STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

This comprehensive business opportunity report evaluates the global markets for reverse osmosis (RO) system components. These components include pretreatment cartridges, pumps, pressure vessels/housings, RO membrane modules and ancillary elements such as skids, valves and gauges. Existing and potential markets for RO on the global stage are identified. The goals are to provide meaningful information, unbiased analysis and an assessment of the roles that RO systems can play now and in the future of water treatment technology. Water needs and the role of RO in meeting these requirements are evaluated for four global regions.

The heart of an RO system is the membrane module. Although many different polymer types of semipermeable membrane are possible, the commercial market consists primarily of thin-film composite polyamide formed into a spiral wound configuration. Improved low-pressure membranes, large-diameter membranes and non-fouling membranes have been important technology trends during the past several years. Currently, a number of new materials types are being commercialized.

Pressure vessels/housings are critical to the successful operation of RO and nanofiltration (NF), or membrane softening, systems. Fiberglass-reinforced plastic and stainless steel pressure vessels are the predominant types associated with industrial and municipal RO systems. RO operation tends to fall into three distinct operating pressure ranges: low-pressure, 40 psi to 65 psi range; mid-range operating pressure for brackish water and wastewater, 150 psi to 250 psi; and high-pressure RO is for seawater desalination, 800 psi to 1,200 psi range. Pressure vessels are designed to last for the lifetime of the system, or about three to four changes of membranes.

Using membrane or depth filter cartridges prior to RO maximizes pure water production and minimizes the costs associated with chemical additives. Cartridges used for RO pretreatment can be depth filters, dead-end membrane microfilters or microfiltration (MF) membranes operated in crossflow. With proper pretreatment, the RO system can meet design specifications, resulting in optimum performance and the lowest overall expenditure.

Although pumps used in RO systems represent a relatively small percentage of total system cost, they must be selected carefully to avoid inefficient operation, downtime, or reduced productivity and return on investment. The choice of a proper pump is especially important in seawater desalination applications because of the corrosive atmosphere and highly demanding process conditions. Positive displacement plunger pumps or centrifugal pumps are most commonly used in RO applications. Booster pumps, a much smaller market, can be used in situations where normal system pressure is low, but needs to be increased.

Numerous ancillary and miscellaneous components are needed to complete the construction of a large, complex RO system. Depending on system size and application, these may include valves, gauges, computer controls, hoses, piping, plugs, racks, skids, holding tanks, manifolds, control panels, conductivity meters, float switches, metering equipment and tanks for chemicals. What type and how many of these components are used in a particular plant depend on the site and size of the RO system.
For RO consumables, membranes and filters, new as well as replacement sales are considered in this report. As far as possible, adjustments and normalizations for currency valuations have been made.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

The need for pure water is a problem of global proportions. With each passing year, the quality of the planet’s water measurably deteriorates, presenting challenges for the major users: the municipal, industrial, military and agriculture/environmental sectors. Water treatment has become an area of global concern as individuals, communities, industries, nations and their national institutions strive for ways to keep this essential resource available and suitable for use. RO systems have, over the past 40 years, emerged as an effective solution to transform saline, brackish and contaminated water into a useable and/or potable product. The RO technology sector still has areas of promising activity and a market for replacement and upgraded equipment.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is designed to be as comprehensive as possible. It is created to be usable by a broad audience of business, technical and regulatory practitioners on a global scale. This document is an information source on the industry, a reference manual on an advanced technology and its system components, and a resource that provides information to decision-makers who need to stay abreast of the state-of-the-art RO systems.

This report presents analysis and forward-thinking knowledge that will be of advantage to manufacturers, suppliers and to local, state and the federal government as well as foreign governments. Engineers, utilities and corporate planners will benefit from understanding the global component market and demand drivers for RO systems.

SCOPE OF REPORT

This report is divided into specific system component chapters dealing with the RO membranes, pressure vessels/housings, cartridge filters/prefilters, pumps and other ancillary components such as valves, gauges, skids, racks, piping, manifolds, computer controls and piping needed to complete a functional system. Quantitative evaluations are given for the major market segments, historically and for a five-year horizon. The global scope of the RO market is identified within four major geographical regions with information on economic trends and water needs.

Costs of consulting, engineering, and real estate are excluded from system costs. NF is considered as a membrane “softening” process or a divalent or trivalent ion-removal technique that is a subset of RO.
The RO market in this study is centered on purified water produced for municipal, industrial, military and agriculture/environmental markets. It does not address wastewater issues, with the exception of wastewater as an integral part of a reuse and recycle system.

METHODOLOGY

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in the preparation of this study. Research for this report began with a re-analysis of the available technical and business literature, as well as an evaluation of the personal records of the water treatment industry available to the author. Conversations with industry experts and company representatives and a review of their published works provide the backbone for an evaluation of the RO equipment water treatment industry. Other sources of information include product literature from RO equipment suppliers, patent information and annual reports.

Growth rates of RO system components are not the same for all world regions and are not increasing from the same base. Common to all regions, however, is that sales of RO technology are growing faster than the gross domestic products (GDPs) of countries installing the systems and more rapidly than the industries that use them. Forecasts in this report are based on announced projects and anticipated capacity additions over the next five years.

Sales dollars are as received by membrane manufacturers and converted to U.S. dollars. Equipment costs such as pumps, motors, pressure vessels and pretreatment are evaluated separately. Post-treatment, civil works, real estate, engineering costs, computer automation and installation are not included. Costs are adjusted to reflect U.S. dollars. Currency conversions are normalized as well as possible. Much of the historic information is from BCC Research data.

INFORMATION SOURCES

The information sources for this study include online research, patent literature, technical journals and interviews with principals in the industry. In evaluating the global market for water treatment using RO, information was obtained from the U.S. Department of Commerce; U.S. Department of State; Aquastat, the United Nation’s global water information system; and publications from the International Desalination Association, European Desalination Association and the Middle East Desalination Research Center. Projections for each market are made in terms of constant dollars. Historical values are for the year given.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

This report provides:
• An overview of the global markets for reverse osmosis (RO) system components, which include pretreatment cartridges, pumps, pressure vessels/housings, RO membrane modules, and ancillary elements such as skids, valves, and gauges
• Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2011 and 2012, estimates for 2013, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2018
• Identification of existing and potential markets for RO on the global stage
• Discussion of important technological trends, such as improved low-pressure membranes, large-diameter membranes, and non-fouling membranes
• Coverage of the RO market centered on purified water produced for municipal, industrial, military, and agriculture/environmental markets
• Patent analysis
• Comprehensive company profiles of major players.

Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 3
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
METHODOLOGY 4
INFORMATION SOURCES 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC ONLINE SERVICES 5
DISCLAIMER 5

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS FOR WATER
TREATMENT, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 9
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS FOR WATER
TREATMENT, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 9

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW OF THE WATER TREATMENT INDUSTRY 12

IMPORTANCE OF CLEAN WATER 12
SAFE DRINKING WATER STANDARDS 12
WATER ISSUES 13
U.S. WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS 15
GLOBAL WATER NEEDS 16
TABLE 1 WORLD WATER WITHDRAWALS BY SECTOR, 2013 (%) 16
FIGURE 1 WORLD WATER WITHDRAWALS BY SECTOR, 2013 (%) 16
TABLE 2 WATER MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY NEEDS 17
MEMBRANE TIMELINE 17
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 17
WHAT IS RO? 19
RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS 19
DESALINATION SYSTEMS 20
RO PERFORMANCE 21
TABLE 3 TYPICAL RO PERFORMANCE IN REMOVING CONTAMINANTS (%) 22
COSTS 22
OPERATING COSTS 23
THE RISE AND FALL OF SEAWATER RO COSTS 24
TABLE 4 SEAWATER DESALINATION, PLANT SIZE AND COST, 1991-2013 25
FIGURE 2 SEAWATER DESALINATION, PLANT SIZE AND COST, 1991-2013
(MGD/$1,000 GAL) 25
COMPETITIVE PROCESSES 26
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 27
TECHNICAL IMPROVEMENTS FOR REDUCING WATER COST 27
MEMBRANE IMPROVEMENTS 28
Large Capacity Elements 28
PRESSURE RECOVERY DEVICES 28
CO-LOCATION OF SWRO AND POWER PLANTS 29
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY OPTIONS 30
Solar Power 30
SWCC Projects 31
Wind Power 31
TABLE 5 WIND-POWERED DESALINATION PLANTS BY LOCATION, 1998-2012 31
Nuclear Power 32
Nuclear Desalination Projects 33
Tidal Energy 34
Hybrid RO/Thermal Plants 34
BRINE DISPOSAL 35
Alternative Brine Disposal Methods 35
WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND REUSE 37
NEWater 37
Groundwater Replenishment System 37
RESEARCH NEEDS 38
TABLE 6 DESALINATION AND WATER PURIFICATION ROADMAP: NATIONAL NEEDS
AND RECOMMENDED RandD 38
GLOBAL CONSIDERATIONS AND RO MARKET STATUS 40
TABLE 7 ESTIMATED GLOBAL RO DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2012
(MGD/%) 41
FIGURE 3 ESTIMATED GLOBAL RO DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2012
(MGD/%) 41
TABLE 8 VALUE OF RO SYSTEMS IN THE U.S. BY MARKET SECTOR, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 42
FIGURE 4 VALUE OF RO SYSTEMS IN THE U.S. BY MARKET SECTOR, 1990-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 43
TABLE 9 VALUE OF RO SYSTEMS IN THE REST OF THE WORLD BY MARKET SECTOR,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 43
FIGURE 5 VALUE OF RO SYSTEMS IN THE REST OF THE WORLD BY MARKET
SECTOR, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 44

CHAPTER 4 RO MEMBRANE MODULES 46

MEMBRANE CHEMISTRY 46
THE CADOTTE PATENTS 47
Primary Module Components 47
Other Module Components 48
Cleaning Thin-film Composite RO Membranes 48
NF MEMBRANES 49
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 49
NEW MEMBRANE MATERIALS 49
Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites 49
Carbon Nanotube Membranes 50
Aquaporins 51
Oxidant-Resistant Membranes 51
PRICING 52
SECTOR STRUCTURE 52
TABLE 10 RO MEMBRANE MODULE SECTOR STRUCTURE, 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 53
COMPANY PROFILES 53
DOW CHEMICAL CO. 53
Dow Liquid Separations 54
ELTRON RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT 54
GENERAL ELECTRIC 55
GE Water Technologies 55
KOCH MEMBRANE SYSTEMS 56
NANOASIS 56
NANOH2O, INC. 57
NITTO DENKO CORP. 58
Hydranautics 58
PALL CORP. 59
PORIFERA INC. 59
ROCHEM 60
Sepro Separation Solutions 60
SIEMENS AG 61
STONYBROOK TECHNOLOGY GROUP 61
TORAY INDUSTRIES 62
Toray Membrane USA 62
TOYOBO CORP. 63
TRISEP CORP. 63
WOONGJIN CHEMICAL 64
VALUE MEMBRANE MODULES IN RO SYSTEMS 64
TABLE 11 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR RO MEMBRANE MODULES, BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 65
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR RO MEMBRANE MODULES BY
REGION, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 65

CHAPTER 5 PRESSURE VESSELS/HOUSINGS 69

OVERVIEW 69
ASME SPECIFICATIONS 70
FRP AND STAINLESS STEEL 71
PRICE 71
SECTOR STRUCTURE 72
TABLE 12 RO PRESSURE VESSELS SECTOR STRUCTURE, 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 72
COMPANY PROFILES 72
BEKAERT PROGRESSIVE COMPOSITES 72
BEL COMPOSITES 73
GE WATER TECHNOLOGIES 74
PENTAIR, INC. 74
VALUE PRESSURE VESSELS/HOUSINGS 75
TABLE 13 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR PRESSURE VESSELS/HOUSINGS
BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 75
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR PRESSURE VESSELS/HOUSINGS
BY REGION, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 75

CHAPTER 6 CARTRIDGE PREFILTERS FOR RO SYSTEMS 78

OVERVIEW 78
UF AND MF AS RO PRETREATMENT 80
THE IMPORTANCE OF PROPER PRETREATMENT 80
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 81
SALES OF MEDIA AND MEMBRANE PREFILTER CARTRIDGES BY TYPE 81
SECTOR STRUCTURE 82
TABLE 14 RO PREFILTER SECTOR STRUCTURE, 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 83
COMPANY PROFILES 83
3M PURIFICATION 83
ENTEGRIS, INC. 84
INGE GMBH 84
MEISSNER FILTRATION PRODUCTS, INC. 85
MERCK MILLIPORE 86
PARKER HANNIFIN CORP. 86
PENTAIR, INC. 87
SIEMENS 87
WOONGJIN CHEMICAL 88
VALUE PREFILTER CARTRIDGES FOR RO 88
TABLE 15 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR CARTRIDGE PREFILTERS FOR RO
SYSTEMS BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 90
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR CARTRIDGES/PREFILTERS FOR RO
SYSTEMS BY REGION, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 90

CHAPTER 7 PUMPS FOR RO WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS 93

OVERVIEW 93
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 93
PISTON/PLUNGER PUMPS 94
BOOSTER PUMPS 94
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 95
PUMP/ERD PACKAGES 96
PRICE 96
SECTOR STRUCTURE 97
TABLE 16 RO PUMP SECTOR STRUCTURE, 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 97
COMPANY PROFILES 98
AFTON PUMPS, INC. 98
CAT PUMPS 99
CHPT MANUFACTURING, INC. 99
CLYDEUNION PUMPS 99
DANFOSS A/S 100
DUCHTING PUMPS 100
EBARA FLUID HANDLING 101
ENERGY RECOVERY, INC. (ERI) 101
FLOWSERVE CORP. 102
FLUID EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT CO. (FEDCO) 102
GENERAL ELECTRIC/ GE WATER 103
GRUNDFOS 103
INGETEAM 104
KSB GROUP 104
MET-PRO GLOBAL PUMP SOLUTIONS 105
PENTAIR/SHURFLO 105
SULZER/SULZER PUMPS 106
TORISHIMA PUMP 106
XYLEM INC. 107
VALUE OF PUMPS FOR RO 107
TABLE 17 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR RO PUMPS BY REGION, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 108
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR RO PUMPS BY TYPE, 1990-2018
($ MILLIONS) 108

CHAPTER 8 ANCILLARY COMPONENTS 110

VALVES, GAUGES, COMPUTER CONTROLS, PIPING, RACKS, SWITCHES, SKIDS,
HOSES AND MANIFOLDS 110
TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS 110
GLOBAL DESIGNERS AND BUILDERS OF RO SYSTEMS 111
TABLE 18 GLOBAL SUPPLIERS OF RO SYSTEMS EPC 111
SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR ANCILLARY COMPONENTS FOR RO SYSTEMS 114
TABLE 19 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR ANCILLARY COMPONENTS OF RO
SYSTEMS BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 115
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR ANCILLARY COMPONENTS OF
RO SYSTEMS BY REGION, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 115

CHAPTER 9 MAJOR MARKETS FOR RO WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS IN THE U.S. AND
CANADA 118

TABLE 20 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE U.S. AND CANADA BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 118
FIGURE 11 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE U.S. AND CANADA BY TYPE,
1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 118
TABLE 21 U.S. WATER WITHDRAWALS BY SECTOR (%) 119
FIGURE 12 U.S. WATER WITHDRAWALS BY SECTOR (%) 119
ECONOMIC TRENDS 119
U.S. 119
CANADA 120
WATER NEEDS 120
THE HEARTLAND 121
FIGURE 13 POTENTIALLY USABLE WATER FROM U.S. SALINE AQUIFERS 121
THE MID-ATLANTIC 122
OIL, GAS AND COAL BASINS 122
INLAND URBAN AREAS 122
COASTAL URBAN AREAS 123
MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLIES 123
PROPOSED PROJECTS 123
TABLE 22 U.S. STATES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY,
2008 (MGD) 124
FIGURE 14 U.S. STATES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY,
2008 (MGD) 124
ASCE REPORT 125
HOUSEHOLD/RECREATIONAL APPLICATIONS 126
BOTTLED WATER 127
GLOBAL CONSUMPTION 128
BOTTLED WATER TREATMENT 128
TABLE 23 COMPARISONS OF INTERNATIONAL DRINKING WATER AND BOTTLED
WATER GUIDELINES 129
RECREATIONAL MARKETS 129
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS 129
SEMICONDUCTOR/ELECTRONICS 130
TABLE 24 REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER AT THE POINT OF DISTRIBUTION IN THE
ELECTRONICS AND SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRIES 131
Ultrapure Water Treatment 132
POWER PRODUCTION 132
Zero Liquid Discharge 133
MEDICAL/BIOTECHNOLOGY/PHARMACEUTICAL 134
Compendial Water 134
Hemodialysis Water 135
MILITARY APPLICATIONS 135
ROWPU 136
RECENT ADVANCES 137
LWP 137
EUWP 137
AGRICULTURAL/ENVIRONMENTAL 138
DESALINATION 138
WASTEWATER RECLAMATION 138
LEACHATE 140
OIL AND GAS FIELD-PRODUCED WATER 141
OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL 141
MBR/RO 141
Produced Wastewater from Remediation Activities 142
AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS - RESTARTING THE YUMA DESALTER 142
VALUE OF MAJOR RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE U.S. 143
TABLE 25 VALUE OF MAJOR RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE U.S. BY MARKET
SECTOR, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 143
FIGURE 15 VALUE OF MAJOR RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE U.S. BY MARKET
SECTOR, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 144
POTABLE WATER 144
INDUSTRIAL WATER 145
Electric Power Production 146
Semiconductor Manufacturing 146
Pharmaceutical Industry 147
Water Reuse 148
OTHER 149
Leachate Treatment 149
Produced Water 150
Military, Agency 150

CHAPTER 10 PATENT SURVEY 153

BY COMPANY 153
TABLE 26 U.S. PATENT SURVEY BY COMPANY, APRIL 2008-MARCH 2013 (NO/%) 154
FIGURE 16 U.S. PATENT SURVEY BY COMPANY, APRIL 2008-MARCH 2013 (%) 154
BY APPLICATION 155
TABLE 27 U.S. PATENT SURVEY BY APPLICATION, APRIL 2008-MARCH 2013 (NO/%) 155
FIGURE 17 U.S. PATENT SURVEY BY APPLICATION, APRIL 2008-MARCH 2013 (%) 155

CHAPTER 11 INTERNATIONAL REVERSE OSMOSIS MARKET OUTLOOK 158

OVERVIEW 158
FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN WATER PROGRAMS 158
ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN WATER MANAGEMENT 159
GLOBAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION ASSESSMENT 160
Drinking Water 160
Sanitation 161
INDUSTRIAL WATER TREATMENT 161
MARKET VALUE RO SYSTEMS BY GLOBAL REGION 161
TABLE 28 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 162
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS BY
REGION, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 162
IMPACT OF THE GLOBALIZED ECONOMY 163
REGIONAL ANALYSES 163
Europe 163
Economic Trends 163
Water Needs 164
TABLE 29 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN EUROPE BY MARKET SECTOR,
2012 (%) 165
FIGURE 19 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN EUROPE BY MARKET SECTOR,
2012 (%) 165
Value of RO System Components in Europe by Type 166
TABLE 30 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN EUROPE BY TYPE, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 166
FIGURE 20 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN EUROPE BY TYPE, 1990-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 167
Value of RO System Components in Europe by Market Sector 167
Municipal Water 167
Industrial Water 168
Electric Power Production 169
Semiconductor Manufacturing 169
Pharmaceutical Industry 170
Water Reuse 171
Other 171
TABLE 31 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN EUROPE BY MARKET SECTOR,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 172
FIGURE 21 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN EUROPE BY MARKET SECTOR,
1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 172
Middle East/Africa 172
Water Needs 173
TABLE 32 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN THE MIDDLE EAST BY SECTOR,
2012 (%) 173
FIGURE 22 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN THE MIDDLE EAST BY SECTOR,
2012 (%) 173
Middle East 174
Africa 174
Water Needs 175
TABLE 33 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN AFRICA BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 175
FIGURE 23 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN AFRICA BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 175
Value of RO System Components in Middle East/Africa by Type 175
TABLE 34 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 176
FIGURE 24 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA BY
TYPE, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 176
Value of RO System Components in the Middle East/Africa by
Market Sector 177
TABLE 35 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA BY
MARKET SECTOR, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 178
FIGURE 25 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA BY
MARKET SECTOR, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 178
Asia-Pacific Region 179
TABLE 36 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN AUSTRALIA BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 179
FIGURE 26 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN AUSTRALIA BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 179
TABLE 37 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN ASIA BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 180
FIGURE 27 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN ASIA BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 180
Value of RO System Components in Asia-Pacific by Type 181
TABLE 38 VALUE OF RO COMPONENTS IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 181
FIGURE 28 VALUE OF RO COMPONENTS IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION BY TYPE,
1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 181
Value of RO System Components in Asia-Pacific by Market
Sector 182
Potable Water 182
Industrial Water 183
Electric Power Production 184
Semiconductor Manufacturing 184
Pharmaceutical Industry 184
Water Reuse 185
TABLE 39 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION BY
MARKET SECTOR, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 186
FIGURE 29 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION BY
MARKET SECTOR, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 186
Caribbean/Latin America 186
TABLE 40 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS FOR THE CARIBBEAN/LATIN AMERICA
BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 187
FIGURE 30 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS FOR THE CARIBBEAN/LATIN
AMERICA BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 187
Economic Trends 187
Water Needs 188
Value of RO System Components in Caribbean/Latin America by
Type 189
TABLE 41 VALUE RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS CARIBBEAN/LATIN AMERICA BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 190
FIGURE 31 VALUE RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS CARIBBEAN/LATIN AMERICA BY TYPE,
1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 190
Value of RO System Components in Caribbean/Latin America by
Market Sector 190
TABLE 42 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS CARIBBEAN/LATIN AMERICA BY
MARKET SECTOR, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 192
FIGURE 32 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS CARIBBEAN/LATIN AMERICA BY
MARKET SECTOR, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 192

CHAPTER 12 APPENDIX 195

TABLE 43 PATENT SURVEY (JANUARY 2008-MARCH 2013) 195



LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS FOR WATER
TREATMENT, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 9
TABLE 1 WORLD WATER WITHDRAWALS BY SECTOR, 2013 (%) 16
TABLE 2 WATER MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY NEEDS 17
TABLE 3 TYPICAL RO PERFORMANCE IN REMOVING CONTAMINANTS (%) 22
TABLE 4 SEAWATER DESALINATION, PLANT SIZE AND COST, 1991-2013 25
TABLE 5 WIND-POWERED DESALINATION PLANTS BY LOCATION, 1998-2012 31
TABLE 6 DESALINATION AND WATER PURIFICATION ROADMAP: NATIONAL NEEDS
AND RECOMMENDED RandD 38
TABLE 7 ESTIMATED GLOBAL RO DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2012
(MGD/%) 41
TABLE 8 VALUE OF RO SYSTEMS IN THE U.S. BY MARKET SECTOR, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 42
TABLE 9 VALUE OF RO SYSTEMS IN THE REST OF THE WORLD BY MARKET SECTOR,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 43
TABLE 10 RO MEMBRANE MODULE SECTOR STRUCTURE, 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 53
TABLE 11 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR RO MEMBRANE MODULES, BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 65
TABLE 12 RO PRESSURE VESSELS SECTOR STRUCTURE, 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 72
TABLE 13 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR PRESSURE VESSELS/HOUSINGS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 14 RO PREFILTER SECTOR STRUCTURE, 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 83
TABLE 15 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR CARTRIDGE PREFILTERS FOR RO
SYSTEMS BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 90
TABLE 16 RO PUMP SECTOR STRUCTURE, 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 17 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR RO PUMPS BY REGION, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 18 GLOBAL SUPPLIERS OF RO SYSTEMS EPC 111
TABLE 19 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR ANCILLARY COMPONENTS OF RO
SYSTEMS BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 115
TABLE 20 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE U.S. AND CANADA BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 118
TABLE 21 U.S. WATER WITHDRAWALS BY SECTOR (%) 119
TABLE 22 U.S. STATES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY,
2008 (MGD) 124
TABLE 23 COMPARISONS OF INTERNATIONAL DRINKING WATER AND BOTTLED
WATER GUIDELINES 129
TABLE 24 REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER AT THE POINT OF DISTRIBUTION IN THE
ELECTRONICS AND SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRIES 131
TABLE 25 VALUE OF MAJOR RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE U.S. BY MARKET
SECTOR, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 143
TABLE 26 U.S. PATENT SURVEY BY COMPANY, APRIL 2008-MARCH 2013 (NO/%) 154
TABLE 27 U.S. PATENT SURVEY BY APPLICATION, APRIL 2008-MARCH 2013 (NO/%) 155
TABLE 28 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 162
TABLE 29 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN EUROPE BY MARKET SECTOR, 2012
(%) 165
TABLE 30 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN EUROPE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 166
TABLE 31 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN EUROPE BY MARKET SECTOR,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 172
TABLE 32 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN THE MIDDLE EAST BY SECTOR,
2012 (%) 173
TABLE 33 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN AFRICA BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 175
TABLE 34 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 176
TABLE 35 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA BY
MARKET SECTOR, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 178
TABLE 36 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN AUSTRALIA BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 179
TABLE 37 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN ASIA BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 180
TABLE 38 VALUE OF RO COMPONENTS IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 181
TABLE 39 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION BY
MARKET SECTOR, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 186
TABLE 40 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS FOR THE CARIBBEAN/LATIN AMERICA
BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 187
TABLE 41 VALUE RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS CARIBBEAN/LATIN AMERICA BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 190
TABLE 42 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS CARIBBEAN/LATIN AMERICA BY
MARKET SECTOR, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 192
TABLE 43 PATENT SURVEY (JANUARY 2008-MARCH 2013) 195



LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS FOR WATER
TREATMENT, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 9
FIGURE 1 WORLD WATER WITHDRAWALS BY SECTOR, 2013 (%) 16
FIGURE 2 SEAWATER DESALINATION, PLANT SIZE AND COST, 1991-2013
(MGD/$1,000 GAL) 25
FIGURE 3 ESTIMATED GLOBAL RO DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2012
(MGD/%) 41
FIGURE 4 VALUE OF RO SYSTEMS IN THE U.S. BY MARKET SECTOR, 1990-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 43
FIGURE 5 VALUE OF RO SYSTEMS IN THE REST OF THE WORLD BY MARKET SECTOR,
1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 44
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR RO MEMBRANE MODULES BY
REGION, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 65
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR PRESSURE VESSELS/HOUSINGS BY
REGION, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 75
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR CARTRIDGES/PREFILTERS FOR RO
SYSTEMS BY REGION, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 90
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR RO PUMPS BY TYPE, 1990-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 108
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR ANCILLARY COMPONENTS OF RO
SYSTEMS BY REGION, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 115
FIGURE 11 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE U.S. AND CANADA BY TYPE,
1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 118
FIGURE 12 U.S. WATER WITHDRAWALS BY SECTOR (%) 119
FIGURE 13 POTENTIALLY USABLE WATER FROM U.S. SALINE AQUIFERS 121
FIGURE 14 U.S. STATES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY,
2008 (MGD) 124
FIGURE 15 VALUE OF MAJOR RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE U.S. BY MARKET
SECTOR, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 144
FIGURE 16 U.S. PATENT SURVEY BY COMPANY, APRIL 2008-MARCH 2013 (%) 154
FIGURE 17 U.S. PATENT SURVEY BY APPLICATION, APRIL 2008-MARCH 2013 (%) 155
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS BY
REGION, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 162
FIGURE 19 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN EUROPE BY MARKET SECTOR,
2012 (%) 165
FIGURE 20 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN EUROPE BY TYPE, 1990-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 167
FIGURE 21 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN EUROPE BY MARKET SECTOR,
1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 172
FIGURE 22 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN THE MIDDLE EAST BY SECTOR,
2012 (%) 173
FIGURE 23 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN AFRICA BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 175
FIGURE 24 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA BY
TYPE, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 176
FIGURE 25 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA BY
MARKET SECTOR, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 178
FIGURE 26 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN AUSTRALIA BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 179
FIGURE 27 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS IN ASIA BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 180
FIGURE 28 VALUE OF RO COMPONENTS IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION BY TYPE,
1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 181
FIGURE 29 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION BY
MARKET SECTOR, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 186
FIGURE 30 ESTIMATED WATER WITHDRAWALS FOR THE CARIBBEAN/LATIN AMERICA
BY SECTOR, 2012 (%) 187
FIGURE 31 VALUE RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS CARIBBEAN/LATIN AMERICA BY TYPE,
1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 190
FIGURE 32 VALUE OF RO SYSTEM COMPONENTS CARIBBEAN/LATIN AMERICA BY
MARKET SECTOR, 1990-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 192

View This Report »

Find all the market research you need - instantly, in one place.

+1.2 Million Research Documents & Statistics +200,000 Trusted Public Sources 350 Industries With Global Coverage

24/7 Customer Support

Talk to Louis

+1 718 618 4302

Purchase Reports From Reputable Market Research Publishers

Global Residential and Light Commercial Water Treatment Equipment Market

Global Residential and Light Commercial Water Treatment Equipment Market

  • $ 7 000
  • Industry report
  • May 2014
  • by Frost & Sullivan

Augmenting Health Wellness and Wellbeing Consciousness Boosts Market Growth This research service provides key insights into market trends in the global residential and light commercial water treatment ...

Advances in Produced Water Treatment Technologies (Technical Insights)

Advances in Produced Water Treatment Technologies (Technical Insights)

  • $ 6 500
  • Industry report
  • June 2014
  • by Frost & Sullivan

Technologies enabling efficient reuse of produced water This research service report presents an analysis of the current capability and expected future trends for produced water treatment technologies. ...

World Activated Carbon Market, Freedonia

World Activated Carbon Market, Freedonia

  • $ 6 400
  • Industry report
  • May 2014
  • by Freedonia

World demand to rise nearly 4% annually through 2018 Demand for roofing products worldwide is projected to grow nearly four percent per year through 2018 to over 12 billion square meters, a significant ...


ReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution that finds, filters and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - quickly, in one place.