from conflict sources is meaningless unless it is backed up by measures to verify that the information is true.

The diamond industry also faces a period of considerable change. Soaring demand from China has shown a similar pattern to the US over the years. It means a buoyant outlook despite the short-term ructions. Yet both BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto are trying to sell their diamond mines. With the market still tightly held and few large discoveries in the past two decades, the mining groups have struggled to expand their market share. Accounting for less than 1% of the miners’ profits, the diamond operations are not large enough to justify management’s time on a sector that shares few attributes with their larger segments. For the industry such experiments are part of attempts to sustain the demand for diamonds since De Beers moved away from championing the entire sector.

Aruvian Research analyzes the global diamond industry in its research report Analyzing the Global Diamond Industry. The report begins with an analysis of the global mining industry and we analyze the industry through an industry definition, industry statistics, industry value and volume analysis, industry segmentation and an industry forecast.

An introduction to diamonds follows. We look at the history of diamonds, the material properties of diamonds, how diamonds are formed, the emergence of rough diamonds, a look at the Kimberley Process amongst others. We analyze the role De Beers played in making diamonds popular and in establishing a proper marketing strategy for diamonds over the years.

Moving on to the analysis of the global diamond industry, we analyze the industry through an industry overview, industry segmentation, supply and demand scenario of the industry, etc. We also analyze the value chain of the global diamond industry, an industry cost analysis and a look at the regulatory framework affecting the global diamond industry.

An analysis of the market for synthetic diamonds follows. We analyze the industry and look at the industrial applications of synthetic diamonds, synthetic diamonds being used for gems and a comparison between synthetic and natural diamonds.

Key diamond markets are analyzed in this report as well. We look at over ten markets such as Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Israel, China, India, Russia, the US, South Africa, amongst others.

Factors impacting the global diamond industry are analyzed followed by an outlook for the global diamond industry. We further take a look at the major diamond mines worldwide and the major players in the global diamond industry such as ALROSA, De Beers, BHP Billiton, etc.

Table Of Contents

Analyzing the Global Diamond Industry
Table of Contents

A. Executive Summary

B. Global Mining Industry
B.1 Industry Definition
B.2 Industry Statistics
B.3 Value and Volume Analysis
B.4 Industry Segmentation
B.5 Industry Forecast

C. Introduction to Diamonds
C.1 Overview
C.2 History of Diamonds
C.3 Material Properties of Diamonds
C.4 Formation of Natural Diamonds
C.5 Uses of Diamonds
C.6 Commercial Production of Diamonds
C.7 Emergence of Rough Diamonds
C.8 Establishment of the Kimberley Process
C.9 Importance of Marketing in the Diamond Industry
C.10 De Beers Importance in the Diamond Industry

D. Global Diamond Industry
D.1 Industry Overview
D.2 Industry Segmentation
D.3 Supply and Demand Scenario
D.4 Industry Value Chain
D.5 Industry Cost Analysis
D.6 Financing of the Diamond Industry
D.7 Regulatory Framework

E. Market for Synthetic Diamonds
E.1 Overview
E.2 Synthetic Diamonds for Industrial Applications
E.3 Synthetic Diamonds for Gems
E.4 Synthetic Diamonds vs. Natural Diamonds

F. Analysis of Key Diamond Markets
F.1 Overview
F.2 Angola
F.3 Australia
F.4 Belgium
F.5 Botswana
F.6 Canada
F.7 China
F.8 Democratic Republic of the Congo
F.9 India
F.10 Israel
F.11 Namibia
F.12 Russia
F.13 South Africa
F.14 United States

G. Factors Impacting the Industry
G.1 Changes in Ownership Patterns
G.2 Challenge of Synthetic Diamonds
G.3 Emergence of Zimbabwe as a Major Diamond Producer
G.4 Challenges in Diamond Investment
G.5 Demand for Gem Quality Diamonds
G.6 Demand for Diamonds in the Industrial Sector

H. Global Diamond Industry: Future Perspective

I. Analysis of Major Diamond Mines
I.1 Argyle Diamond Mine
I.2 Baken Diamond Mine
I.3 Bunder Diamond Mine Project
I.4 Catoca Diamond Mine
I.5 Cempaka Diamond Mine
I.6 Cullinan Diamond Mine/Premier Mine
I.7 Damtshaa Diamond Mine
I.8 Diavik Diamond Mine
I.9 Ekati Diamond Mine
I.10 Ellendale Diamond Mine
I.11 Finsch Diamond Mine
I.12 Fucauma Diamond Mine
I.13 Gahcho Kue Diamond Project
I.14 Jericho Diamond Mine
I.15 Jwaneng Diamond Mine
I.16 Koffiefontein Diamond Mine
I.17 Kollur Mine
I.18 Letlhakane Diamond Mine
I.19 Letseng Diamond Mine
I.20 Luarica Diamond Mine
I.21 Merlin Diamond Mine
I.22 Mirny GOK Diamond Mine
I.23 Murowa Diamond Mine
I.24 Orapa Diamond Mine
I.25 Panna Diamond Mine
I.26 Renard Diamond Mine
I.27 Snap Lake Diamond Mine
I.28 Udachny GOK Diamond Mine
I.29 Venetia Diamond Mine
I.30 Victor Diamond Mine
I.31 Williamson Diamond Mine

J. Major Industry Players
J.1 ALROSA
J.2 Anglo American Plc
J.3 BHP Billiton
J.4 De Beers
J.5 Debswana
J.6 Gem Diamonds
J.7 Glencore International Plc
J.8 Harry Winston Diamond Corporation
J.9 Mountain Province
J.10 Mwana Africa Plc
J.11 Peregrine Diamonds
J.12 Petra Diamonds
J.13 Rio Tinto Plc
J.14 Rockwell Diamonds
J.15 Shore Gold
J.16 Stellar Diamonds
J.17 Stornoway Diamond
J.18 Vedanta Resources
J.19 Zhengzhou Sino-Crystal Diamond

K. Appendix

L. Glossary of Terms



List of Figures

Figure 1: Global Mining Industry Value (in USD Billion), 2007-2011
Figure 2: Global Mining Industry Volume (in Million Metric Tons), 2007-2011
Figure 3: Industry Segmentation (%), 2011
Figure 4: Industry Segmentation by Region (%), 2011
Figure 5: Global Mining Industry Forecast (in USD Billion), 2012-2016
Figure 6: Brides Receiving Diamond Engagement Rings in the U.S.
Figure 7: Brides Receiving Diamond Engagement Rings in the Japan
Figure 8: Main Source of Diamonds - Kimberlite Pipes
Figure 9: Four Mining Techniques for Diamonds
Figure 10: Diamond Production in Major Countries - A Historical Analysis
Figure 11: Share of the Diamond Trading Company (DTC) of Wholesale Rough Diamonds
Figure 12: Sales of Rough Diamonds by Type (by Value)
Figure 13: History of the Kimberley Process
Figure 14: Source Countries of Conflict Diamonds
Figure 15: Major Marketing Campaigns of the Diamond Industry
Figure 16: Share of De Beers' Sightholders Working in Various Steps of the Value Chain, 2010
Figure 17: Number of De Beers Stores Worldwide, 2002-2011
Figure 18: De Beers' Marketing Strategy and Key Growth Indicators Over the Years
Figure 19: Diamond Value Growth (in USD Billion), 2011
Figure 20: Sales of Global Luxury Goods Market (in USD Billion), 2005-2011
Figure 21: Global Diamond Jewelry Sales (in USD Billion), 2005-2011
Figure 22: Real GDP Growth in Emerging Countries (%), 2011
Figure 23: Retail Sales of Diamond Jewelry in Line with Economic Growth (in USD Billion), 2011
Figure 24: Global Production of Rough Diamonds (in Millions of Carats), 2005-2011
Figure 25: Prices for Rough Diamonds, 2005-2011
Figure 26: Percent Change of Average Price of Diamonds by Producer, 2010-2011
Figure 27: Major Diamond Producing Countries in the World
Figure 28: Major Diamond Producing Countries in the World
Figure 29: Global Diamond Production by Mines, 2010
Figure 30: Supply and Demand of Rough Diamonds, 2010-2020
Figure 31: Production of Rough Diamonds by Countries, 2006-2016
Figure 32: Diamond Value Chain
Figure 33: Diamond Industry Value Chain
Figure 34: Dominance of Family-owned Businesses in the Diamond Industry
Figure 35: Distribution Systems for Rough and Polished Diamonds
Figure 36: Revenues from the Global Diamond Industry (in USD Billion), 2011
Figure 37: Global Diamond Industry Operating Margin, 2011
Figure 38: Structure of Diamond Production at a Mine, in Volume and Value Terms
Figure 39: EBITDA of Diamond Producers from all Business Activity in Diamond Segment (in USD Billion), 2011
Figure 40: Factors Impacting Production Profitability
Figure 41: Role of Ore Production, Diamond Content and Average Price in Annual Revenues
Figure 42: Production as a Part of OPEX
Figure 43: Average Operating Costs per Company vs. Production Volume in 2011
Figure 44: Historical Pricing for Rough Diamonds
Figure 45: Present-day Price of Rough Diamonds
Figure 46: Historical Pricing of Polished Diamonds
Figure 47: Prices of Polished Diamonds and Size of Stone
Figure 48: Major Sources of Financing in the Global Diamond Industry
Figure 49: Banks Providing Financing to the Diamond Industry
Figure 50: Debt Levels of the Global Diamond Industry (in USD Billion)
Figure 51: Global Consumption of Industrial Diamonds by Volume, 2011
Figure 52: Global Consumption of Gem-quality Diamonds by Volume, 2011
Figure 53: Manufacturing and Production Cost of Synthetic Diamonds vs. Natural Diamonds (in USD per carat) 2011
Figure 54: Wholesale Cost of a 1 Carat Diamond (Round Cut, G Color, VVS2 Clarity) Natural vs. Synthetic
Figure 55: Pieces of Diamond Jewelry Owned by Country, 2012
Figure 56: China's Position in the Global Diamond Jewelry Market (in USD Billion)
Figure 57: Diamond Jewelry Market in China (in USD Billion), 2005-2011
Figure 58: Number of Jewelry Outlets in China (in thousands), 2011
Figure 59: Number of Outlets by Top 10 Jewelry Chains in China (in Thousands)
Figure 60: Number of Outlets in China Opened by Major Jewelry Brands since 2009
Figure 61: India's Share in the Global Diamond Jewelry Market (in USD Billion)
Figure 62: Diamond Jewelry Industry in India (in USD Billion), 2005-2011
Figure 63: Number of Jewelry Outlets in India (in Thousands), 2011
Figure 64: Share of the US in the Global Diamond Jewelry Market (in USD Billion)
Figure 65: De Beers Advertising Strategy
Figure 66: Recovery in Diamond Sales in US Jewelry Industry (in USD Billion), 2005-2011
Figure 67: Global Jewelry Industry by Jewelry Type, 2011
Figure 68: Receiving/Purchase of Diamond Jewelry by Occasion
Figure 69: Number of Specialty Stores (in Thousands), 2000 and 2011
Figure 70: Market for Retail Jewelry and Watches in the US (in USD Billion), 2011
Figure 71: Global Gold ETF Holdings (in Tons), 2005-2011
Figure 72: Consumption of Gem Quality Diamonds (in USD Billion)
Figure 73: Demand for Diamonds by the Industrial Sector
Figure 74: Outlook for Production of New Mines (in Millions of Carats) to 2020
Figure 75: Forecast for Global Diamond Production (in Millions of Carats) to 2020
Figure 76: Ekati Panda Open Pit
Figure 77: Jwaneng Open Pit Mine
Figure 76: Diamond Field Development Cycle
Figure 77: Economic Viability of Kimberlites
Figure 78: Expenditure on Global Diamond Exploration (in USD Million), 2001-2010
Figure 79: Major Diamond Mine Developments in Recent Years



List of Tables

Table 1: Global Mining Industry Value (in USD Billion), 2007-2011
Table 2: Global Mining Industry Volume (in Million Metric Tons), 2007-2011
Table 3: Industry Segmentation (%), 2011
Table 4: Industry Segmentation by Region (%), 2011
Table 5: Global Mining Industry Forecast (in USD Billion), 2012-2016
Table 6: Global Sales of Rough Diamonds (in USD Billion)
Table 7: Global Diamond Production by Volume (Millions of Carats)
Table 8: Recent Industry Regulations
Table 9: Major Manufacturers of Synthetic Diamonds for Industrial Applications
Table 10: Major Manufacturers of Gem Quality Synthetic Diamonds
Table 11: Comparing the Value of Diamonds and Gold for Investment Purposes




Companies Mentioned

ALROSA
Anglo American Plc
BHP Billiton
De Beers
Debswana
Gem Diamonds
Glencore International Plc
Harry Winston Diamond Corporation
Mountain Province
Mwana Africa Plc
Peregrine Diamonds
Petra Diamonds
Rio Tinto Plc
Rockwell Diamonds
Shore Gold
Stellar Diamonds
Stornoway Diamond
Vedanta Resources
Zhengzhou Sino-Crystal Diamond

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