The Automotive Fuel Cell Technology Report

  • April 2013
  • -
  • Supplier Business
  • -
  • 75 pages

OEMs strongly anticipate that from 2015 onwards a quite significant number of fuel cell vehicles will be commercialized with current projections aimed at a few hundred thousand units on a worldwide basis. All OEMs involved will implement road specific production and commercial strategies and, as a consequence, depending on various influencing factors, some commercialisation may occur even earlier than 2015. Indeed, commitments by OEMs to develop hydrogen fuel-cell cars have surged over the past two years. BMW, Toyota, Hyundai, Daimler, Nissan and Honda have all announced plans recently to commercialise the fuel cell drivetrain, in some cases through collaborative agreements in order to spread early technology risk and accomplish economies of scale

In order to ensure a successful market introduction of fuel cell vehicles this market introduction has to be aligned with the build-up of the necessary hydrogen infrastructure. The network should be built up from metropolitan areas via corridors into aerial wide coverage.

About this report

This new report examines the key drivers in this sector and details the main fuel cell types as well as the latest advances in technology. The report goes on to consider fuel cells in the electric powertrain and hydrogen fuel and infrastructure, in particular hydrogen production, hydrogen storage & infrastructure, new chemical approaches and integration with renewable energy.

Finally, the report looks at the development of the automotive fuel cell market with the latest developments from the major automotive manufacturers.

Table Of Contents

Introduction

Key drivers

Energy costs and the environment
Fuel Cells and the Automotive Industry

Fuel cell technology

Fuel cell types

Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC)
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC)
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC)
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC)
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)
Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC)
Metal Air Fuel Cells (MAFC)
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC)
Technology progress

Fuel cells in the electric powertrain

FCEV cost development

Hydrogen fuel and infrastructure

Hydrogen production

Hydrogen from coal
Hydrogen production through electrolysis

Hydrogen storage and infrastructure

Hydrogen storage
Hydrogen fuel tanks
Future storage technologies
Liquefied hydrogen
Metal hydrides
Chemical hydrogen storage
Hydrolysis reactions
Hydrogenation/dehydrogenation reactions

New chemical approaches

Carbon nanotube storage
Electrolysis

Integration with renewable energy

Development of the automotive fuel cell market

Daimler
Ford
General Motors
Honda
Hyundai-Kia
Nissan
Toyota
Volkswagen
OEM cooperative agreements



List of Figures

Figure 1: A lightweight hydrogen fuel storage tank [Source: BMW]
Figure 2: A hydrogen fuelling station in California [Source: Hydrogen Association]
Figure 3: Well-to-wheel CO2 emissions by powertrain including source considerations [Source: Eduardo Velasco Orosco, UAEM and GMM]
Figure 4: Well-to-wheel powertrain costs relative to conventional [Source: Eduardo Velasco Orosco, UAEM and GMM]
Figure 5: Technical hurdles overcome in the deployment of FCEVs [Source: EU, McKinsey]
Figure 6: Molten carbonate fuel cell schematic [Source: EERE]
Figure 7: Phosphoric acid fuel cell schematic [Source: EERE]
Figure 8: Solid oxide fuel cell schematic [Source: EERE]
Figure 9: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell schematic [Source: EERE]
Figure 10: Fuel cell stack improvements [Source: GM]
Figure 11: Platinum loadings for PEM fuel cells [Source: US DOE]
Figure 12: Schematic representation of the functionality of a fuel cell [Source: PEMAS]
Figure 13: System schematics for 2008 and 2009 fuel cell system [Source: US DOE]
Figure 14: System schematics for 2010 and 2015 fuel cell systems [Source: US DOE]
Figure 15: Net system cost versus annual production rate [Source: US DOE]
Figure 16: Coal gasification process [Source: US DOE]
Figure 17: Sulphur Iodine cycle for H2 production [Source: Hydrogen Energy]
Figure 18: Conventional electrolysis for H2 production [Source: Hydrogen Energy]
Figure 19: Commercially available solutions for on-board hydrogen storage [Source: US DOE]
Figure 20: BMW’s Cryo-compressed hydrogen storage system [Source: BMW]
Figure 21: Hydrogen mass and cost comparison of compressed (700 bar) and cryo-compressed (350 bar) storage [Source: BMW]
Figure 22: a schematic of MOF-74 metal organic framework [Source: NIST]
Figure 23: Mercedes-Benz F125 fuel cell plug-in hybrid [Source: Daimler]
Figure 24: Molecular hydrogen storage in light element compounds [Source: US DOE]
Figure 25: Schematics of nanotube structures [Source: Nanotechnologies]
Figure 26: Schematic of a three-dimensional nanotube matrix [Source: RSC]
Figure 28: European national initiatives for hydrogen infrastructure [Source: NOW]
Figure 28: Publically accessible hydrogen refuelling stations - Germany [Source: NOW]
Figure 29: Planned development of hydrogen refuelling infrastructure in Germany [Source: NOW]
Figure 30: Hydrogen refuelling site Oslo using two Hydrogenics electrlysers [Source: Hydrogenics]
Figure 31: Honda’s prototype solar hydrogen refuelling station in Los Angeles [Source: Honda]
Figure 27: ITM Power’s HFuel transportable hydrogen refuelling station [Source: ITM Power]
Figure 28: OMV hydrogen refuelling site Stuttgart [Source: Daimler]
Figure 29: Percentage energy generation from renewable sources [Source: Geocurrents]
Figure 31: London hydrogen fuelling station used by fuel cell buses [Source: Air Products]
Figure 32: A schematic for an ‘artificial leaf’ [Source: Science Now]
Figure 37: FECV and BEV contributions to CO2 reductions [Source: Various]
Figure 38: Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-Cell [Source: Daimler]
Figure 39: Daimler’s F125!fuel cell hybrid concept [Source: Daimler]
Figure 40: Fuel cell Chevrolet Equinox [Source: GM]
Figure 42: Honda’s Clarity fuel cell car [Source: Honda]
Figure 41: Schematic of the Honda Clarity [Source: Honda]
Figure 43: The first production model of Hyundai’s ix35 fuel cell vehicle [Source: Hyundai-Kia]
Figure 43: Toyota’s FCV-R fuel cell concept car [Source: Toyota]
Figure 45: OEM forecast fuel cell vehicle production [Source: IHS]
Figure 46: Geographic forecast fuel cell vehicle production [Source: IHS]



List of Tables

Table 1: A comparison of fuel cell technologies [Source: US DOE]
Table 2: Technical targets for automotive applications [Source: US DOE]
Table 3: A summary of system costs for 2010 and 2015 technologies at various manufacturing rates [Source: US DOE]
Table 4: US hydrogen refuelling stations 2012 [Source: www.fuelcells.org]

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