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Global Markets for Gasifiers

  • November 2016
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  • BCC Research
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  • 276 pages

This BCC Research report characterizes and quantifies the world markets for gasifiers in terms of gasifier technologies, unit counts, regional markets, feedstocks and end product applications. Forecast provided through 2021.


Use this report to:
- Analyze market dynamics and evaluate the effect of strategic factors such as technology-driven change and industry consolidation of gasifiers.
- Review the technologies involved, the major manufacturers of gasifiers and improvement in technological advances resulting the efficiency of gasifiers in the application segments.
- Understand the three major aspects that drive the gasifier markets-energy, economics and policy-for each application segment and each geographical market.
- Discuss the major stakeholders in each of the regional markets and explain the global drivers, current trends, challenges and regional dynamics of the market.


Highlights
- The global market for new gasifiers is expected to reach 1088 units by 2021 from 887 units in 2016, rising at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.0% from 2015 through 2021.
- The biomass to energy (BTE) application market is the largest market of new gasifiers. The market is expected to grow from 653 units in 2016 to 804 units in 2021 at a CAGR of 5.0% for the period 2015-2021.
- The global market for plasma applications of new gasifiers is expected to grow from 16 units in 2016 to 24 units in 2021, a CAGR of 7.0% for the period 2015-2021.

GASIFICATION
Gasification is a technology by which thermal breakdown is accomplished in a controlled, oxygen-starved atmosphere. The final products are gases, which can further be cleaned and then burned to produce energy, thus controlling and reducing toxic by-products while improving the efficiency of energy capture.

The process is more efficient than direct incineration and produces significantly lower emissions and waste, and the syngas can be shaped into products for power production, the chemical industry, liquid fuels or heat.

The source of energy is obtained from a wide range of materials, including the following:
- Coal.
- Pet coke.
- Biomass.
- Municipal and other industrial wastes.
- Medical waste.
- Toxic materials, except radioactive materials.
The only other main input into the system other than the energy source is air, or more typically, oxygen.
The technology’s ability to break down toxic materials (other than radioactive materials) has extended its application to the safe disposal of various wastes, including medical and toxic wastes that cannot be otherwise treated or disposed in a safe and environmentally friendly manner. One example is the safe disposal of asbestos.

GASIFIERS
The gasifier is the central reactor in the gasification process. Numerous approaches to the design of vertical and horizontal gasifiers have been developed over the years. Feeding can be done from the top or bottom of the gasifier, and system designs have improved for application requirements and capacity.


The output from gasifiers-typically syngas-a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, can further be burned to create thermal and then electrical energy, or converted to various chemical products with higher value and energy content. The use of the gasification method in the manufacture of chemicals is now standard practice. The gasifier is coupled with numerous other reactors and transfer systems to achieve the final desired outcome, and thus the entire gasification plant is typically a large and complex industrial structure, with the complexity depending on the design and the capacity handled by the unit.

In terms of energy generation, gasifier units can support capacities up to 500 MW. This wide capacity range makes the technology suitable for numerous applications in various geographical locations, depending on the availability of the input raw material and the location of the end user of the products from the unit. This capacity also supports a wide customer base, ranging from individual private companies that want to generate thermal power for treatment units to governments that want to improve the energy infrastructure of their countries. Several countries are now working toward energy independence, and gasifier technologies are playing a major role in these initiatives.

GASIFIER MANUFACTURERS
The number of companies producing gasifiers increases in inverse proportion to the output capacity of the gasifier product. Output, usually expressed in megawatt-thermal or kilowatt-thermal units, can range from hundreds of watts to hundreds of megawatts.
As a result, the market has a wide range of participants (manufacturers)-the smaller ones active on a regional scale or only in specific countries and market segments, and the larger ones active internationally and in all geographic segments of the marketplace.
Only a few companies are capable of supplying and servicing gasifiers with utility-scale output capabilities of hundreds of megawatts-thermal. Well over 100 companies manufacture gasifiers with outputs in the tens of megawatts-thermal. The smallest gasifiers, for individual or small commercial use, are produced by a large number of manufacturers throughout the world.

MARKET DRIVERS
The major drivers of the gasifier markets are the energy markets, economics of operations (which includes efficiency) and policies put in place by governments and organizations.

ENERGY MARKETS
The power generation and energy markets are huge worldwide. With a growing global population and the increase in per capita energy consumption, global energy demand is expected to grow substantially in the coming decades. The energy markets greatly influence the gasifier markets, and this has been a significant factor, especially in the last few years. The oil glut and the drastic drop in oil prices have placed energy market participants in unforeseen situations and scenarios.

Originally driven by the explosive growth in natural gas and shale gas generation, oil producers ramped up production, causing oil prices to crash. This has driven down the prices of all related products, and the gasifier market is no exception. This report provides an in-depth analysis of the energy markets in various countries, providing a framework for understanding how the changes in these markets are impacting the gasifier markets.

ECONOMICS
Gasifiers can produce numerous end products, including a range of different types of chemicals and energy (heat or electricity). Pricing of these end products vary substantially from one country to another and from one geographical region to another. Clearly, the drop in the price of raw material input is helpful, but the related drop in the pricing of the final product pricing can wreak havoc on the gasifier markets.

An in-depth analysis of product pricing is provided in this report. Gasifier technology is well established now, and gasifier manufacturers, especially those that manufacture small- and medium-scale gasifiers claim a payback period as low as one year on some of their products. The payback period for large companies often takes decades, as can be expected.
Financing of gasifiers is another important market driver, especially at the high end of the capacity range. Prices of units can be in the billion-dollar range, and long-term financial planning is necessary for these investments. Financing of gasification systems varies within the municipal, utility, industrial and gas and oil sectors, and among low-income economies. The details are covered in this report.

POLICY
The impact of regional and national policies on the gasifier markets are the least understood and least predictable aspect. This report attempts to cover this aspect in detail. Energy policies in individual countries can drive the market for a decade or longer. Global environmental agreements, such as the Kyoto Protocol, also drive the international gasifier markets. Reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a major area of focus globally, and generating clean power from coal is one of the markets where gasifiers are widely used on a large scale.


Policies related to other technologies, such as wind or solar, often affect the gasifier markets, as each country has a limited capacity and workforce to invest in all technologies. In the case of biomass gasifiers, the viewpoints provided should also be useful for policymakers, as the implications of specific policies are presented and discussed in this report. The waste-to-energy market is another application segment that is primarily driven by local government policies. The technological and environmental benefits of gasifiers are discussed. Government initiatives often drive the growth of market segments and technologies in individual geographies, and these influences are detailed where possible.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This report was written to characterize and quantify the world markets for gasifiers in terms of gasifier technologies, unit counts, regional markets, feedstocks and end product applications. Gasifier technologies have been evolving for well over a century, but have only recently emerged as either at or near being economically and technologically viable as the preferred choice for the production of syngas and chemical feedstocks on an industrial scale and energy sources for a smaller regional, municipal, village and commercial or residential sectors.
The main objective of this report is to summarize the markets in which gasifiers are employed, both by application segments and by geography. Another objective of the report is to review the technologies involved, the major manufacturers of gasifiers and how the technological advances are improving the efficiency of gasifiers to make them more viable in the application segments where they are employed.

The unique advantages of gasifiers as compared with competing technologies are described, and the factors that restrict growth in certain application segments are discussed. A third objective of the report is to understand the three major aspects that drive the gasifier markets-energy, economics and policy-for each application segment and each geographical market.

Energy demands are increasing throughout the world but the way in which governments are addressing these needs by changing the regulatory and policy structures involved is unique. Economics alone often does not ensure market penetration as is described in the case of the biomass-to-energy markets. This report attempts to understand these market trends so that market participants make informed decisions.
A review of significant patents on gasifier technologies is presented in this report to identify the areas where technology development is occurring, where new breakthroughs are possible and which companies or organizations are driving the introduction of these advancements.
Lastly, the recent market turmoil in the energy markets has forced major changes in all products supporting energy production, and the gasifier markets are no exception. This report attempts to provide a better understanding of these end-market changes and provides a framework for companies to develop approaches to withstand similar fluctuations in the future.
The report also attempts to list all the major companies that are active in this field in various countries, and to provide comparison data on market participants.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
Gasification technology has existed in various forms for about a century. It is just recently that the technology has gained application in various segments of the global market. These changes are being led by a better understanding of the economic and ecological benefits of these systems. While fossil fuel prices have dropped in recent years, the ecological damage caused by the uncontrolled burning of these fuels is now better understood, and changes are being made in the production of energy with the use of clean technologies that do not harm the environment.
Global economics are changing, with a large surge in growth in the Asian markets.

This shift in focus to energy in the Asian region is driving new technologies, as most of these markets do not have well-established distribution networks for the transport of oil, natural gas or electricity. Localized energy production is creating markets in rural areas in countries across South Asia.
Further, there is explosive growth in municipal solid waste across countries in the developing world. The importance of safe handling of this waste is gaining in importance, as opposed to opting for landfills.

These factors are supporting the growth of the gasifier market, and the foundation is currently being laid for the expansion of the market for gasifier technology. The tipping point is near, and the markets are expected to move into an explosive growth phase over the next decade.
Since our last report on the gasifier markets, a better data set is available to use in understanding the size and nature of the industry. Selected import and export data on gasifier components are now included in this report. Technological advances are reviewed based on intellectual property data, making the report more meaningful to its readers. An increasing number of participants have also been discussing the drivers, trends and technology impacts on gasifiers in public forums and online media. This study was thus undertaken to identify, characterize and quantify the status of the markets for gasifiers and the extent to which the gasifier space will expand, where activity will take place, at what pace and how various gasifier application markets will develop through 2021. It is hoped that the report will also help its readers shape the future of the markets to some extent.

INFORMATION SOURCES
Materials that were reviewed in developing this report include conference proceedings, presentations, research reports from public and private enterprises and organizations, journal articles, books, regulatory filings from publicly traded companies, interviews and discussions with market participants, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and associations supporting the industry and other related industries.


Numerous websites are now available related to gasifier markets, and several of these provide national or international data and participant information. The Gasification and Syngas Technologies Council provides extensive data on numerous gasification plants worldwide. Governmental and international agencies such as the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the World Bank, International Solid Waste Association (ISWA), United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and numerous other similar organizations in various countries are rich sources of factual data that are useful in understanding the gasification markets.


Trade data are available from numerous sources; however, the extent of details available as useful data for the gasifier market is limited compared with other markets where the products sold are identifiable by unique export and import codes. Data presented regarding U.S. patents have mostly been taken from databases available at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) website, and the analysis and interpretation of the data have been provided by the author. Company websites also provided information on various markets and technologies being developed.

METHODOLOGIES
This report was compiled based on primary and secondary market research techniques and data sets developed from these. Extensive efforts were made to understand the global distribution of fossil fuels (the various coals, natural gas deposits and shale plays) and the prominent biomass species indigenous to areas where gasifiers might be considered. Trade publications covering fossil fuels, power plants, biomass, waste management, energy projects, biofuels and the renewable energy world ecosystem were thoroughly studied. Data sources are identified in various parts of this report for those interested in delving deeper into these sources for specific data and information.


The data available thus are complemented with information sourced from individuals and experts working in the gasifier industry. Regional data specific to local markets were gathered from local participants by telephone interviews and E-mail discussions. Regulatory and policy data are now widely available in public forums and media, and these data were researched and gathered in part to understand how they shape the gasifier markets going forward.


The research and analysis led to the development of a quantitative picture of the status of the gasifier industry, its major segments and geographic market activity and indicators of the directions of evolution of those markets. The accumulated data were analyzed in terms of a world segmented into specific geographic regions, each with multiple countries having sufficient key similarities and geographic proximity to be included within that region.


The chief metrics in this report are new and cumulative gasifiers units broken down by world markets, application and region. The discussions explore the market dynamics driven by the availability of particular feedstocks and the annual regional market for gasifiers in a given application segment. This format is continued from our previous report. Readers should note that because the life expectancy of large gasifiers is several decades, the removal of installed gasifiers, is not taken into consideration in calculating cumulative units. The only exception to this is the biomass-to-energy gasifier market segment, which uses relatively smaller units, with product life cycles shorter than a decade, where there is a fair amount of churn with new installations and the closure of existing reactors.

SCOPE OF REPORT
This report identifies, characterizes, describes and forecasts the markets for gasifiers on a global and regional basis. Attention is given to national/state incentives, international agreements, regulatory regimes and political policies that foster, hinder or avoid the implementation of gasifiers.

Forecasts are provided to estimate the robustness of the gasifier markets in their different size ranges, feedstocks and applications over time, covering the period of 2015 through 2021.
This report provides market data under geographic segmentation as well as technology segmentation. Estimated values provided where available are based on manufacturers’ total revenues.

The report divides the global market into seven regions as follows:
- North America: Canada, Mexico and the U.S.
- Western Europe (both EU and non-EU countries).
- Pacific Rim: China, Japan, Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan.
- Southeast Asia: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
- Southwest Asia: India, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
- Eastern Europe and the Middle East.
- Southern Hemisphere: Australia, New Zealand, Africa, South America and the Caribbean.

Each region is unique in terms of feedstock availability and growth in gross domestic product (GDP). The gasifier market for each segment is analyzed in individual chapters. Under technology segmentation, the report divides the global market into eight technology applications:
- Coal to energy (CTE).
- Coal to liquids (CTL).
- Biomass to energy (BTE).
- Biomass to liquids (BTL).
- Direct reduced iron (DRI) melting.
- Pet coke (includes refinery residuals).
- Waste to energy (WTE).
- Plasma gasifiers.

The status of technology development for each application is reviewed. The efficiencies possible under gasification and other competing technologies available in the specific markets determine the end cost to users.
Gasifiers have become a mainstream product in a broad range of applications, which include central power stations, waste treatment, industrial chemicals production, on-site small industrial operations, district cogeneration, residences in rural economically poor areas and more. They are becoming an essential part of the energy conversion landscape and are already a multibillion-dollar-a-year diversified industry on a strong growth path globally.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report is expected to fulfill a market need for a detailed market analysis of the gasifier industry worldwide, with an emphasis on influential factors that affect the growth of the market, market trends and growth rates, and a comparison of competing technologies in various application segments thereof.
The data and information compiled in this report would be useful for executives making decisions on investments, marketing decisions as well as strategic planning. Company executives who handle production planning, purchasing, sales and design functions will benefit from the detailed analysis of the industry, list of companies provided, details of markets and growth rates, as well as the technical information that the report provides.

The approach has been to discuss matters avoiding technical jargon as much as possible so that readers from other segments of the industry can make use of the information in a meaningful manner.
The energy markets worldwide comprise a large industry, and the information provided in this report about this industry is a means to understanding how it shapes the growth and stagnation of the gasifier markets and will be useful for readers interested in the energy markets as well.


The timelines involved in the planning, design, construction, launch and regular operations of the gasifiers are long, often spanning decades, especially for the large sized gasifiers used in the coal industry. Decisions are made with a longer-term view, with both financial and societal impacts being taken into consideration. The discussions on government policies and strategies in various countries, along with the data on energy market trends will be useful to those involved in such decision making process.


The timelines involved in the biomass-to-energy markets are short, with payback periods as short as eight months. However, the lack of the dissemination of data and information relative to the biomass-to-energy markets has hindered these markets. The same is true for the waste-to-energy market, where incineration is much more widely used, which we feel is partly due to the lack of information available on the environmental benefits that gasifier technology can provide in comparison. The report also covers these aspects in detail for those who are considering gasifier technologies for local use, such as municipality or city or state level BTE installations or waste handling.


Matters covered in this report will be helpful to university, government and institutional energy, fossil fuel, biomass, forestry and forestry products, and agricultural research staff. Technical details covered in the chapter on patents will be especially of interest to those readers and to smaller manufacturers that might be considering adopting similar technologies for their product developments.


Government regulators and legislators, international funding agencies, think tanks, large NGOs and other nonprofit organizations that help shape the policies that affect these markets will benefit immensely from the market details provided and the insights on how certain technologies available today can be implemented, as execution of ideas is often the most difficult step in making large-scale changes within a society.

ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
Vijay Subramanian has a Ph.D. in Materials Science from the University of Cincinnati, and extensive experience in the field of materials and their global markets. He worked for more than a decade in the automotive industry in the U.S., and later in India, and owns several U.S. patents. Dr. Subramanian has authored reports for BCC Research since 2012. Other recent reports by the author include AVM033C Abrasive Materials, Products, Applications and Global Markets; AVM049D Metal and Ceramic Injection Molding; AVM098A Precious Metals: Global Markets; and CHM046C Global Markets for Catalysts: Focus on Catalyst Regeneration.

Table Of Contents

Global Markets for Gasifiers
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
GASIFICATION 2
GASIFIERS 2
GASIFIER MANUFACTURERS 3
MARKET DRIVERS 3
ENERGY MARKETS 3
ECONOMICS 3
POLICY 4
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 4
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 5
INFORMATION SOURCES 6
METHODOLOGIES 7
SCOPE OF REPORT 7
INTENDED AUDIENCE 8
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 9
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 10
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 10
DISCLAIMER 10
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 12
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 13
SUMMARY FIGURE ANNUAL NEW UNITS OF GASIFIERS INSTALLED WORLDWIDE, BY
APPLICATION, 2013-2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 14
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW: GASIFIER TECHNOLOGIES 17
TABLE 1 ENERGY CHANGES INVOLVED IN GASIFICATION REACTIONS 17
GASIFIER MARKET STRUCTURE 17
TABLE 2 GASIFIER CAPACITY RANGES, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT 18
FIGURE 1 TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENTS IN THE EFFICIENCY OF GASIFIERS,
2000-2030 (%) 19
TYPES OF GASIFIERS 19
FIGURE 2 COMPARISON OF TOP THREE SOLID GASIFICATION PROCESSES 19
TABLE 3 COMPARISON OF SOLID GASIFICATION PROCESSES 20
FIXED BED GASIFIERS 20
FLUIDIZED BED GASIFIERS 20
ENTRAINED FLOW GASIFIERS 20
PLASMA GASIFIERS 21
TABLE 4 COMPARISON OF PLASMA GASIFIER TECHNOLOGIES, BY SUPPLIER
COMPANY WORLDWIDE 21
FUNCTIONAL DISTINGUISHING DESIGN FEATURES 22
GASIFIER SYSTEM COMPONENTS 23
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GASIFIERS 23
GASIFICATION + DIRECT REDUCED IRON 24
COMPANY-SPECIFIC GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES 25
FIGURE 3 COMPARISON OF FOUR MAJOR GASIFIER MANUFACTURER DESIGNS 25
CONOCO PHILLIPS E-GAS 25
ECUST 26
GE ENERGY 26
HALDOR TOPSOE 26
TABLE 5 HALDOR TOPSØE SNG PROJECTS WORLDWIDE 27
HYDROTHERMAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS 27
KELLOGG BROWN and ROOT TRANSPORT INTEGRATED GASIFICATION 27
MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES 27
PLASCO HORIZONTAL GASIFIERS 28
SASOL-LURGI (AIR LIQUIDE) 28
SHELL 28
SIEMENS FUEL GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY 29
TABLE 6 SELECTED SIEMENS FUEL GASIFIER PROJECTS WORLDWIDE 29
SYNTHESIS ENERGY SYSTEMS U-GAS 30
THYSSENKRUPP-PRENFLO AND HTW 30
THERMAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE/HUANENG CLEAN ENERY
RSEARCH INSTITUTE 30
TSINGHUA UNIVERSITY PROCESS 31
WINKLER GASIFIER 31
SUPPLIERS THAT OFFER SPECIFIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE GASIFIER MARKETS 31
SAINT-GOBAIN 31
AIR LIQUIDE 31
FIGURE 4 PROJECTS IN WHICH AIR LIQUIDE SUPPLIED THE OXYGEN, 2009-2015 31
CHAPTER 4 GASIFIER APPLICATIONS AND MARKET TRENDS 34
FIGURE 5 COMPARISON OF NEW POWER GENERATION CAPACITY INSTALLED IN
THE UNITED STATES, BY POWER SOURCE, 1950-2015 (GW) 34
GASIFICATION APPLICATIONS 35
COAL APPLICATIONS 35
Coal to Energy - Utility-Scale Gasification 35
Impact of Shale Gas on the Market for Gasifiers 36
FIGURE 6 MAP OF WORLD SHALE GAS AND SHALE OIL DEPOSITS 37
Coal Markets Worldwide 38
FIGURE 7 MAJOR WORLD COAL PRODUCTION 38
Underground Coal Gasification 38
Coal-to-Liquid Gasifiers 39
Coal Export and Import Data 39
TABLE 7 GLOBAL COAL EXPORTS, BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2014 ($ MILLIONS) 40
TABLE 8 GLOBAL COAL IMPORTS, BY COUNTRY, 2011-2014 ($ MILLIONS) 40
Pet Coke (Including Refinery Residuals) 41
BIOMASS APPLICATIONS 42
Biomass to Energy 42
TABLE 9 ESTIMATION OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE GROWING SUPPLY OF
BIOMASS MATERIALS FOR THE ENERGY MARKETS, THROUGH 2050 43
FIGURE 8 COMPOSITION OF BIOMASS MATERIALS COMPARED WITH COAL (%) 44
Two Greatest Advantages of Biomass Gasifiers 45
Cost Comparisons 45
TABLE 10 TYPICAL CAPITAL COSTS AND LEVELIZED COST OF ELECTRICITY
PRODUCED FROM BIOMASS, BY VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES, 2014 (USD/KW) 45
TABLE 11 CAPEX, OPERATING COSTS AND LEVELIZED COST OF ELECTRICITY
PRODUCED FROM BIOMASS IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2014 46
FIGURE 9 LEVELIZED COST OF ELECTRICITY POSSIBLE USING VARIOUS GREEN
TECHNOLOGIES, 2014-2025 ($/KWH) 46
TABLE 12 BIOMASS GASIFIER SIZES AND COST COMPARISON, 2007 47
FIGURE 10 BIOMASS USAGE IN INDUSTRY, ENERGY AND TRANSPORTATION
SEGMENTS, BY COUNTRY (PJ GENERATED PER YEAR) 48
TABLE 13 LARGEST BIOMASS GASIFICATION PLANTS IN THE WORLD AND THEIR
PRODUCTION CAPACITIES, 2013 49
TABLE 14 LARGE BIOMASS GASIFICATION PLANTS THAT ARE OR PLANNED UNDER
CONSTRUCTION 50
Case Study - Ankur Scientific 51
BIOMASS-TO-LIQUID APPLICATIONS 52
Costs of Biofuel Production 52
FIGURE 11 COST OF BIOFUEL LIPIDS, BY COUNTRY, 2007 ($/LITER) 53
TABLE 15 TOP 10 COUNTRIES WITH BIODIESEL PRODUCTION POTENTIAL, 2012 53
TABLE 16 GLOBAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION, BY COUNTRY/REGION, THROUGH
2021 (MILLION LITERS) 54
TABLE 17 LARGEST BIODIESEL PLANTS IN THE WORLD (1,000 T/Y) 55
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION, 2011-2021 (MILLION LITERS) 55
TABLE 18 LARGEST ETHANOL MILLS IN THE WORLD 57
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL GROWTH IN BIOMASS TREATMENT PLANT SIZES, BY PROVIDER
AND TECHNOLOGY, 1970-2015 (TONNES PER DAY) 57
WASTE TREATMENT APPLICATIONS 58
Waste to Energy 58
TABLE 19 GLOBAL WASTE GENERATION, BY REGION, 2015 VS 2025 59
FIGURE 14 SHARES OF GLOBAL URBAN WASTE, BY DISPOSAL METHOD, 2012 (%) 60
TABLE 20 SHARES OF URBAN WASTE TREATED USING WASTE-TO-ENERGY
METHODS, BY COUNTRY, 2012 (%) 61
TABLE 21 GLOBAL PROJECTED GROWTH OF WASTE TREATED USING
WASTE-TO-ENERGY METHODS, BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2025 (TONNES/DAY) 62
TABLE 22 PLANTS USING PLASMA GASIFICATION FOR WASTE TREATMENT
WORLDWIDE 63
TABLE 23 EXAMPLE OF PLASMA GASIFIER MANUFACTURER REVENUE STREAMS
AND TIMELINES PER UNIT INSTALLED, 2014 64
TABLE 24 LARGEST WASTE-TO-ENERGY GASIFICATION PLANTS WORLDWIDE 65
Case Study - Hitachi Zohen Inova 66
TABLE 25 HITACHI ZOHEN INOVA WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANTS WORLDWIDE 66
MEDICAL WASTE APPLICATIONS 68
Case Study - Plantec Inc. 68
GASIFIER COST ANALYSIS 68
TABLE 26 COST ANALYSIS OF GASIFICATION PRODUCTS IN VARIOUS APPLICATION
MARKETS, 2013-2016 69
GASIFIER MARKET TRENDS WORLDWIDE 69
FEEDSTOCK FLEXIBILITY 69
BIOMASS GASIFICATION 70
HYDROGEN ECONOMY - SMALLER/MORE WIDELY DISTRIBUTED UNITS 70
PLASMA GASIFICATION 70
CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION 71
COST REDUCTION 71
SHORTER DEVELOPMENT TIMELINE 71
FIGURE 15 GASIFIER TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TIMESCALE 71
CHAPTER 5 PATENT ANALYSIS OF GASIFIER TECHNOLOGIES 74
FIGURE 16 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON GASIFIER TECHNOLOGIES SINCE
1976, BY SEARCH METHOD 74
PATENT ANALYSIS BY YEAR 75
FIGURE 17 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON GASIFIER TECHNOLOGIES SINCE
1976, BY YEAR, FIRST METHOD 76
FIGURE 18 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON GASIFIER TECHNOLOGIES SINCE
1976, BY YEAR, SECOND METHOD 76
CORE PATENTS ON GASIFIER TECHNOLOGIES 77
TABLE 27 U.S. PATENTS SPECIFIC TO GASIFIER TECHNOLOGIES, 1976 THROUGH
FEBRUARY 2016 77
PATENT ANALYSIS BY COMPANY/INSTITUTION 89
TABLE 28 NUMBER OF U.S. GASIFIER PATENTS BY COMPANY/INSTITUTION, 1976
THROUGH FEBRUARY 2016 90
FIGURE 19 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON GASIFIERS, BY COMPANY, 1976
THROUGH FEBRUARY 2016 (%) 93
PATENT ANALYSIS BY REGION 93
TABLE 29 NUMBER OF U.S. GASIFIER PATENTS, BY ASSIGNEE COUNTRY, 1976
THROUGH FEBRUARY 2016 (NO./%) 94
FIGURE 20 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON GASIFIERS BY ASSIGNEE
COUNTRY, 1976 THROUGH FEBRUARY 2016 (%) 94
PATENT ANALYSIS BY TECHNOLOGY 95
CHAPTER 6 WORLD GASIFIER MARKET FORECASTS 98
TABLE 30 LARGE ACTIVE GASIFICATION PLANTS WORLDWIDE, BY TYPE 99
TABLE 31 TOP 30 GLOBAL GASIFICATION PLANTS AND THEIR SIZES 104
TABLE 32 SYNGAS PRODUCTION CAPACITIES FOR GASIFIERS IN OPERATION AND
UNDER CONSTRUCTION, GLOBAL COUNT, 2015 (GWTH) 106
GASIFIER APPLICATION MARKET 106
TABLE 33 GASIFIER SIZE RANGES, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT (MWTH) 106
TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021
(NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 108
FIGURE 21 ANNUAL GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY REGION, 2015-2021 (NO.) 108
TABLE 35 GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS WORLDWIDE, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2021 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 109
GASIFIER MARKETS BY REGION 110
NORTH AMERICA 110
SOUTH AMERICA 111
WESTERN EUROPE 112
MIDDLE EAST AND INDIA 112
CHINA 112
ASIA AND AUSTRALIA 112
EXPORT AND IMPORT DATA 113
GASIFIER EXPORT DATA 113
TABLE 36 GLOBAL EXPORTS OF GASIFIER SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS, THROUGH
2014 ($ THOUSANDS) 114
GASIFIER IMPORT DATA 115
TABLE 37 GLOBAL IMPORTS OF GASIFIER SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS, THROUGH
2014 ($ THOUSANDS) 116
MACHINERY EXPORT AND IMPORT DATA 117
TABLE 38 GLOBAL EXPORTS OF MACHINERY RELATED TO PROCESSES THAT
INVOLVE HEATING, BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2014 ($ MILLIONS) 118
TABLE 39 GLOBAL IMPORTS OF MACHINERY RELATED TO PROCESSES THAT
INVOLVE HEATING, BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2014 ($ MILLIONS) 120
CHAPTER 7 NORTH AMERICAN GASIFIER MARKETS 123
FORECAST FOR NORTH AMERICAN GASIFIER MARKETS 123
TABLE 40 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 124
TABLE 41 NORTH AMERICAN GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 124
U.S. GASIFIER MARKETS 125
Regulatory Issues in the U.S. 125
Financial Incentives to Install Gasifiers in the U.S. 125
TABLE 42 INDIVIDUAL U.S. STATES BIOMASS-TO-ENERGY INCENTIVES 125
Coal-Based Gasifiers in the U.S. 127
FIGURE 22 MAP OF U.S. COAL DEPOSITS, BY TYPE OF COAL 127
Pet Coke Gasifiers in the U.S. 128
Coal Gasification for DRI Melting in the U.S. 128
TABLE 43 U.S. IRON AND STEEL COMPANIES 128
BTE and BTL Gasifiers in the U.S. 129
FIGURE 23 MAP OF LOCATIONS OF FOREST PRODUCT FACILITIES IN THE U.S. 129
FIGURE 24 SOLID BIOMASS RESOURCES IN THE U.S., MAPPED BY COUNTY 130
TABLE 44 COST COMPARISON OF THERMAL ENERGY FROM COMMON U.S. BIOMASS
FEEDSTOCKS 131
TABLE 45 BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK CHARACTERISTICS IN THE U.S. 131
FIGURE 25 BIOMASS-BASED POWER GENERATION IN THE U.S., 2006-2015 (TWH) 132
WTE Gasifiers in the U.S. 133
TABLE 46 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GASIFIERS IN THE U.S. 133
FIGURE 26 MAP OF STATES PROVIDING SUPPORT FOR WTE SYSTEMS, BY
LEGISLATION 135
Plasma Gasifiers in the U.S. 136
Number of Gasifiers in the U.S. 136
TABLE 47 U.S. MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 137
Cumulative U.S. Gasifier Market Forecast by Application 137
TABLE 48 U.S. GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021
(CUMULATIVE UNITS) 137
TABLE 49 PARTIAL LIST OF EXISTING GASIFICATION PLANTS IN THE U.S. 138
TABLE 50 PROPOSED GASIFICATION PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES, BY TYPE, AS
OF MARCH 2016 140
TABLE 51 COSTS OF ACTIVE GASIFICATION PLANTS IN THE U.S. 143
CANADIAN GASIFIER MARKETS 144
TABLE 52 CANADIAN GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021
(CUMULATIVE UNITS) 145
TABLE 53 PARTIAL LIST OF EXISTING GASIFICATION PLANTS IN CANADA 145
CHAPTER 8 WESTERN EUROPEAN GASIFIER MARKET FORECAST 148
LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING THE GASIFIER MARKETS IN WESTERN
EUROPE 148
RES REGULATIONS 149
FIGURE 27 SHARES OF PRIMARY ENERGY PRODUCTION SOURCES IN EUROPEAN
UNION, 2010-2050 (%) 149
LANDFILL DIRECTIVE 150
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 150
TABLE 54 BIOMASS FEED-IN TARIFFS IN WESTERN EUROPE, 2014 (€/KWH) 151
GASIFIER MARKETS IN WESTERN EUROPE 152
TABLE 55 REFINING CAPACITY IN WESTERN EUROPE, BY COUNTRY, 2010-2014 152
TABLE 56 PARTIAL LIST OF GASIFICATION UNITS IN EUROPE, BY LOCATION, TYPE
AND CAPACITY 153
WESTERN EUROPE MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS FORECAST BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT 157
Biomass-to-Liquid Gasifier Market 157
FIGURE 28 BTL PROJECTS IN EUROPE AND THEIR STATUS, 2015 158
Waste to Energy 158
FIGURE 29 WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANTS OPERATING IN EUROPE, 2013 (NO.) 159
TABLE 57 WESTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 160
WESTERN EUROPE CUMULATIVE GASIFIER MARKETS FORECAST BY
APPLICATION 160
TABLE 58 WESTERN EUROPEAN GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 161
CHAPTER 9 PACIFIC RIM GASIFIER MARKETS 163
CHINESE GASIFIER MARKETS 164
TABLE 59 LARGE ACTIVE GASIFICATION PLANTS IN CHINA, BY TYPE 165
TABLE 60 MAJOR GASIFICATION PLANTS IN CHINA UNDER DEVELOPMENT 171
TABLE 61 NUMBER OF MAJOR NON-POWER COAL GASIFICATION PROJECTS IN
CHINA, BY SUPPLIER, AS OF 2013 174
CHINA GASIFIER MARKET FORECAST 175
FIGURE 30 DOMESTIC COAL PRODUCTION IN CHINA, 2000-2015 (BILLIONS OF
TONNES) 175
TABLE 62 TOP 10 COAL PRODUCING COMPANIES IN CHINA, 2014 (MILLION TONNES) 176
CHINA NEW GASIFIER MARKET FORECAST 176
TABLE 63 CHINESE MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 177
CHINA CUMULATIVE GASIFIER MARKET FORECAST 177
TABLE 64 CHINESE GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021
(CUMULATIVE UNITS) 177
JAPANESE GASIFIER MARKET 178
COAL GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN JAPAN 178
TABLE 65 JAPANESE COMPANIES AND THEIR GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES 178
TABLE 66 LARGE JAPANESE COMPANIES UTILIZING GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES
FOR PURPOSES OTHER THAN POWER PRODUCTION 179
FIGURE 31 GROWTH OF COAL IN POWER GENERATION MARKET IN JAPAN,
1973-2013 (KWH) 180
WASTE TO ENERGY BY GASIFICATION-JAPAN LEADS THE WORLD 180
FIGURE 32 NUMBER OF SLAGGING GASIFIERS FOR WASTE TREATMENT IN JAPAN,
BY COMPANY 181
TABLE 67 PARTIAL LIST OF GASIFICATION UNITS IN JAPAN, BY TYPE AND CAPACITY 182
JAPAN GASIFIER MARKET FORECAST 183
TABLE 68 JAPANESE MARKET FOR NEW WTE GASIFIERS, THROUGH 2021 (NEW
UNITS ANNUALLY) 183
CUMULATIVE JAPAN GASIFIER MARKET FORECAST 183
TABLE 69 JAPANESE GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021
(CUMULATIVE UNITS) 184
PHILIPPINES, SOUTH KOREA AND TAIWAN GASIFIER MARKETS 184
TABLE 70 SELECTED GASIFICATION PROJECTS IN SOUTH KOREA AND TAIWAN 184
PHILIPPINES GASIFIER MARKET 185
TABLE 71 PHILIPPINES BIOMASS GASIFICATION PROJECT CAPACITIES, 2015 (MW) 185
TABLE 72 PHILIPPINES ANNUAL CROP WASTE (MILLION TONNES) 186
SOUTH KOREA GASIFIER MARKETS 186
PACIFIC RIM COUNTRIES GASIFIER MARKET FORECASTS 187
TABLE 73 PACIFIC RIM MARKETS FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 187
TABLE 74 PACIFIC RIM GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021
(CUMULATIVE UNITS) 188
CHAPTER 10 SOUTHEAST ASIAN GASIFIER MARKETS 190
TABLE 75 PARTIAL LIST OF LARGE GASIFICATION UNITS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, BY
TYPE AND CAPACITY 191
ENERGY MARKETS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 191
TABLE 76 MAJOR ENERGY POLICIES AND TARGETS IN SOUTHEAST ASIAN
COUNTRIES 192
INDONESIA 193
THAILAND 193
MALAYSIA 194
VIETNAM 194
CAMBODIA 195
LAOS 195
COAL MARKET IN INDONESIA 195
FIGURE 33 COAL PRODUCTION, DOMESTIC USE AND EXPORTS FROM INDONESIA,
2009-2019 (MILLION TONNES) 196
NATURAL GAS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 196
FIGURE 34 APPLICATION MARKETS FOR LNG PRODUCED IN SOUTHEAST ASIA,
2013-2040 (BCM) 197
FIGURE 35 GAS AND OIL INFRASTRUCTURE IN MALAYSIA 197
BIOMASS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 198
FIGURE 36 PERCENTAGE OF LANDMASS THAT IS FOREST OR AGRICULTURAL IN
SOUTHEAST ASIA, BY COUNTRY (%) 198
INDONESIA 199
TABLE 77 POTENTIAL BIOFUEL LOCATIONS IN INDONESIA 200
THAILAND 200
TABLE 78 PARTIAL LIST OF BIOMASS GASIFIERS INSTALLED IN THAILAND, 2010
(KWH) 201
CAMBODIA 202
TABLE 79 PARTIAL LIST OF BIOMASS GASIFIERS INSTALLED IN CAMBODIA, 2010 202
VIETNAM 203
MALAYSIA 204
TABLE 80 BIOFUEL ENERGY POTENTIAL IN MALAYSIA 204
LAOS 204
SINGAPORE 205
SOUTHEAST ASIAN GASIFIER MARKET FORECASTS 205
TABLE 81 SOUTHEAST ASIAN MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 206
TABLE 82 SOUTHEAST ASIAN GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021. (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 207
CHAPTER 11 GASIFIER MARKET IN SOUTHWEST ASIA 209
TABLE 83 PARTIAL LIST OF LARGE GASIFICATION UNITS IN SOUTHWEST ASIA, BY
TYPE AND CAPACITY 210
INDIA 210
TABLE 84 POWER GENERATION CAPACITY IN INDIA, BY TYPE OF FUEL SOURCE,
THROUGH 2040 (GW) 211
COAL IN INDIA 211
FIGURE 37 COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT CAPACITY IN INDIA, BY TECHNOLOGY,
2010-2040 (GW) 212
OIL AND NATURAL GAS 213
BIOFUELS 214
WASTE TO ENERGY 214
TABLE 85 INDIAN CITIES WITH MSW WASTE EXCEEDING 1,000 TONNES/DAY, 2015
(TONNES/DAY) 215
GASIFIER MARKET IN INDIA 215
TABLE 86 INDIAN GASIFIER MANUFACTURERS AND CONSULTING FIRMS 215
TABLE 87 STATE-WISE INSTALLED BIOMASS POWER GENERATION 2014 CAPACITY
AND 2022 TARGETS, IN INDIA (MW) 217
COST ANALYSIS OF THE INDIAN MARKET FOR BIOMASS GASIFIERS 217
TABLE 88 POTENTIAL FOR BIOMASS POWER IN INDIA AND COST OF FEEDSTOCK,
BY REGION 218
Financial Incentives for Biomass Gasifiers 218
TABLE 89 BIOMASS POWER/COGENERATION PLANT SUPPLIERS ACTIVE IN INDIA 219
DRI APPLICATIONS OF GASIFIERS 219
HISTORY AND GROWTH OF GASIFIERS IN INDIA 220
TABLE 90 COMPANIES AND ORGANIZATIONS PROMOTING BIOMASS GASIFIERS IN
INDIA AND EXAMPLES OF INSTALLATIONS 220
BANGLADESH 221
FIGURE 38 CONSUMPTION IN BANGALDESH, BY FUEL TYPE, 2013 AND 2014
(MILLION TONNES OIL EQUIVALENT) 222
MYANMAR 223
FIGURE 39 SHARES OF MYANMAR ENERGY CONSUMPTION, BY POWER SOURCE,
2012-2030 (%) 223
PAKISTAN 224
FIGURE 40 CONSUMPTION IN PAKISTAN, BY FUEL TYPE, 2013 AND 2014 (MTOE) 224
SRI LANKA 225
BIOMASS GASIFIERS IN SRI LANKA 226
TABLE 91 COMPANIES IN SRI LANKA WITH POTENTIAL FOR BIOMASS GASIFIER USE,
2013 (KW) 227
SOUTHWEST ASIA - GASIFIER MARKET FORECAST 227
TABLE 92 SOUTHWEST ASIA MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 229
TABLE 93 SOUTHWEST ASIA GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2021 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 230
CHAPTER 12 EASTERN EUROPEAN, RUSSIAN AND MIDDLE EASTERN GASIFIER
MARKETS 232
TABLE 94 LARGE GASIFICATION UNITS IN EASTERN EUROPE, RUSSIA AND THE
MIDDLE EAST, 1952-2019 233
ENERGY MARKETS IN EASTERN EUROPE 233
TABLE 95 ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES, BY POWER SOURCE,
2014 (MTOE) 234
TABLE 96 REFINING CAPACITY IN EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA, 2010-2014
(THOUSANDS BBL/DAY) 236
TABLE 97 REFINING CAPACITY IN THE MIDDLE EAST, BY COUNTRY, 2010-2014
(THOUSANDS BBL/DAY) 236
TABLE 98 BIOMASS FITS (FEED-IN TARIFFS) IN UKRAINE AND GREECE, 2014
(€/KWH) 237
FORECASTS FOR GASIFIER MARKETS IN EASTERN EUROPE, RUSSIA AND THE
MIDDLE EAST 238
TABLE 99 EASTERN EUROPE, RUSSIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST MARKET FOR NEW
GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 238
TABLE 100 EASTERN EUROPE, RUSSIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST GASIFIER
INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 239
CHAPTER 13 GASIFIER MARKETS IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE 241
TABLE 101 LARGE GASIFICATION UNITS IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE,
1955-2019 241
AUSTRALIA 243
FIGURE 41 ENERGY DEPENDENCE IN AUSTRALIA, BY SOURCE, 2013 AND 2014
(MTOE) 243
FIGURE 42 MAP OF COAL RESERVES IN AUSTRALIA 244
FIGURE 43 CTL PROJECTS IN AUSTRALIA AND CURRENT STATUS 245
FIGURE 44 LEVELIZED COST AND CAPEX FOR TRANSPORTATION FUELS IN
AUSTRALIA, BY TECHNOLOGY, 2014 246
NEW ZEALAND 246
AFRICA 247
FIGURE 45 AFRICAN ENERGY CONSUMPTION, BY COUNTRY AND SOURCE, 2014
(MTOE) 247
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 249
FIGURE 46 SOUTH AMERICAN ENERGY CONSUMPTION, BY COUNTRY AND POWER
SOURCE, 2014 (MTOE) 250
FIGURE 47 TOP FIVE COUNTRIES IN BIOFUEL PRODUCTION, 2010-2014 (MTOE) 251
FORECAST OF THE GASIFIER MARKETS IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE 251
TABLE 102 SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 252
TABLE 103 SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 253
CHAPTER 14 DIRECTORY OF COMPANIES ACTIVE IN THE GLOBAL GASIFIER MARKET 255
ABORIGINAL COGENERATION CORP. 255
ACCESS ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES LTD. 255
ADAPTIVEARC INC. 255
ADVANCED PLASMA POWER LTD. 255
AESI LLC 255
AGILYX 256
AGRO POWER GASIFICATION PLANT PVT. LTD. 256
AIR LIQUIDE (LURGI) 256
AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS INC. 256
ALENTEC 256
ALL POWER LABS LLC 257
ALQIMI (FORMERLY ABSI) 257
ALSTOM 257
ALTER NRG CORP. 257
AMEC FOSTER WHEELER 257
AMEC FOSTER WHEELER - GLOBAL POWER GROUP 258
ANDRITZ AG 258
ANKUR SCIENTIFIC ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES PVT. LTD. 258
APPRO TECHNOLOGY 258
ARRYA HI-TECH ENERGY 258
ASSOCIATED ENGINEERING WORKS 259
BABCOCK and WILCOX VØLUND A/S 259
BALBOA PACIFIC CORP. 259
BELLWETHER GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES LTD. 259
BENREG EUROPE GMBH 259
BIORESIDUE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY PVT. LTD. 259
BTG BIOLIQUIDS 260
CARECO (PVT.) LTD. 260
CHANDERPUR WORKS PVT. LTD. 260
CHANGZHENG ENGINEERING CO. LTD. 260
CHEMREC AB 260
CHINOOK SCIENCES LLC 261
CHO-POWER 261
CHONGQING FENGYU ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT CO. LTD. 261
CHOREN INDUSTRIETECHNIK GMBH 261
CLARIANT INTERNATIONAL 261
COMMUNITY POWER CORP. 262
CONCORD BLUE ENGINEERING GMBH 262
CONOCOPHILLIPS 262
CORE BIOFUEL 262
COREX (U.K.) LTD. 262
CORTUS ENERGY 263
COSMO POWERTECH PVT. LTD. 263
CREAPOR S.A. 263
CREATIVE ENERGY SYSTEMS 263
CYNAR PLC 263
DIVERSIFIED CONTRACTORS INC. 263
DKRW ADVANCED FUELS 264
DNV GL NOBLE DENTON 264
DPS GLOBAL 264
DUTEMP CORP. 264
DYNAMIS ENERGY 264
E. B. MECHANISM PVT. LTD. 264
EBARA CORP. 265
ECO-ENERGYS 265
ECOFOGAO 265
ECOREMEDY ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 265
ENER-G HOLDINGS PLC 265
ENERGIRON DANIELI 266
ENERGY WORKS GROUP 266
ENERKEM 266
ENERSOL TECHNOLOGIES INC. 266
ENOVA ENERGY GROUP 266
ENSYN CORP. 266
ENTRADE ENERGY CORP 267
ENVERGENT TECHNOLOGIES 267
EPIC 267
ETA HEIZTECHNIK GMBH 267
ETHOS ENERGY 267
EUROPLASMA GROUP 267
EXCELSIOR ENERGY INC. 268
FRONTLINE BIOENERGY LLC 268
FULCRUM BIOENERGY INC. 268
GASEK OY 268
GB ENERGY HOLDING S.R.O. 268
GE OIL and GAS 269
GLOBAL ENERGY COLLABORATIONS 269
GP GREEN ENERGY SYSTEMS 269
GREATPOINT ENERGY 269
GTS SYNGAS S.RL./GMBH 269
HALDOR TOPSOE A/S 270
HEAT TRANSFER INTERNATIONAL (HTI) 270
HERZ ENERGIETECHNIK 270
HITACHI ZOSEN CORP. 270
HOST BIOENERGY 270
HUSK POWER SYSTEMS PVT. LTD. 271
ICM INC. 271
ILS-PARTNERS INC. 271
INENTEC INC. 271
INEOS BIO 271
INNERPOINT ENERGY CORP. 271
INERTAM 272
INFINITE ENERGY PVT. LTD. 272
INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES INC. (IET) 272
INTERSTATE WASTE TECHNOLOGIES 272
IQR SOLUTIONS AB 272
JAPAN BLUE ENERGY CO. LTD. 273
JAROSLAV CANKAR A SYN ATMOS 273
KAWASAKI HEAVY INDUSTRIES 273
KBR 273
KINC MINERAL TECHNOLOGIES PVT. LTD. 273
KINSEI SANGYO CO. LTD. 274
KLEAN INDUSTRIES INC. 274
KOBELCO ECO-SOLUTIONS CO. LTD. 274
KRANN ENGINEERING 274
LINC ENERGY LTD. 274
LINDE AG 275
MAGNEGAS CORP. 275
MANGLAM BIOMASS GASIFIERS 275
MAVERICK SYNFUELS 275
METSO PAPER INC. 275
MEVA ENERGY AB 275
MIDREX 276
MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES ENVIRONMENTAL AND CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING 276
MOTHERMIK GMBH 276
NETPRO RENEWABLE ENERGY (INDIA) PVT. LTD. 276
NEXTERRA SYSTEMS CORP. 277
NOVO ENERGY LLC 277
ORGANIC ENERGY INC. 277
OUTOTEC ENERGY PRODUCTS 277
OVN BIO ENERGY PVT. LTD. 277
PEAT INTERNATIONAL 278
PEAT INTERNATIONAL USA 278
PHG ENERGY 278
PHOENIX BIOENERGY LLC 278
PHOENIX ENERGY 278
PHOENIX PRODUCTS 278
PHOENIX SOLUTIONS CO. 279
PHILCARBON 279
PLANTEC S.R.L. 279
PLASCO ENERGY GROUP 279
PLASMA POWER LLC 279
PLASMA2ENERGY 280
POWERHOUSE ENERGY GROUP PLC 280
PRIMUS GREEN ENERGY 280
PRM ENERGY SYSTEMS INC. 280
PYROGENESIS 280
RADHE RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PVT. LTD. 280
RECOVERED ENERGY INC. 281
RENEWABLES PLUS SDN BHD 281
RENTECH INC. 281
REPOTEC UMWELTTECHNIK GMBH 281
RISHIPOOJA ENERGY AND ENGINEERING CO. 281
SAINT-GOBAIN INDUSTRIEKERAMIK DUSSELDORF GMBH 282
SASOL 282
SHELL 282
SIEMENS FUEL GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY GMBH 282
SINERGA S.A. 282
SM BIOLEUM RESOURCES PVT. LTD. 283
SOLENA GROUP 283
STAK PROPERTIES LLC 283
SUNDROP FUELS INC. 283
SUPERIOR GASIFICATION 283
SYNATA BIO (FORMERLY COSKATA, INC.) 283
SYNERGY ELECTRIC PVT. LTD. 284
SYNTERRA ENERGY 284
SYNTHESIS ENERGY SYSTEMS INC. 284
TAIM WESER S.A. 284
TAKUMA CO. LTD. 284
TANGSHAN KEYUAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY and
EQUIPMENT CO. LTD. 284
TARM BIOMASS 285
TAYLOR BIOMASS ENERGY LLC 285
TENOVA HYL (PART OF THE TECHINT GROUP) 285
TERRAGON ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES INC. 285
TETRONICS LTD. 285
THERMAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE (TPRI) 286
THERMOCHEM RECOVERY INTERNATIONAL INC. 286
THOMPSON SPAVEN 286
THYSSENKRUPP INDUSTRIAL SOLUTIONS AG 286
TOPLINE ENERGY SYSTEM LLC 286
TRANS GAS DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 287
TRILLION INTERNATIONAL PTE. LTD. 287
TUTSEL 287
UPGRADE ENERGY 287
URBASER S.A. 287
VISTA INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES INC. 288
VOESTALPINE AG 288
WASTE TO ENERGY CANADA 288
W2E VENTURES INC. 288
WPP ENERGY HK LTD. 288
WUXI TENENG POWER MACHINERY CO. LTD. 289
XINBAO BIOMASS ENERGY CO. LTD. 289
XUZHOU ORIENT INDUSTRY CO. LTD. 289
ZEACHEM INC. 289
ZEEP 289
ZERO POINT CLEANTECH 290
ZHONGDE WASTE TECHNOLOGY AG 290


LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 13
TABLE 1 ENERGY CHANGES INVOLVED IN GASIFICATION REACTIONS 17
TABLE 2 GASIFIER CAPACITY RANGES, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT 18
TABLE 3 COMPARISON OF SOLID GASIFICATION PROCESSES 20
TABLE 4 COMPARISON OF PLASMA GASIFIER TECHNOLOGIES, BY SUPPLIER
COMPANY WORLDWIDE 21
TABLE 5 HALDOR TOPSØE SNG PROJECTS WORLDWIDE 27
TABLE 6 SELECTED SIEMENS FUEL GASIFIER PROJECTS WORLDWIDE 29
TABLE 7 GLOBAL COAL EXPORTS, BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2014 ($ MILLIONS) 40
TABLE 8 GLOBAL COAL IMPORTS, BY COUNTRY, 2011-2014 ($ MILLIONS) 40
TABLE 9 ESTIMATION OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE GROWING SUPPLY OF
BIOMASS MATERIALS FOR THE ENERGY MARKETS, THROUGH 2050 43
TABLE 10 TYPICAL CAPITAL COSTS AND LEVELIZED COST OF ELECTRICITY
PRODUCED FROM BIOMASS, BY VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES, 2014 (USD/KW) 45
TABLE 11 CAPEX, OPERATING COSTS AND LEVELIZED COST OF ELECTRICITY
PRODUCED FROM BIOMASS IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2014 46
TABLE 12 BIOMASS GASIFIER SIZES AND COST COMPARISON, 2007 47
TABLE 13 LARGEST BIOMASS GASIFICATION PLANTS IN THE WORLD AND THEIR
PRODUCTION CAPACITIES, 2013 49
TABLE 14 LARGE BIOMASS GASIFICATION PLANTS THAT ARE OR PLANNED UNDER
CONSTRUCTION 50
TABLE 15 TOP 10 COUNTRIES WITH BIODIESEL PRODUCTION POTENTIAL, 2012 53
TABLE 16 GLOBAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION, BY COUNTRY/REGION, THROUGH 2021
(MILLION LITERS) 54
TABLE 17 LARGEST BIODIESEL PLANTS IN THE WORLD (1,000 T/Y) 55
TABLE 18 LARGEST ETHANOL MILLS IN THE WORLD 57
TABLE 19 GLOBAL WASTE GENERATION, BY REGION, 2015 VS 2025 59
TABLE 20 SHARES OF URBAN WASTE TREATED USING WASTE-TO-ENERGY METHODS,
BY COUNTRY, 2012 (%) 61
TABLE 21 GLOBAL PROJECTED GROWTH OF WASTE TREATED USING
WASTE-TO-ENERGY METHODS, BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2025 (TONNES/DAY) 62
TABLE 22 PLANTS USING PLASMA GASIFICATION FOR WASTE TREATMENT
WORLDWIDE 63
TABLE 23 EXAMPLE OF PLASMA GASIFIER MANUFACTURER REVENUE STREAMS AND
TIMELINES PER UNIT INSTALLED, 2014 64
TABLE 24 LARGEST WASTE-TO-ENERGY GASIFICATION PLANTS WORLDWIDE 65
TABLE 25 HITACHI ZOHEN INOVA WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANTS WORLDWIDE 66
TABLE 26 COST ANALYSIS OF GASIFICATION PRODUCTS IN VARIOUS APPLICATION
MARKETS, 2013-2016 69
TABLE 27 U.S. PATENTS SPECIFIC TO GASIFIER TECHNOLOGIES, 1976 THROUGH
FEBRUARY 2016 77
TABLE 28 NUMBER OF U.S. GASIFIER PATENTS BY COMPANY/INSTITUTION, 1976
THROUGH FEBRUARY 2016 90
TABLE 29 NUMBER OF U.S. GASIFIER PATENTS, BY ASSIGNEE COUNTRY, 1976
THROUGH FEBRUARY 2016 (NO./%) 94
TABLE 30 LARGE ACTIVE GASIFICATION PLANTS WORLDWIDE, BY TYPE 99
TABLE 31 TOP 30 GLOBAL GASIFICATION PLANTS AND THEIR SIZES 104
TABLE 32 SYNGAS PRODUCTION CAPACITIES FOR GASIFIERS IN OPERATION AND
UNDER CONSTRUCTION, GLOBAL COUNT, 2015 (GWTH) 106
TABLE 33 GASIFIER SIZE RANGES, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT (MWTH) 106
TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021
(NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 108
TABLE 35 GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS WORLDWIDE, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021
(CUMULATIVE UNITS) 109
TABLE 36 GLOBAL EXPORTS OF GASIFIER SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS, THROUGH
2014 ($ THOUSANDS) 114
TABLE 37 GLOBAL IMPORTS OF GASIFIER SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS, THROUGH
2014 ($ THOUSANDS) 116
TABLE 38 GLOBAL EXPORTS OF MACHINERY RELATED TO PROCESSES THAT
INVOLVE HEATING, BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2014 ($ MILLIONS) 118
TABLE 39 GLOBAL IMPORTS OF MACHINERY RELATED TO PROCESSES THAT INVOLVE
HEATING, BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2014 ($ MILLIONS) 120
TABLE 40 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 124
TABLE 41 NORTH AMERICAN GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2021 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 124
TABLE 42 INDIVIDUAL U.S. STATES BIOMASS-TO-ENERGY INCENTIVES 125
TABLE 43 U.S. IRON AND STEEL COMPANIES 128
TABLE 44 COST COMPARISON OF THERMAL ENERGY FROM COMMON U.S. BIOMASS
FEEDSTOCKS 131
TABLE 45 BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK CHARACTERISTICS IN THE U.S. 131
TABLE 46 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GASIFIERS IN THE U.S. 133
TABLE 47 U.S. MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 137
TABLE 48 U.S. GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021
(CUMULATIVE UNITS) 137
TABLE 49 PARTIAL LIST OF EXISTING GASIFICATION PLANTS IN THE U.S. 138
TABLE 50 PROPOSED GASIFICATION PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES, BY TYPE, AS OF
MARCH 2016 140
TABLE 51 COSTS OF ACTIVE GASIFICATION PLANTS IN THE U.S. 143
TABLE 52 CANADIAN GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021
(CUMULATIVE UNITS) 145
TABLE 53 PARTIAL LIST OF EXISTING GASIFICATION PLANTS IN CANADA 145
TABLE 54 BIOMASS FEED-IN TARIFFS IN WESTERN EUROPE, 2014 (€/KWH) 151
TABLE 55 REFINING CAPACITY IN WESTERN EUROPE, BY COUNTRY, 2010-2014 152
TABLE 56 PARTIAL LIST OF GASIFICATION UNITS IN EUROPE, BY LOCATION, TYPE
AND CAPACITY 153
TABLE 57 WESTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 160
TABLE 58 WESTERN EUROPEAN GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 161
TABLE 59 LARGE ACTIVE GASIFICATION PLANTS IN CHINA, BY TYPE 165
TABLE 60 MAJOR GASIFICATION PLANTS IN CHINA UNDER DEVELOPMENT 171
TABLE 61 NUMBER OF MAJOR NON-POWER COAL GASIFICATION PROJECTS IN CHINA,
BY SUPPLIER, AS OF 2013 174
TABLE 62 TOP 10 COAL PRODUCING COMPANIES IN CHINA, 2014 (MILLION TONNES) 176
TABLE 63 CHINESE MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 177
TABLE 64 CHINESE GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021
(CUMULATIVE UNITS) 177
TABLE 65 JAPANESE COMPANIES AND THEIR GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES 178
TABLE 66 LARGE JAPANESE COMPANIES UTILIZING GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES
FOR PURPOSES OTHER THAN POWER PRODUCTION 179
TABLE 67 PARTIAL LIST OF GASIFICATION UNITS IN JAPAN, BY TYPE AND CAPACITY 182
TABLE 68 JAPANESE MARKET FOR NEW WTE GASIFIERS, THROUGH 2021 (NEW
UNITS ANNUALLY) 183
TABLE 69 JAPANESE GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021
(CUMULATIVE UNITS) 184
TABLE 70 SELECTED GASIFICATION PROJECTS IN SOUTH KOREA AND TAIWAN 184
TABLE 71 PHILIPPINES BIOMASS GASIFICATION PROJECT CAPACITIES, 2015 (MW) 185
TABLE 72 PHILIPPINES ANNUAL CROP WASTE (MILLION TONNES) 186
TABLE 73 PACIFIC RIM MARKETS FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 187
TABLE 74 PACIFIC RIM GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021
(CUMULATIVE UNITS) 188
TABLE 75 PARTIAL LIST OF LARGE GASIFICATION UNITS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, BY
TYPE AND CAPACITY 191
TABLE 76 MAJOR ENERGY POLICIES AND TARGETS IN SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRIES 192
TABLE 77 POTENTIAL BIOFUEL LOCATIONS IN INDONESIA 200
TABLE 78 PARTIAL LIST OF BIOMASS GASIFIERS INSTALLED IN THAILAND, 2010
(KWH) 201
TABLE 79 PARTIAL LIST OF BIOMASS GASIFIERS INSTALLED IN CAMBODIA, 2010 202
TABLE 80 BIOFUEL ENERGY POTENTIAL IN MALAYSIA 204
TABLE 81 SOUTHEAST ASIAN MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 206
TABLE 82 SOUTHEAST ASIAN GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2021. (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 207
TABLE 83 PARTIAL LIST OF LARGE GASIFICATION UNITS IN SOUTHWEST ASIA, BY
TYPE AND CAPACITY 210
TABLE 84 POWER GENERATION CAPACITY IN INDIA, BY TYPE OF FUEL SOURCE,
THROUGH 2040 (GW) 211
TABLE 85 INDIAN CITIES WITH MSW WASTE EXCEEDING 1,000 TONNES/DAY, 2015
(TONNES/DAY) 215
TABLE 86 INDIAN GASIFIER MANUFACTURERS AND CONSULTING FIRMS 215
TABLE 87 STATE-WISE INSTALLED BIOMASS POWER GENERATION 2014 CAPACITY
AND 2022 TARGETS, IN INDIA (MW) 217
TABLE 88 POTENTIAL FOR BIOMASS POWER IN INDIA AND COST OF FEEDSTOCK, BY
REGION 218
TABLE 89 BIOMASS POWER/COGENERATION PLANT SUPPLIERS ACTIVE IN INDIA 219
TABLE 90 COMPANIES AND ORGANIZATIONS PROMOTING BIOMASS GASIFIERS IN
INDIA AND EXAMPLES OF INSTALLATIONS 220
TABLE 91 COMPANIES IN SRI LANKA WITH POTENTIAL FOR BIOMASS GASIFIER USE,
2013 (KW) 227
TABLE 92 SOUTHWEST ASIA MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 229
TABLE 93 SOUTHWEST ASIA GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2021 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 230
TABLE 94 LARGE GASIFICATION UNITS IN EASTERN EUROPE, RUSSIA AND THE
MIDDLE EAST, 1952-2019 233
TABLE 95 ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES, BY POWER SOURCE,
2014 (MTOE) 234
TABLE 96 REFINING CAPACITY IN EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA, 2010-2014
(THOUSANDS BBL/DAY) 236
TABLE 97 REFINING CAPACITY IN THE MIDDLE EAST, BY COUNTRY, 2010-2014
(THOUSANDS BBL/DAY) 236
TABLE 98 BIOMASS FITS (FEED-IN TARIFFS) IN UKRAINE AND GREECE, 2014 (€/KWH) 237
TABLE 99 EASTERN EUROPE, RUSSIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST MARKET FOR NEW
GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 238
TABLE 100 EASTERN EUROPE, RUSSIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST GASIFIER
INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 239
TABLE 101 LARGE GASIFICATION UNITS IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE, 1955-2019 241
TABLE 102 SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (NEW UNITS ANNUALLY) 252
TABLE 103 SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS, BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2021 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 253

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