Enabling Technologies for the Smart Grid

  • September 2013
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 158 pages

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

This report provides:
An overview of the US market for smart grid, with coverage of the evolution and inspiration through biomimetics and bioinspired designs.
Analyses of US market trends, with data from 2012, estimates for 2013 and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2018.
Discussion of techniques, and properties such as two-way integrated communications, sensing and measurement, advanced components.
Examination of advanced control that enables rapid diagnosis of and precise solutions to specific grid disruptions or outages.
Summary of results of targeted interviews with producers and users of smart grid technologies.

STUDY BACKGROUND

The century-old U.S. electrical grid has been called the largest interconnected machine on earth. It consists of more than 9,200 electric-generating units with more than 1,000,000 MW of generating capacity, connected to more than 300,000 miles of transmission lines. Several years ago, the U.S. National Academy of Engineering voted the national electrification made possible by this grid as the “most significant engineering achievement of the 20th century.”However, the grid is showing its age. There have been massive blackouts in recent years, including the 2003 Northeast blackout, the worst in the nation’s history. Although it was accidental, the 2003 blackout was a reminder of the grid’s vulnerability to terrorist attack. And this blackout was foreshadowed by a troubling trend: According to the Department of Energy, 41% more outages affected 50,000 or more consumers in the second half of the 1990s than in the first half of the decade. The “average” outage affected 15% more consumers from 1996 to 2000 than from 1991 to 1995 (409,854 versus 355,204).Regular power outages and blackouts cost the U.S. economy between $80 billion and $188 billion annually, according to a recent University of Minnesota study. The figure reflects only direct losses to the economy, and does not take into account the inconvenience and frustration experienced by users during a power outage.In addition to growing concerns about the U.S. electric grid’s robustness and reliability, the grid was designed and built with one basic objective in mind — keeping the lights on. Meanwhile, other concerns have become increasingly important in the political and public dialogue about the status and future of the electrical grid, particularly:
Energy efficiency
Environmental impacts
Consumer choice.
Governments and utilities in the U.S. and elsewhere are investing in new technologies in order to build a 21st-century grid that:
Runs more efficiently
Generates higher-quality power
Resists attack
Is self-healing
Enables consumers to manage their energy use better and reduce costs
Integrates decentralized generation (e.g., renewable energy) and storage (such as fuel cell) technologies.
In addition to meeting the need for reliable, high-quality power, these technologies are intended to meet the economy’s energy needs as efficiently as possible, optimizing energy consumption and related environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions.These technologies are often referred to generically as smart grid technologies. Smart grid describes a set of related technologies, rather than specific technology with a generally agreed-on specification. These technologies fall into five main areas:
Two-way integrated communications: allow for real-time control, information and data exchange to optimize system reliability, asset utilization, and security
Sensing and measurement: evaluate congestion and grid stability, congestion and grid stability, monitor equipment health, detect energy theft, and support control strategies support
Advanced components: flexible alternating current transmission system devices, high-voltage direct current, first- and second-generation superconducting wire, high-temperature superconducting cable, distributed energy generation and storage devices, composite conductors, and “intelligent” appliances
Advanced control that enables rapid diagnosis of and precise solutions to specific grid disruptions or outages
Improved interfaces and decision support that reduce complexity so that operators and managers have tools to effectively and efficiently operate a grid with increasing numbers of variables.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This report is an update of an earlier BCC report with the same title that was published in early 2011. Since then, there have been important developments that have the potential to affect the development of the smart grid. A growing number of investor- and publicly-owned utilities have been investing in smart grid projects. Large corporate players such as Google, IBM, GE, and Cisco are showing increasing interest in the smart grid; and there has been a significant increase in the amount of venture capital flowing into smart grid–related investments.On the negative side, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, with its billions of dollars of investments in smart grid technologies, has ended, The slow recovery of the U.S. economy from the 2008 and 2009 recession has dampened the growth of the smart grid, for example, by making it harder for utilities and suppliers to obtain credit, making the weighted average cost of capital higher, and impacting the discounting of costs and benefits in the business case. Regulators in some states (e.g., Maryland and Oklahoma) have rejected utilities’ smart grid proposals, arguing that consumers were expected to bear too much of the cost and risk and that potential returns do not justify the cost.In view of these developments, BCC believes that an update of the earlier report is timely. The overall goal of updating this report is to reassess the business opportunities for providers of smart grid technologies that will arise over the next 5 years as products utilizing these technologies increase their market penetration. In support of this goal, specific objectives of the report include:
Identifying the smart grid technologies with the greatest commercial potential over the next 5 years (2013 to 2018)
Estimating the market for these technologies in 2012
Analyzing the technical, economic, and other demand drivers for these products, and other prerequisites of success in these markets
Projecting the potential U.S. markets for these technologies through 2018
Analyzing macro-level political and economic forces that are helping to shape the market for smart grid technologies.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

The report is intended especially for providers of smart grid technologies and products based on these technologies. Although the report is structured around specific technologies, it is largely nontechnical in nature. That is, it is concerned less with theory and jargon than with what works, how much of the latter the market is likely to purchase, and at what price.As such, the report’s main audience is executive management, marketing, and financial analysts. It is not written specifically for scientists and technologists, although its findings concerning the market for their work, including the availability of government and corporate research funding for different technologies and applications should interest them as well.Others who should find the report informative include government agencies, environmental, and public policy interest groups with an interest in energy, the environment, and sustainable development in general.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

The study covers the major enabling technologies for the smart grid, including:
Communications technologies
Sensing and measurement technologies
Advanced components
Control technologies
Interface and decision support technologies.
The study format includes the following major elements:
Executive summary
Definitions
Benefits of smart grids
Smart grid “roadmap”
Policy, regulatory, and economic environment for the transition to a smart grid
Enabling technologies for the smart grid
Developers and suppliers of smart grid–enabling technologies
Baseline (2012) and projected market for smart grid technologies through 2018
Patent analysis.

METHODOLOGY

The report is based on the results of targeted interviews with producers and users of smart grid technologies, complemented by a thorough literature review and BCC’s internal databases. The base year for analysis and projection is 2012.With 2012 as a baseline, market projections were developed through 2018. These projections are based on a combination of a consensus among the primary contacts combined with BCC’s understanding of the key market drivers and their impact from an historical and analytical perspective.The methodologies and assumptions used to develop the market estimates and projections are described in detail in the chapters on smart grid markets. That way, readers can see how the market estimates were developed and, if they so desire, test the impact on the final numbers of changing assumptions such as price.

Table Of Contents

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY BACKGROUND 2
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 3
INTENDED AUDIENCE 4
SCOPE AND FORMAT 4
METHODOLOGY 5
AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS 5
RELATED BCC RESEARCH 5
BCC ON-LINE SERVICES 6
DISCLAIMER 7
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9
SUMMARY TABLE U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 9
SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES, 2012-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 10
CHAPTER 3 "SMART GRIDS": AN OVERVIEW 12
DEFINITIONS 12
BENEFITS OF SMART GRIDS 12
DIRECT BENEFITS 12
Benefits to Utilities 12
Lower Capital Costs 12
Reduced Operating Costs 13
Benefits to Users 13
Improved Quality and Reliability 13
Lower Costs 14
FIGURE 1 AVERAGE RETAIL PRICE OF ELECTRICITY, 2001-2011 (CENTS/KWH) 14
Greater Consumer Choice 15
INDIRECT BENEFITS 15
Reduced Consumption of Fossil Fuels 15
FIGURE 2 U.S. ELECTRICITY GENERATION BY FUEL TYPE, 2012 (%) 15
TABLE 1 U.S. CONSUMPTION OF FOSSIL FUELS FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION,
THROUGH 2012 17
Improved Balance of Payments Position 17
FIGURE 3 U.S. FOSSIL FUEL IMPORTS, 2011 (PERCENT OF TOTAL FOSSIL FUEL
IMPORTS) 18
Enhanced National Security 19
Job Creation 19
Economic Development 19
Environmental Benefits 20
THE PATH TO A SMART GRID 21
GRID 2030 21
National Electricity "Backbone" 21
Regional Interconnections 22
Local Distribution, Mini- and Micro-Grids 22
NATIONAL ELECTRIC DELIVERY TECHNOLOGIES ROADMAP 22
FIGURE 4 NATIONAL ELECTRICITY DELIVERY TECHNOLOGIES OVERALL ROADMAP 22
FIGURE 5 NATIONAL ELECTRICITY DELIVERY ROADMAP FOR DEVELOPING CRITICAL
TECHNOLOGIES 24
EARLY ADOPTERS 25
Southern California Edison Company 25
Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration Project 26
TXU Energy Broadband over Power Line Smart Grid 27
Xcel Energy Smart Grid City 28
Austin Energy Smart Grid Program 29
Other Projects 29
ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SMART GRID 29
TABLE 2 MAJOR CLASSES OF SMART GRID-ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES 29
COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES 30
SENSING AND MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES 30
ADVANCED COMPONENTS 30
CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 31
INTERFACE AND DECISION-SUPPORT TECHNOLOGIES 31
MARKET SUMMARY 31
TABLE 3 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 31
FIGURE 6 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 32
FIGURE 7 U.S. SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES MARKET SHARES, 2012-2018 (%) 32
CHAPTER 4 MARKET ENVIRONMENT FOR SMART GRID-ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES 35
LEGAL AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT 35
BARRIERS TO SMART GRID DEPLOYMENT 35
Federal-State Coordination 35
Cost Recovery 35
Other Incentives to Increase Grid Efficiency 36
Least Cost Planning 37
Environmental, Public Health and Safety Impacts 37
Lack of Standards 38
LEGISLATION AND REGULATION 38
Federal Initiatives 38
Energy Policy Act of 2005 38
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 39
Section 1301. Statement of Policy on Modernization of
Electricity Grid 39
Section 1302. Smart Grid System Report 39
Section 1303. Smart Grid Advisory Committee and Smart
Grid Task Force 40
Section 1304. Smart Grid Technology Research,
Development, and Demonstration 40
Section 1305. Smart Grid Interoperability Framework 41
Section 1306. Federal Matching Funds for Smart Grid
Investment Costs 41
Section 1307. State Consideration of Smart Grid 41
Section 1308. Study of the Effect of Private Wire Laws on
the Development of Combined Heat and Power Facilities 41
Section 1309. DOE Study of Security Attributes of Smart
Grid Systems 41
Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 41
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 42
Smart Grid Advancement Act of 2013 42
Federal Regulation 43
Rulings Expanding Use of Demand Response 44
Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering 44
Interim Rate Policy 44
Smart Grid Standards 45
State Legislation and Regulation 45
Arizona 45
Regulatory Activities 45
California 46
Legislation 46
California Senate Bill 17 46
California Senate Bill 1491 47
Regulatory Activities 47
Colorado 48
Legislation 48
House Bill 07-1037 48
Regulatory Activities 48
Illinois 48
Legislation 48
Senate Bill 1592 48
Regulatory Activities 49
Maryland 49
Legislation 49
EmPower Maryland Energy Efficiency Act 49
Regulatory Activities 49
Massachusetts 50
Legislation 50
Green Communities Act 50
Regulatory Activities 51
Michigan 51
Legislation 51
Regulatory Activities 51
New Jersey 52
Regulatory Activities 52
Oregon 52
Regulatory Activities 52
Pennsylvania 52
Legislation 52
Act 129 53
Regulatory Activities 53
Texas 53
Legislation 53
SB 3693 53
Regulatory Activities 53
Vermont 54
Legislation 54
Energy Efficiency and Affordability Act of 2008 54
Regulatory Activities 54
FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT 55
FINANCING THE SMART GRID 55
Government-Funded Programs 55
Government-Funded RandD 55
Federal RandD 55
State-Financed RandD 55
Smart Grid Pilot and Demonstration Projects 56
Matching Grants for Smart Grid Investments 56
Capital Investments 56
American Reinvestment and Recovery Plan of 2009 56
UTILITIES 56
RandD 57
CHAPTER 5 INTEGRATED COMMUNICATIONS FOR SMART GRIDS: TECHNOLOGIES
AND MARKETS 60
SUMMARY 60
TABLE 4 U.S. MARKET FOR INTEGRATED SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONS
TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 60
FIGURE 8 TRENDS IN U.S. MARKET FOR INTEGRATED SMART GRID
COMMUNICATIONS, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 60
HOME AREA NETWORKS 61
TECHNOLOGIES 61
TABLE 5 ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID HOME AREA NETWORKS 62
ZigBee 62
Wi-Fi 63
Z-Wave 63
In-Home Power Line Communications 63
USNAP 64
COMMERCIAL STATUS AND OBSTACLES TO DEPLOYMENT 64
PRODUCERS AND DEVELOPERS 64
TABLE 6 COMPANIES THAT MARKET OR ARE DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIONS
TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID HANS 65
MARKETS 65
TABLE 7 MARKET FOR SMART GRID HAN COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 66
NEIGHBORHOOD AREA NETWORKS 66
TECHNOLOGIES 66
TABLE 8 ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID NEIGHBORHOOD AREA
NETWORKS 67
Broadband over Power Line 67
Meshed Wi-Fi 67
ZigBee 68
WiMAX 68
Licensed Spectrum 68
COMMERCIAL STATUS AND OBSTACLES TO DEPLOYMENT 69
PROVIDERS 70
TABLE 9 COMPANIES THAT MARKET OR ARE DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIONS
TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID NANS 70
MARKET 70
TABLE 10 MARKET FOR SMART GRID NAN COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES,
THROUGH 2018 (MILLION CONNECTIONS/$ MILLIONS) 71
BACKBONE COMMUNICATIONS 71
TECHNOLOGIES 71
MARKETS 72
TABLE 11 MARKET FOR SMART GRID BACKBONE COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 72
CHAPTER 6 SENSING AND MEASUREMENT FOR SMART GRIDS: TECHNOLOGIES AND
MARKETS 74
SUMMARY 74
TABLE 12 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID SENSING AND MEASUREMENT
TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 74
FIGURE 9 TRENDS IN THE U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID SENSING AND
MEASUREMENT, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 74
SMART METERING 75
TECHNOLOGIES 76
COMMERCIAL STATUS AND BARRIERS TO DEPLOYMENT 77
PRODUCERS 78
TABLE 13 SMART METER PRODUCERS 79
MARKET 79
TABLE 14 MARKET FOR SMART METERS AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 79
WIDE-AREA MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS 80
TECHNOLOGY 80
COMMERCIAL STATUS AND BARRIERS TO DEPLOYMENT 80
PROVIDERS 80
TABLE 15 PROVIDERS OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID WAMS 81
MARKETS 81
TABLE 16 MARKET FOR PMUS AND RELATED WAMS TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 81
DYNAMIC LINE-RATING SENSORS 82
TECHNOLOGY 83
Online Methods 83
Offline Methods 83
COMMERCIAL STATUS AND BARRIERS TO DEPLOYMENT 83
PROVIDERS 83
TABLE 17 PROVIDERS OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID WAMS 84
MARKET 84
TABLE 18 MARKET FOR DYNAMIC LINE-RATING SENSORS AND RELATED
TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 84
INSULATOR LEAKAGE SENSORS 84
TECHNOLOGIES 85
COMMERCIAL STATUS AND BARRIERS TO DEPLOYMENT 85
PROVIDERS 85
MARKET 85
TABLE 19 U.S. MARKET FOR REMOTE INSULATOR LEAKAGE CURRENT SENSORS
FOR SMART GRID APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 86
OTHER MONITORING SYSTEMS 86
TECHNOLOGIES 86
COMMERCIAL STATUS AND OBSTACLES TO DEPLOYMENT 87
PROVIDERS 87
TABLE 20 PROVIDERS OF OTHER TYPES OF SMART GRID SENSING AND
MEASURING TECHNOLOGIES 87
MARKETS 87
TABLE 21 U.S. MARKET FOR OTHER MONITORING AND SENSING TECHNOLOGIES
FOR SMART GRID APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 88
CHAPTER 7 ADVANCED COMPONENTS FOR SMART GRIDS: TECHNOLOGIES AND
MARKETS 90
SUMMARY 90
TABLE 22 U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED SMART GRID COMPONENTS, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 90
FIGURE 10 TRENDS IN U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED SMART GRID COMPONENTS,
2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 91
POWER ELECTRONICS 91
TECHNOLOGIES 91
TABLE 23 TYPES OF POWER ELECTRONIC DEVICES 92
COMMERCIAL STATUS AND OBSTACLES TO DEPLOYMENT 93
PROVIDERS 93
TABLE 24 PROVIDERS OF POWER ELECTRONICS DEVICES FOR SMART GRID
APPLICATIONS 93
MARKETS 94
TABLE 25 U.S. POWER ELECTRONICS MARKET FOR SMART GRID APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 94
FAULT CURRENT LIMITERS 94
TECHNOLOGY 95
Resistive FCLs 95
Inductive FCLs 96
COMMERCIAL STATUS AND OBSTACLES TO DEPLOYMENT 96
PROVIDERS 96
TABLE 26 SUPPLIERS OF FAULT CURRENT LIMITERS 96
MARKET 97
TABLE 27 U.S. ELECTRIC UTILITY MARKET FOR FAULT CURRENT LIMITERS,
THROUGH 2018 97
HIGH-CAPACITY TRANSMISSION CABLE 97
TECHNOLOGIES 98
Superconducting Cable 98
High-Capacity Overhead Conductor Cable 99
Aluminum-Conductor Composite Core Cable 99
Aluminum-Conductor Composite Reinforced Cable 99
Annealed Aluminum, Steel-Supported Trapezoidal Cross-Section
Conductor Wire 100
COMMERCIAL STATUS AND BARRIERS TO DEPLOYMENT 100
PROVIDERS 101
TABLE 28 PROVIDERS OF HIGH-CAPACITY TRANSMISSION CABLE FOR THE SMART
GRID 101
MARKET 101
TABLE 29 MARKET FOR ADVANCED ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION CABLE, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 102
Superconducting Cable 102
TABLE 30 MARKET FOR SUPERCONDUCTING ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION CABLE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 102
High-Capacity Overhead Conductor Cable 103
TABLE 31 MARKET FOR HIGH-CAPACITY OVERHEAD CONDUCTOR CABLE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 103
DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES 104
TABLE 32 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND POWER STORAGE
SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 104
DISTRIBUTED GENERATION DEVICES 104
Technologies 104
Photovoltaics 105
TABLE 33 MAJOR PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES 105
Wind Turbine 105
Microturbines 106
Fuel Cells 107
TABLE 34 MAJOR FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES 107
Providers 107
TABLE 35 PROVIDERS OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION EQUIPMENT 107
Markets 108
TABLE 36 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 109
Photovoltaics 109
TABLE 37 PROJECTED U.S. CONSUMPTION OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, THROUGH 2018
(MW/$ MILLION) 109
TABLE 38 PROJECTED U.S. MARKET FOR GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAICS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 110
Wind Turbines 110
TABLE 39 PROJECTED U.S. MARKET FOR WIND TURBINES, THROUGH 2018 (GW/$
MILLIONS) 110
Fuel Cells 111
TABLE 40 U.S. FUEL CELL MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 111
Microturbines 111
TABLE 41 PROJECTED U.S. MARKET FOR GRID-CONNECTED MICROTURBINES,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 112
DISTRIBUTED STORAGE SYSTEMS 112
Technologies 112
Sodium Batteries 113
Vanadium Redox Batteries 114
Supercapacitors 115
Superconducting Power Storage 115
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage 116
Superconducting Flywheel Energy Storage 116
Compressed-Air Energy Storage 117
Plug-In Hybrid and All-Electric Vehicles 117
Providers 119
TABLE 42 PROVIDERS OF DISTRIBUTED STORAGE EQUIPMENT 119
Markets 120
TABLE 43 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED STORAGE SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 120
Sodium Batteries 120
TABLE 44 U.S. MARKET FOR NAS AND OTHER SODIUM BATTERY POWER STORAGE
SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 121
Vanadium Redox Batteries 121
TABLE 45 U.S. MARKET FOR VANADIUM REDOX BATTERY DISTRIBUTED POWER
STORAGE SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 121
Superconducting Magnetic and Flywheel Storage 121
TABLE 46 U.S. MARKET FOR SUPERCONDUCTING POWER STORAGE SYSTEMS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 122
Supercapacitors 122
TABLE 47 U.S. MARKET FOR SUPERCAPACITOR STORAGE SYSTEMS, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 123
Compressed-Air Storage 123
TABLE 48 U.S. MARKET FOR COMPRESSED AIR STORAGE SYSTEMS, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 123
Plug-In Hybrid and All-Electric Vehicle Storage 123
TABLE 49 U.S. MARKET FOR GRID-CONNECTED PHEVS, THROUGH 2018 (NUMBER
OF VEHICLES/$ MILLIONS) 124
CHAPTER 8 ADVANCED CONTROLS FOR SMART GRIDS: TECHNOLOGIES AND
MARKETS 126
SUMMARY 126
TABLE 50 U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED SMART GRID CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 126
FIGURE 11 TRENDS IN THE U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED SMART GRID CONTROL
TECHNOLOGIES, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 127
DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AGENTS 127
TECHNOLOGIES 127
Digital Protective Relays 127
Intelligent Tap Changers 128
Dynamic Circuit-Rating Tools 128
Distributed Energy Management Systems 128
Grid-Friendly Appliance Controllers 129
Dynamic Distributed Power Flow Controllers 129
PRODUCERS AND DEVELOPERS 130
TABLE 51 PROVIDERS OF DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AGENTS 131
MARKET 131
TABLE 52 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AGENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 131
Digital Protective Relays 132
TABLE 53 MARKET FOR DIGITAL PROTECTIVE RELAYS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 132
Intelligent Tap Changers 132
TABLE 54 MARKET FOR INTELLIGENT TAP CHANGERS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 133
Distributed Energy Management Systems 133
TABLE 55 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 133
Grid-Friendly Appliance Controllers 134
TABLE 56 MARKET FOR GRID-FRIENDLY APPLIANCE CONTROLLERS, THROUGH
2013 ($ MILLIONS) 134
Distributed Power-Flow Controllers 134
TABLE 57 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER-FLOW CONTROLLERS, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 134
HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING 135
TECHNOLOGIES 135
MARKETS 137
TABLE 58 UTILITY MARKET DISTRIBUTED AND CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 137
CENTRALIZED CONTROL APPLICATIONS 137
TECHNOLOGIES 137
TABLE 59 CENTRALIZED APPLICATIONS FOR THE SMART GRID 138
PROVIDERS 139
TABLE 60 PROVIDERS OF CENTRALIZED SMART GRID CONTROL APPLICATIONS 139
MARKETS 140
TABLE 61 MARKET FOR CENTRALIZED SMART GRID CONTROL APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 140
INTERFACES AND DECISION-SUPPORT SYSTEMS 140
TECHNOLOGIES 140
TABLE 62 INTERFACE AND DECISION-SUPPORT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SMART
GRID 140
PRODUCERS AND DEVELOPERS 141
TABLE 63 PROVIDERS OF INTERFACE AND DECISION-SUPPORT TECHNOLOGIES
FOR SMART GRID APPLICATIONS 142
MARKET 142
TABLE 64 MARKET FOR INTERFACE AND DECISION-SUPPORT TECHNOLOGIES FOR
SMART GRID APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 142
CHAPTER 9 APPENDIX A: SELECTED COMPANY PROFILES 144
INTEGRATED COMMUNICATIONS 144
ALVARION, INC. 144
AMBIENT CORP. 144
AMPERION, INC. 144
ARKADOS GROUP, INC. 145
CURRENT COMMUNICATIONS GROUP, LLC 145
EMBER CORP. 145
GAINSPAN CORP. 146
GRIDNET, INC. 146
MAIN.NET POWER LINE COMMUNICATIONS, INC. 147
MMB NETWORKS, INC. 147
RUGGEDCOM INC. 147
SMARTSYNCH 148
TELKONET, INC. 148
TRILLIANT NETWORKS 148
SMART GRID SENSING AND MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES 149
SMART METERS 149
Echelon Corp. 149
Elster LLC 149
eMeter Corp. 149
EnergyICT Inc. 150
Itron, Inc. 150
Landis+Gyr AG 151
Sensus Metering Systems 151
WIRE AREA MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS 151
Doubletree Systems, Inc. 151
Macrodyne, Inc. 152
PowerWorld Corp. 152
DYNAMIC LINE RATING 152
Electrotech, Inc. 152
The Valley Group, Inc. 153
Usi Power 153
INSULATOR CURRENT LEAKAGE SENSORS 153
PSP Technologies, Inc. 153
TPX Energy 154
OTHER SENSORS 154
FISO 154
Intelligent Controls, Inc. 154
ADVANCED COMPONENTS 155
POWER ELECTRONICS 155
Satcon Technology Corporation 155
Xantrex Technology Inc. 155
FAULT CURRENT LIMITERS 156
Nexans 156
Superpower Inc. 156
TRANSMISSION CABLE 156
3M Company 156
American Superconductor Corp. 157
Composite Technology Corp. 157
Comverge, Inc. 157
EnerNOC, Inc. 158
Hyper Tech Research, Inc. 158
Metal Oxide Technologies Inc. 159
Southwire Co. 159
DISTRIBUTED GENERATION 160
MICROTURBINES 160
Capstone Turbine Corp. 160
PHOTOVOLTAICS 160
First Solar Inc. 160
HelioVolt Corp. 160
FUEL CELLS 161
Fuel Cell Energy, Inc. 161
Materials and Systems Research, Inc. 161
DISTRIBUTED STORAGE 162
Maxwell Technologies, Inc. 162
NGK Insulators, Ltd. 162
SMART GRID CONTROLS 162
DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AGENTS 162
BPL GLOBAL, LTD. 162
GridPoint, Inc. 163
CENTRALIZED CONTROL APPLICATIONS 163
Intergraph Corp. 163
Milsoft Utility Solutions 164
Silver Spring Networks 164
INTERFACE AND DECISION SUPPORT 165
Space-Time Insight 165
CHAPTER 10 APPENDIX B: PATENT ANALYSIS 167
TABLE 65 NUMBER OF U.S. SMART GRID-RELATED PATENTS BY TYPE OF
TECHNOLOGY 167
FIGURE 12 U.S. SMART GRID-RELATED PATENTS BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY, AS OF
JULY 25, 2013 (%) 167

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 9
TABLE 1 U.S. CONSUMPTION OF FOSSIL FUELS FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION,
THROUGH 2012 17
TABLE 2 MAJOR CLASSES OF SMART GRID-ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES 29
TABLE 3 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 31
TABLE 4 U.S. MARKET FOR INTEGRATED SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONS
TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 60
TABLE 5 ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID HOME AREA NETWORKS 62
TABLE 6 COMPANIES THAT MARKET OR ARE DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIONS
TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID HANS 65
TABLE 7 MARKET FOR SMART GRID HAN COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 66
TABLE 8 ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID NEIGHBORHOOD AREA
NETWORKS 67
TABLE 9 COMPANIES THAT MARKET OR ARE DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIONS
TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID NANS 70
TABLE 10 MARKET FOR SMART GRID NAN COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES,
THROUGH 2018 (MILLION CONNECTIONS/$ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 11 MARKET FOR SMART GRID BACKBONE COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 72
TABLE 12 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID SENSING AND MEASUREMENT
TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 13 SMART METER PRODUCERS 79
TABLE 14 MARKET FOR SMART METERS AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 79
TABLE 15 PROVIDERS OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID WAMS 81
TABLE 16 MARKET FOR PMUS AND RELATED WAMS TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 17 PROVIDERS OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID WAMS 84
TABLE 18 MARKET FOR DYNAMIC LINE-RATING SENSORS AND RELATED
TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 84
TABLE 19 U.S. MARKET FOR REMOTE INSULATOR LEAKAGE CURRENT SENSORS FOR
SMART GRID APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 86
TABLE 20 PROVIDERS OF OTHER TYPES OF SMART GRID SENSING AND MEASURING
TECHNOLOGIES 87
TABLE 21 U.S. MARKET FOR OTHER MONITORING AND SENSING TECHNOLOGIES
FOR SMART GRID APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 88
TABLE 22 U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED SMART GRID COMPONENTS, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 90
TABLE 23 TYPES OF POWER ELECTRONIC DEVICES 92
TABLE 24 PROVIDERS OF POWER ELECTRONICS DEVICES FOR SMART GRID
APPLICATIONS 93
TABLE 25 U.S. POWER ELECTRONICS MARKET FOR SMART GRID APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 94
TABLE 26 SUPPLIERS OF FAULT CURRENT LIMITERS 96
TABLE 27 U.S. ELECTRIC UTILITY MARKET FOR FAULT CURRENT LIMITERS, THROUGH
2018 97
TABLE 28 PROVIDERS OF HIGH-CAPACITY TRANSMISSION CABLE FOR THE SMART
GRID 101
TABLE 29 MARKET FOR ADVANCED ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION CABLE, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 102
TABLE 30 MARKET FOR SUPERCONDUCTING ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION CABLE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 102
TABLE 31 MARKET FOR HIGH-CAPACITY OVERHEAD CONDUCTOR CABLE, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 32 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND POWER STORAGE SYSTEMS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 33 MAJOR PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES 105
TABLE 34 MAJOR FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES 107
TABLE 35 PROVIDERS OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION EQUIPMENT 107
TABLE 36 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 109
TABLE 37 PROJECTED U.S. CONSUMPTION OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, THROUGH 2018
(MW/$ MILLION) 109
TABLE 38 PROJECTED U.S. MARKET FOR GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAICS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 110
TABLE 39 PROJECTED U.S. MARKET FOR WIND TURBINES, THROUGH 2018 (GW/$
MILLIONS) 110
TABLE 40 U.S. FUEL CELL MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 111
TABLE 41 PROJECTED U.S. MARKET FOR GRID-CONNECTED MICROTURBINES,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 112
TABLE 42 PROVIDERS OF DISTRIBUTED STORAGE EQUIPMENT 119
TABLE 43 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED STORAGE SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 120
TABLE 44 U.S. MARKET FOR NAS AND OTHER SODIUM BATTERY POWER STORAGE
SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 45 U.S. MARKET FOR VANADIUM REDOX BATTERY DISTRIBUTED POWER
STORAGE SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 46 U.S. MARKET FOR SUPERCONDUCTING POWER STORAGE SYSTEMS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 122
TABLE 47 U.S. MARKET FOR SUPERCAPACITOR STORAGE SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 123
TABLE 48 U.S. MARKET FOR COMPRESSED AIR STORAGE SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 123
TABLE 49 U.S. MARKET FOR GRID-CONNECTED PHEVS, THROUGH 2018 (NUMBER OF
VEHICLES/$ MILLIONS) 124
TABLE 50 U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED SMART GRID CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 126
TABLE 51 PROVIDERS OF DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AGENTS 131
TABLE 52 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AGENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 131
TABLE 53 MARKET FOR DIGITAL PROTECTIVE RELAYS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 132
TABLE 54 MARKET FOR INTELLIGENT TAP CHANGERS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 133
TABLE 55 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 133
TABLE 56 MARKET FOR GRID-FRIENDLY APPLIANCE CONTROLLERS, THROUGH 2013
($ MILLIONS) 134
TABLE 57 MARKET FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER-FLOW CONTROLLERS, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 134
TABLE 58 UTILITY MARKET DISTRIBUTED AND CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 137
TABLE 59 CENTRALIZED APPLICATIONS FOR THE SMART GRID 138
TABLE 60 PROVIDERS OF CENTRALIZED SMART GRID CONTROL APPLICATIONS 139
TABLE 61 MARKET FOR CENTRALIZED SMART GRID CONTROL APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 140
TABLE 62 INTERFACE AND DECISION-SUPPORT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SMART
GRID 140
TABLE 63 PROVIDERS OF INTERFACE AND DECISION-SUPPORT TECHNOLOGIES FOR
SMART GRID APPLICATIONS 142
TABLE 64 MARKET FOR INTERFACE AND DECISION-SUPPORT TECHNOLOGIES FOR
SMART GRID APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 65 NUMBER OF U.S. SMART GRID-RELATED PATENTS BY TYPE OF
TECHNOLOGY 167

LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES, 2012-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 10
FIGURE 1 AVERAGE RETAIL PRICE OF ELECTRICITY, 2001-2011 (CENTS/KWH) 14
FIGURE 2 U.S. ELECTRICITY GENERATION BY FUEL TYPE, 2012 (%) 15
FIGURE 3 U.S. FOSSIL FUEL IMPORTS, 2011 (PERCENT OF TOTAL FOSSIL FUEL
IMPORTS) 18
FIGURE 4 NATIONAL ELECTRICITY DELIVERY TECHNOLOGIES OVERALL ROADMAP 22
FIGURE 5 NATIONAL ELECTRICITY DELIVERY ROADMAP FOR DEVELOPING CRITICAL
TECHNOLOGIES 24
FIGURE 6 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 32
FIGURE 7 U.S. SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES MARKET SHARES, 2012-2018 (%) 32
FIGURE 8 TRENDS IN U.S. MARKET FOR INTEGRATED SMART GRID
COMMUNICATIONS, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 60
FIGURE 9 TRENDS IN THE U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID SENSING AND
MEASUREMENT, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 74
FIGURE 10 TRENDS IN U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED SMART GRID COMPONENTS,
2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 91
FIGURE 11 TRENDS IN THE U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED SMART GRID CONTROL
TECHNOLOGIES, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 127
FIGURE 12 U.S. SMART GRID-RELATED PATENTS BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY, AS OF
JULY 25, 2013 (%) 167

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