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Air Pollution Control for Coal-Fired Power Plants

  • January 2013
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 118 pages

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This is an update by the same author, a Ph.D. chemical engineer, of a BCC Research report of the same name published in March 2009. In the three-plus years since then there has been a lot of talk, political posturing and research, but not much has actually happened, either in new technology or major new business thrusts, in the coal-fired power plant industry regarding its actions to control air pollution from these plants. But much else has happened and continues to happen in the overall U.S. and global economic, energy and pollution control situations; some of these actions, or non-actions, affect operations of coal-fired power plants. Many different and interlaced factors, not only technological and economic, but also political, are affecting and often driving the discussions of present and future policies and plans.

The United States and the rest of the industrialized world continue to struggle with the global economic slowdown that persists from the economic collapse that resulted from the bursting of the housing and banking excess bubble in 2008. Further complicating the situation is the political gridlock in the United States Congress, which increased after Republicans took control of the Congress after the 2010 midterm election. With a Democratic president and a Republican Congress unwilling to take any action that could help him, legislative action essentially stopped before the 2012 election. Not much has been enacted since the 2010 mid-term election.

Pollution controls for coal-fired power plants are expensive, as we shall discuss in this report, and power companies are loath to spend money on such controls, since they not only cost money and contribute nothing to power generation but also can use power and resources that private utility companies would prefer to spend elsewhere or take as profits. Thus, such expenditures for capital additions and operating costs for pollution control devices will ordinarily be made only when mandated by government laws and resulting regulations. Republicans as a rule oppose such regulations and controls on private industry, while Democrats are usually more sympathetic to regulation, especially environmental regulation that can improve public health and safety. The current gridlock in Washington, DC virtually guarantees that little will be done in the near future.

Along with the general and widespread problems and concerns over national debts, economic growth or decline and unemployment, there are two other and different pertinent economic and technical areas, which with the countries of the world (and the entire global economy) are currently struggling with and seeking solutions. These are energy supplies and the environmental consequences of exploiting those supplies.

Energy can be supplied from a number of different sources. Today most of the world’s energy is derived from so-called “fossil fuels,” the products of millennia of decay of animal and vegetable matter. The three primary fossil fuels are crude oil, natural gas and coal and all three have been exploited vigorously.

Crude oil has several advantages in that it is liquid (although often so viscous that it hardly seems liquid) and is rather easily and economically transported around the globe and across land and sea. Crude oil is refined using known technologies to produce a number of different products, ranging from light gases to liquid fuels to heavy oils and asphalts. It is in high demand for its ease of use and its number of applications. Crude oil, coming in large part from countries and regions not known for stability such as the Middle East, Russia and Venezuela, has been on a price roller coaster for the past several years. In 2008 the price of crude oil more than doubled in less than a year for no known physical or supply reasons except that developing countries, especially China and India, started using and seeking far greater quantities of oil than in the past. However, no sooner had crude oil prices peaked at close to $150/bbl than the price bubble burst and prices dropped in 2009 to around $40. More recently crude prices have increased to over $100/bbl, with recent prices somewhat below that as world economic activity appears to be slowing down.

Natural gas has always had one principal advantage: it is the cleanest burning of the fossil fuels, an important environmental factor. In the United States its demand has increased, originally as tougher environmental controls on power plants moved many utilities and other power producers to either switch to natural gas or build new power plants that burn it. More recently, the rapid expansion of natural gas production by hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) of natural gas shale formations has produced a glut in the U.S. with prices at historic lows. This has led to faster and greater movement by the electric power industry to gas-fired power plants. Natural gas has one big disadvantage compared to crude oil; that is, it is gaseous—a unit of energy (such as a BTU or a joule) of a gas takes up much more space than a liquid. Transporting natural gas over large distances requires a much greater investment than that to transport an energy-equivalent quantity of crude oil. There are solutions, such as liquefying the gas with cold, pressure, or both for smaller-volume transport and building power and other gas-using plants near gas fields. But a lot of current natural gas is considered “stranded” in remote places like Siberia, and a lot of it is flared into the atmosphere. This is not much of a problem in the U.S., with its extensive gas pipeline network.

Coal, the third fossil fuel, is important principally to date as a fuel for the generation of electricity. Being solid, it is not easily adapted for use as a transportation fuel unless it is chemically converted to a combustible gas or liquid; more later on so-called coal-to-liquid (CTL) technologies. Thus, coal is used today in the United States primarily for electrical power generation, and coal-fired power generation is the subject of this study and report.

Global energy supplies were, until very recently, exploited and used around the world with little concern about the future. Most usage was in developed nations and most conspicuously in the United States, which has about 5% of global population but has used up to 35% of global energy supply. The world’s energy supplies are used in a number of different application areas, such as transportation, power generation, heating and others.

The environmental consequences of burning fossil fuels were essentially ignored for many years from the start of the Industrial Revolution. Stories of the “black satanic mills” of the British industrial midlands of the 19th century abound in literature. As the world’s population grew and demand for power and industrial goods grew, the effects of all this fossil fuel burning became more apparent from increased smog, respiratory problems, dying trees, acid rain and other effects. It also caused increasingly political and economic considerations for governments, industry and the public. These consequences show up in different ways, some obvious such as visible tailpipe and smokestack emissions, others less visible in the form of unseen toxic and other environmentally unfriendly gases and both liquid and solid wastes.

And now the problem of global warming is taking center stage, adding more urgency to the quest for new and/or better solutions to pollution from fossil fuel burning. One aspect of this overall global problem, that of control of air pollution from coal-fired power plants, is the focus and subject of this report.

For decades, the U.S. has relied on coal-fired electric-generating plants as the foundation of its central power system. Until quite recently, about half the electricity generated in the U.S. came from burning coal. This percentage is continually dropping as power companies either retire older coal-fired plants or convert to natural gas; in 2011, the percentage was down to about 42%. Utilities buy and use about 90% of the coal mined in the United States.

Coal is a very complex material. As we discuss later, fossil fuels vary depending on their geographical origin. Thus, there are different types of coal, crude oil and natural gas, varying in chemical composition. “Coal” is a generic term for a great number of mixtures of often large and complex organic compounds, usually also containing metals and other contaminants. Burning coal generates a lot of other emissions besides carbon dioxide and water, the normal products of organic oxidation.

Because of these emissions, coal has received a lot of criticism as a power-generation fuel source because of its contribution to air pollution. Air emissions standards, constantly under study and discussion in universities, utilities and government, have resulted in a re-evaluation of coal as a fuel source and the development of new technologies for reducing plant emissions. With deregulation of the utility market and the continual increase in the nation’s energy requirements, the need for cost-effective and environmentally compliant technologies also increases.

This BCC Research report analyzes the trends and developments in the changing U.S. market for air pollution control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The report provides an overview of the coal-based power industry, including history, key regulations, types and characteristics of plant emissions, types of emission-control technologies, industry structure and future trends. Market estimates and forecasts are included for equipment to control the current major air pollutants from coal-fired power plants. Because of the very political nature of this business, our market analyses, estimates and forecasts are not at all precise, since experts and policy makers disagree about both the size and growth rate of the current and potential market.

This study focuses primarily in the United States but also has some international observations, given the global nature of business and technology these days when no nation or region can operate without consideration of the rest of the world. However, our focus is on the United States.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

During recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed on the development of air pollution control technologies that will allow the continued use of coal as an energy source while meeting the stringent requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 and subsequent legislation and regulations. The report is designed to provide information of a professional nature and the technical data are dependent on the accuracy of data provided by manufacturers, researchers and government sources that we covered in our research. We have sorted through, organized and condensed information from a large amount of literature and other reference materials to compile this report. The report is not intended to be an endorsement of any energy source, company or technology.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY AND FOR WHOM

The report should be valuable and essential for vendors, research and development organizations, investors and engineering and construction firms who are faced with complex business decisions involving the future directions of energy development. It will also prove to be valuable to government agencies, legislators, policymakers and other stakeholders.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

The report provides an analysis of the market for air pollution control technologies and equipment for both utility and non-utility coal-fired power plants. It includes technologies designed for retrofitting existing plants to meet new standards, as well as technologies for repowering existing facilities and for new plant construction. The report characterizes the types of air emissions associated with coal-based power systems and the key regulations that drive technology requirements. It evaluates the current R&D status and effectiveness of control technologies for sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and so called hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or “air toxics”). The primary emphasis for HAP control at this time is on mercury emissions.

Since carbon dioxide (CO2) is not a toxic substance in the chemical and environmental control sense, it is not in the scope of this study even though there are current measures being taken to call it a pollutant for its greenhouse gas properties. We do discuss some of the current discussions regarding carbon dioxide capture and sequestration, but do not attempt to estimate and forecast such markets since they do not yet really exist at this time (and, since CO2 is not a toxic air pollutant, these markets are outside our scope).

The market analysis section in this report provides a detailed analysis and estimates of the markets in base year 2012 and five-year market forecasts for year 2017 for each major technology. Because of the extreme uncertainties in these times, both economic and political, we use a simple scenario analysis to estimate and forecast these markets. Any market estimates these days, especially in politically sensitive regulated arenas, are very speculative, and ours are no exception.

This report consists of eight narrative chapters, of which this is the first, plus an appendix with a glossary of important terms. The narrative and market analysis chapters that follow are:

The Summary is next and encapsulates our findings and conclusions, including a summary market table. It is the place where busy executives can find the major findings of the study in summary format.

Next is an Overview to the coal-based power industry. We start with an overview to coal, electricity generation and industrial processes used in the industry. We then discuss the primary air pollutants from coal-based power generation.

Next is a section devoted to air pollution control technologies for coal-fired power plants. We describe and discuss the major pollutants and the means for their control. We end with a review of recent patent activity.

Next is our market analysis chapter, with estimates and forecasts for methods to control the four primary types of air pollution from coal-based power plants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and hazardous air toxics (for these the focus in recent years is on mercury control). Our base estimate year is 2012 and we forecast to 2017. As noted, our market analyses and forecasts are in the form of a simple scenario analysis, with optimistic, pessimistic and most realistic scenarios.

The next chapter is devoted to industry structures and competitive analysis, with focus on the electric power generation and air pollution control industries.

We follow next with a chapter devoted to government, regulatory and public issues. The environment is a very politically sensitive issue, and governments, ranging from the federal Congress and agencies down to local pollution control districts are all working on this issue. We review current and pending legislation, the status of deregulation, note some current regulatory issues, and end with some current public perceptions and issues.

Our final narrative chapter is devoted to company profiles of several of the most significant companies in the air pollution control industry.

We end with an appendix, a glossary of important terms and acronyms that are important to this industry.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Extensive searches were made of the literature and the Internet, including many of the leading trade publications, as well as technical compendia, government publications and information from trade and other associations. Much product and market information was obtained from the principals involved in the industry. The information for our company profiles was obtained primarily from the companies themselves, especially the larger publicly owned firms. Other sources included directories, articles and Internet sites.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

Dr. J. Charles Forman has more than 50 years of chemical engineering and business experience in private business, the healthcare and oil and gas industries and at a major not-for-profit educational institution. He is expert in the worldwide chemical process industries, with specialization in healthcare, petroleum and petrochemicals, specialty and agrichemicals, plastics and packaging. He has written many market research reports for BCC Research on subjects including polymers and plastic packaging, petroleum processing, healthcare policy and products, food and feed additives, chemicals/petrochemicals/specialty chemicals, pesticides and biotechnology. He holds an S.B. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Northwestern University, all in chemical engineering.

Table Of Contents

Air Pollution Control for Coal-Fired Power Plants
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 3
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY AND FOR WHOM 4
SCOPE AND FORMAT 4
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 5
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 5
RELATED BCC REPORTS 5
BCC RESEARCH ONLINE 5
DISCLAIMER 6
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 8
SUMMARY TABLE U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES
FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 9
SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
TECHNOLOGIES FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, 2012 AND 2017
($ MILLIONS)
9
CHAPTER 3 COAL-BASED POWER INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 12
COAL OVERVIEW 12
INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES IN THE COAL-BASED ELECTRIC-GENERATION INDUSTRY 14
STEAM TURBINE ELECTRICITY GENERATION 15
Tangentially Fired Boilers 15
Wall-Fired Boilers 16
Single Wall Boilers 16
Opposed Wall Boilers 16
Cell Burner Boilers 16
Vertically Fired Boilers 16
Cyclone Fired Boilers 17
Stoker Fired Boilers 17
Fluidized Bed Combustors (FBC) 17
Atmospheric FBC 18
Pressurized FBC 18
INTEGRATED COAL-GASIFICATION COMBINED-CYCLE (IGCC) 18
COGENERATION (CHP) SYSTEMS 18
COAL TRANSPORT AND PROCESSING 19
AIR POLLUTION FROM AND ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-BASED POWER GENERATION
SYSTEMS 20
EMISSIONS DATA 21
SULFUR DIOXIDE 21
TABLE 1 NATIONAL AVERAGE SO2 CONCENTRATION, 1990-2010 (PPB) 22
NITROGEN OXIDES 22
TABLE 2 NATIONAL AVERAGE NOX CONCENTRATION, 1980-2010 (PPB) 22
PARTICULATE MATTER 22
TABLE 3 NATIONAL AVERAGE PM2.5 CONCENTRATION, 2000-2010 (PPM) 23
TABLE 4 NATIONAL AVERAGE PM10 CONCENTRATION, 2000-2010 (PPM) 23
CARBON MONOXIDE 23
TABLE 5 NATIONAL AVERAGE CONCENTRATION, 1980-2010 (PPM) 23
CARBON DIOXIDE 23
HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (AIR TOXICS) 24
CHAPTER 4 AIR POLLUTION/EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 27
FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD) 28
WET FGD 29
DRY SORBENT INJECTION (DSI) 29
PRODUCTION OF SULFURIC ACID 29
NOX EMISSIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 29
COMBUSTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR NOX EMISSIONS CONTROL 30
Operational Modifications to Optimize NOx Reduction 30
Overfire Air (OFA) 31
Low-NOx Burners 31
Reburn and Gas Co-Firing 31
Combined Combustion Controls 32
POST-COMBUSTION NOX CONTROLS 32
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) 32
Selective Noncatalytic Reduction (SNCR) 33
WET SCRUBBING 34
NEW NOX REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY 34
PARTICULATE MATTER REDUCTION 34
ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS 35
Dry ESP 37
Wet ESP 38
Membrane ESP 38
FABRIC FILTERS (BAGHOUSES) 39
MECHANICAL SHAKER-TYPE FABRIC FILTERS 40
REVERSE AIR FABRIC FILTERS 40
REVERSE PULSE-JET CLEANED FABRIC FILTERS 41
MULTIPOLLUTANT CONTROL SYSTEMS 41
MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 41
TABLE 6 EFFECTIVENESS OF MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 44
TABLE 7 MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY COSTS 46
SOME NEWER MERCURY CONTROL TECHNIQUES 47
CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION (CCS) TECHNOLOGIES 47
CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION AND CAPTURE 50
POST-COMBUSTION SEPARATION 50
PRE-COMBUSTION SEPARATION 50
OXY-FUEL COMBUSTION 51
THE CURRENT SITUATION 51
SEQUESTRATION ON LAND IN GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS 53
SEQUESTRATION IN THE OCEANS 53
SEQUESTRATION IN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS 53
NEW CCS TECHNOLOGY 54
"THE CARBON CAPTURE CONUNDRUM" 54
COAL PROCESSING AND CONVERSION 55
ADVANCED POWER-GENERATING TECHNOLOGIES 56
TABLE 8 EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVANCED POWER-GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES 57
PULVERIZED COAL PLANTS 58
LOW-EMISSION BOILER SYSTEM 58
FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION 59
Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion 59
INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE 60
COAL TO LIQUIDS (CTL) TECHNOLOGY 62
UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION 63
U.S. PATENT ANALYSIS 64
TABLE 9 U.S. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL PATENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, 2007
TO MID-2012 (NO/%) 65
FGD TECHNOLOGY PATENTS 65
NOX-CONTROL TECHNOLOGY PATENTS 65
PARTICULATE AND MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY PATENTS 65
CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE AND STORAGE (CCS) PATENTS 66
CHAPTER 5 AIR POLLUTION CONTROL MARKET ANALYSIS, ESTIMATES AND FORECASTS 68
OVERALL MARKET ESTIMATE 70
TABLE 10 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR
COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, MOST LIKELY SCENARIO, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 11 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR
COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 12 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR
COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 71
FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD) 72
TABLE 13 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT FLUE GAS
DESULFURIZATION SCRUBBERS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 72
NOX CONTROLS 72
TABLE 14 OVERALL U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT NITROGEN
OXIDES CONTROLS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 73
COMBUSTION NOX CONTROLS 73
TABLE 15 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR COMBUSTION-BASED NITROGEN OXIDES
CONTROLS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 16 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR LOW-NOX BURNER NITROGEN OXIDES CONTROLS,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 17 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR OVERFIRE AIR NITROGEN OXIDES CONTROLS,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 74
POST-COMBUSTION NOX CONTROLS 75
TABLE 18 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR POST-COMBUSTION BASED NITROGEN OXIDES
CONTROLS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 19 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION NITROGEN
OXIDES CONTROLS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 20 U.S. MARKET FOR SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION NITROGEN OXIDES
CONTROLS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 75
PARTICULATE AND MERCURY CONTROL 76
TABLE 21 OVERALL U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR PARTICULATE AND MERCURY CONTROLS,
2012 AND 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 76
ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS (ESP) 76
TABLE 22 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS, THROUGH 2017
($ MILLIONS) 76
FABRIC FILTERS (BAGHOUSES) 77
TABLE 23 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR FABRIC FILTERS (BAGHOUSES), THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 77
SPRAY COOLERS 78
TABLE 24 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR SPRAY COOLERS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 78
MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS 78
TABLE 25 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR MERCURY CONTROLS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 78
CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS 81
ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 81
UTILITY POWER PRODUCERS 81
NON-UTILITY POWER PRODUCERS 82
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY 83
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 84
SOME INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS 84
CHAPTER 7 GOVERNMENT, REGULATORY AND PUBLIC ISSUES 87
REGULATIONS 87
FEDERAL LEGISLATION ON AIR POLLUTION AND CONTROL 88
CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1990 (1990 CAAA) 88
Acid Rain Program 89
SO2 Reduction Program 89
NOx Reduction Program 91
TABLE 26 TITLE IV COAL-FIRED BOILER NOX EMISSION LIMITS (LB./MMBTU) 92
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 92
New Source Review and New Source Performance Standards 92
State Implementation Plans (SIPs) 94
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants 94
MORE RECENT EPA REGULATORY ACTIONS 95
NOx SIP Call 95
Section 126 Petitions 96
Revised Ozone NAAQS 96
PM2.5 NAAQS 97
Regional Haze Rulemaking 97
RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT (RCRA) 97
EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW ACT (EPCRA) 98
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) 98
ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005 (EPACT) 99
ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY DEREGULATION 100
STRANDED COSTS 101
ELECTRIC POWER MARKETERS 101
DEREGULATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS 101
CURRENT REGULATORY ISSUES 101
CLEAN AIR MERCURY RULE AND NEW MATS REGULATIONS 102
CLEAN AIR INTERSTATE RULE 103
CROSS-STATE AIR POLLUTION RULE 103
TIGHTER LEAD EMISSIONS STANDARDS 104
POWER PLANT POLLUTION CONTROLS-LOOSER OR TIGHTER? 104
PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS AND ISSUES 105
CHAPTER 8 COMPANY PROFILES 108
ACCELERGY CORP. 108
ADA ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 108
ALSTOM 109
THE BABCOCK AND WILCOX CO. 110
BURNS and MCDONNELL ENGINEERING CO. 110
CALGON CARBON CORP. 110
CODEXIS INC. 111
CORMETECH INC. 111
CROLL REYNOLDS CO. 111
CLYDE BERGEMANN EEC 112
DUCON TECHNOLOGIES INC. 112
ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE INC. 112
FILTERSENSE INC. 113
FOSTER WHEELER GLOBAL POWER GROUP 113
FUEL TECH INC. 113
HAMON RESEARCH-COTTRELL INC. 114
KBR INC. 114
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH INC. 115
MET-PRO CORP. 115
MIKROPUL LLC 115
NATIONWIDE BOILER INC. 116
NORIT AMERICAS INC. 116
RJM CORP. 117
SARGENT and LUNDY LLC 117
SIEMENS CORP. 117
WAHLCO INC. 118
CHAPTER 9 APPENDIX: GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS, ACRONYMS,
ETC. 120

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES
FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 9
TABLE 1 NATIONAL AVERAGE SO2 CONCENTRATION, 1990-2010 (PPB) 22
TABLE 2 NATIONAL AVERAGE NOX CONCENTRATION, 1980-2010 (PPB) 22
TABLE 3 NATIONAL AVERAGE PM2.5 CONCENTRATION, 2000-2010 (PPM) 23
TABLE 4 NATIONAL AVERAGE PM10 CONCENTRATION, 2000-2010 (PPM) 23
TABLE 5 NATIONAL AVERAGE CONCENTRATION, 1980-2010 (PPM) 23
TABLE 6 EFFECTIVENESS OF MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 44
TABLE 7 MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY COSTS 46
TABLE 8 EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVANCED POWER-GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES 57
TABLE 9 U.S. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL PATENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, 2007 TO
MID-2012 (NO/%) 65
TABLE 10 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR
COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, MOST LIKELY SCENARIO, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 11 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR
COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 12 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR
COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 13 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT FLUE GAS
DESULFURIZATION SCRUBBERS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 72
TABLE 14 OVERALL U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT NITROGEN
OXIDES CONTROLS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 73
TABLE 15 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR COMBUSTION-BASED NITROGEN OXIDES CONTROLS,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 16 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR LOW-NOX BURNER NITROGEN OXIDES CONTROLS,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 17 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR OVERFIRE AIR NITROGEN OXIDES CONTROLS,
THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 18 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR POST-COMBUSTION BASED NITROGEN OXIDES
CONTROLS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 19 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION NITROGEN
OXIDES CONTROLS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 20 U.S. MARKET FOR SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION NITROGEN OXIDES
CONTROLS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 21 OVERALL U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR PARTICULATE AND MERCURY CONTROLS,
2012 AND 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 76
TABLE 22 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS, THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 76
TABLE 23 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR FABRIC FILTERS (BAGHOUSES), THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 77
TABLE 24 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR SPRAY COOLERS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 78
TABLE 25 U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR MERCURY CONTROLS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 78
TABLE 26 TITLE IV COAL-FIRED BOILER NOX EMISSION LIMITS (LB./MMBTU) 92

LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES
FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, 2012 AND 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 9

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  • July 2016
  • by Frost & Sullivan

Leveraging Carbon Capture and Utilization Technologies With rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations globally, there have been increasing effort and emphasis on curtailing CO2 emissions. This research ...


ref:plp2013

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