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CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape - Japan

Summary

Pharmaceutical market in Japan is set to rise from around $70 billion in 2016 to $72 billion by 2021, representing a low compound annual growth rate of 0.3%.

Although increasing generic substitution and yearly pricing reviews are likely to restrict growth in the Japanese pharmaceutical market in the future, the government is also working to reduce long regulatory processes faced by pharmaceutical industry in order to expedite the approval of products and improve access to novel therapeutics. This will not only attract foreign companies but also positively influence the healthcare market.

In 2009, Japan’s pharmaceutical market was worth $68.9 billion. It is projected to reach $72.0 billion in 2021, increasing at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 0.3%. The medical device market was valued at $56 billion in 2016 and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 7.4% to $80 billion in 2021.

In 2016, Japan’s population was approximately 126.3 million, having declined at a negative CAGR of 0.1% from 2009. Its public healthcare expenditure accounted for 84% of total healthcare expenditure in 2016, and the government spent approximately $14.75 billion on pharmaceutical R&D in 2015.

The report “CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape - Japan” is an essential source of information on and analysis of the healthcare, regulatory and reimbursement landscape in Japan. It identifies the key trends in the country’s healthcare market and provides insights into its demographic, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape and healthcare infrastructure.

Scope
The report provides information on the healthcare, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape in Japan and includes -
- An overview of the pharmaceutical and medical device markets, including market size, segmentation, and key drivers and barriers
- Profiles and SWOT analysis of the major players in the pharmaceutical market (Astellas Pharma, Otsuka, Chugai Pharmaceutical, Taisho Pharma and Mitsubishi Tanabe) and medical device market (Terumo Medical, NIPRO, Olympus Medical Systems, Toshiba Medical Systems and Hitachi Medical Corporation)
- A review of the reimbursement and regulatory landscape, with analysis covering details of the country’s healthcare reimbursement process, regulatory agencies and the approval processes for new drugs and medical devices
- Detailed analysis of the political and economic environment, covering economic indicators, demographics, healthcare infrastructure and healthcare expenditure
- An overview of the opportunities for and challenges to growth in the healthcare market

Reasons to buy
This report will enhance your decision-making capability by allowing you to -
- Develop business strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving Japan’s healthcare market
- Drive revenue by understanding the key trends, reimbursement and regulatory policies, pharmaceutical market segments, and companies likely to affect Japan’s healthcare market
- Formulate effective sales and marketing strategies by understanding the competitive landscape and analyzing the performance of various competitors
- Organize your sales and marketing efforts by identifying the market categories and segments that present the best opportunities for consolidation, investment, and strategic partnerships
- Identify, understand, and capitalize on the opportunities and challenges in Japan’s healthcare market

Table Of Contents

CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape - Japan
1 Table of Contents
1 Table of Contents 2
1.1 List of Tables 5
1.2 List of Figures 7
2 Executive Summary 9
3 Introduction 15
3.1 GlobalData Report Guidance 15
4 Overview of the Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Markets 16
4.1 Pharmaceutical Market 16
4.1.1 Market Overview 16
4.1.2 Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports 18
4.1.3 Supply Channels 19
4.1.4 Market Segments 20
4.1.5 Major Therapeutic Areas 24
4.1.6 Major Companies 30
4.2 Medical Device Market 57
4.2.1 Overview of the Top Five Segments 59
4.2.2 Diagnostic Market 68
4.2.3 Major Players 70
4.3 Market Drivers and Barriers 93
4.3.1 Drivers 93
4.3.2 Barriers 93
5 Market Access 95
5.1 Reimbursement and Payer Landscape 95
5.1.1 Overview of Healthcare System 95
5.1.2 Reimbursement Process 96
5.1.3 Overview of Insurance Providers 98
5.1.4 Patient Share in Healthcare Spending 100
5.1.5 Price Trends in the Healthcare Sector 101
5.1.6 Pricing Policies 102
5.2 Regulatory Landscape 104
5.2.1 Overview of Regulatory Agencies 104
5.2.2 Market Authorization Procedure for Pharmaceutical Products 105
5.2.3 Approval Process of Biological Products as Biosimilar or Interchangeable 110
5.2.4 New Medical Device Approval Process 111
5.2.5 Intellectual Property Rights 113
5.2.6 Clinical Trial Regulations 117
5.2.7 Pharmaceutical Advertising Regulations 117
5.2.8 Pharmacy Regulations 118
5.2.9 Labeling and Packaging Regulations 119
6 Country Analysis 124
6.1 Political Environment 124
6.1.1 Political Structure 124
6.1.2 Analysis of the Current Political Environment 126
6.1.3 Healthcare Policy Initiatives 128
6.2 Economic Landscape 129
6.3 Economic Indicators 132
6.3.1 Gross Domestic Product 132
6.3.2 Gross National Income 135
6.3.3 Inflation 136
6.3.4 Currency Exchange Rate 140
6.3.5 Foreign Direct Investment 141
6.3.6 Foreign Exchange Reserves 142
6.3.7 Trade Balance 142
6.3.8 General Government Structural Balance 144
6.3.9 General Government Net Debt 145
6.3.10 Major Industries 147
6.4 Demographics 149
6.4.1 Population 149
6.4.2 Education and Literacy 163
6.4.3 Employment 164
6.4.4 Disease Burden 165
6.5 Healthcare Infrastructure 167
6.5.1 Healthcare Facilities 167
6.5.2 Healthcare Parameters 172
6.5.3 Environmental Health 174
6.5.4 Healthcare Personnel 176
6.6 Healthcare Expenditure 179
6.6.1 Overview 179
6.6.2 Major Components of Healthcare Spending 180
6.6.3 Public and Private Sector Share 181
6.6.4 Spending in Healthcare RandD 182
6.7 Trade Associations 182
6.7.1 Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association 182
6.7.2 Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers' Associations 183
6.7.3 Japan Pharmaceutical Traders Association 183
6.7.4 Japan Pharmaceutical Equipment and Machinery Association 183
6.7.5 Japan Federation of Medical Devices Associations 183
6.7.6 The Federation of Japan Pharmaceutical Wholesalers Association 184
6.8 Trade Fairs 184
7 Opportunities and Challenges 185
7.1 Opportunities 185
7.2 Challenges 185
8 Appendix 187
8.1 Abbreviations 187
8.2 Bibliography 189
8.3 Research Methodology 198
8.3.1 Coverage 198
8.3.2 Secondary Research 198
8.3.3 Forecasts 199
8.3.4 Expert Panel 199
8.4 Contact Us 199
8.5 Disclaimer 200

1.1 List of Tables
Table 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 16
Table 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Revenue ($bn), 2017-2021 17
Table 3: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Exports and Imports ($bn), 2009-2016 18
Table 4: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Generics Share by Volume (%), 2009-2015 20
Table 5: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Biologics Production, 2014 21
Table 6: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, OTC Drug Market Revenue ($bn), 2009-2015 23
Table 7: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Top Five Therapeutic Areas, Production Value, 2014 24
Table 8: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Cardiovascular Agents, Production, 2014 25
Table 9: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, CNS Agents, Production, 2014 26
Table 10: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Digestive Organ Agents, Production, 2014 27
Table 11: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Blood and Body Fluid Agents, Production, 2014 28
Table 12: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Blood and Body Fluid Agents, Production, 2014 29
Table 13: Pharmaceutical Market, Astellas Pharma, Major Products, 2016 30
Table 14: Pharmaceutical Market, Astellas Pharma, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2016 31
Table 15: Pharmaceutical Market, Otsuka, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2016 37
Table 16: Pharmaceutical Market, Chugai Pharmaceuticals, Global, Major Products, 2015 42
Table 17: Pharmaceutical Market, Chugai Pharmaceuticals, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2016 43
Table 18: Pharmaceutical Market, Mitsubishi Tanabe, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2016 52
Table 19: Medical Device Market, Japan, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 56
Table 20: Medical Device Market, Japan, Revenue ($bn), 2017-2021 57
Table 21: Medical Device Market, Japan, Revenue by Segment ($bn), 2016 58
Table 22: Medical Device Market, Japan, Ophthalmic Devices Market, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 59
Table 23: Medical Device Market, Japan, Ophthalmic Devices Market, Sales Share for Major Players, 2015 60
Table 24: Medical Device Market, Japan, Nephrology and Urology Devices Market, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 61
Table 25: Medical Device Market, Japan, Nephrology and Urology Devices Market, Sales Share for Major Players, 2012 62
Table 26: Medical Device Market, Japan, Healthcare IT Market, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 63
Table 27: Medical Device Market, Japan, Healthcare IT, Sales Share for Major Players, 2015 64
Table 28: Medical Device Market, Japan, Hospital Supplies Market, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 65
Table 29: Medical Device Market, Japan, Hospital Supplies Market, Sales Share for Major Players, 2015 66
Table 30: Medical Device Market, Japan, Diagnostic Imaging Market, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 66
Table 31: Medical Device Market, Japan, Diagnostic Imaging Market, Sales Share for Major Players, 2015 67
Table 32: Medical Device Market, Japan, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 68
Table 33: Medical Device Market, Japan, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2017-2021 69
Table 34: Medical Device Market, Terumo, Major Products, 2016 70
Table 35: Medical Device Market, Nipro, Major Products, 2016 76
Table 36: Medical Device Market, Olympus, Global, Major Products, 2016 80
Table 37: Market Access, Japan, Types of Health Insurance, 2014 99
Table 38: Market Access, Japan, Out-of-Pocket Payment (% of Healthcare Expenditure), 2009-2016 100
Table 39: Market Access, Japan, Change in Average Price of Prescription Drugs (%), 2004-2014 101
Table 40: Market Access, Japan, Requirements for Applying Premiums for Drug Prices, 2015 102
Table 41: Regulatory Landscape, Japan, Patent Fees, 2016 114
Table 42: Regulatory Landscape, Japan, Trademark Fees, 2016 116
Table 43: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2009-2016 132
Table 44: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2017-2021 132
Table 45: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2009-2016 133
Table 46: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2017-2021 134
Table 47: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross National Income per Capita ($), 2009-2016 135
Table 48: Economic Indicators, Japan, Consumer Price Index, 2009-2016 136
Table 49: Economic Indicators, Japan, Consumer Price Index, 2017-2021 137
Table 50: Economic Indicators, Japan, Consumer Price Annual Change (%), 2009-2016 138
Table 51: Economic Indicators, Japan Currency Exchange Rate ($/JPY) 2009-2016 139
Table 52: Economic Indicators, Japan, Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2009-2016 140
Table 53: Economic Indicators, Japan, Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2009-2016 141
Table 54: Economic Indicators, Japan, Imports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2009-2016 142
Table 55: Economic Indicators, Japan, Exports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2009-2016 143
Table 56: Economic Indicators, Japan, Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2009-2016 144
Table 57: Economic Indicators, Japan, General Government Net Debt ($bn), 2009-2016 145
Table 58: Economic Indicators, Japan, General Government Net Debt ($bn), 2017-2021 146
Table 59: Economic Indicators, Japan, Major Industries, Output ($bn), 2013 147
Table 60: Demographics, Japan, Population (million), 2009-2016 148
Table 61: Demographics, Japan, Population (million), 2017-2021 149
Table 62: Demographics, Japan, Population, Urban-Rural Population Share (%), 2009-2016 150
Table 63: Demographics, Japan, Population, Urban-Rural Population Share (%), 2017-2021 151
Table 64: Demographics, Japan, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2009-2016 152
Table 65: Demographics, Japan, Population Distribution by Age Group Forecast (%), 2017-2021 153
Table 66: Demographics, Japan, Births (per 1,000 population), 2009-2016 154
Table 67: Demographics, Japan, Mortality (per 1,000 population), 2009-2016 155
Table 68: Demographics, Japan, Number of Deaths, 2014 156
Table 69: Demographics, Japan, Mortality Rate in Children under Five (per 1,000 live births), 2009-2016 157
Table 70: Demographics, Japan, Immunization Rate (%), 2009-2016 158
Table 71: Demographics, Japan, Major Causes of Mortality in Males, Number of Deaths, 2014 159
Table 72: Demographics, Japan, Major Causes of Mortality in Females, Number of Deaths, 2014 160
Table 73: Demographics, Japan, Gender Ratio (M/F), 2009-2016 161
Table 74: Demographics, Japan, Life Expectancy at Birth (years), 2009-2016 162
Table 75: Demographics, Japan, Gross Enrollment by Level of Education (%), 2009-2016 163
Table 76: Demographics, Japan, Unemployment Rate (%), 2009-2016 164
Table 77: Demographics, Japan, Disability-Adjusted Life Years by Major Disease (‘000), 2012 165
Table 78: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospitals, 2009-2016 166
Table 79: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospitals by Services, 2009-2016 167
Table 80: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Clinics by Type, 2009-2016 168
Table 81: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospital Beds, 2009-2016 169
Table 82: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Diagnostic Units (per million population), 2009-2016 170
Table 83: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospital Beds (per 1,000 population), 2009-2016 171
Table 84: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Doctors (per 1,000 population), 2009-2016 172
Table 85: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, PM2.5 (µg/m3), 2009-2016 173
Table 86: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, CO2 Emissions (metric tons per capita), 2009-2016 174
Table 87: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, CO2 Emissions by Sector (%), 2014 175
Table 88: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Nurses (per 1,000 population), 2009-2016 175
Table 89: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Dentists (per 1,000 population), 2009-2016 176
Table 90: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Pharmacists (per 1,000 population), 2009-2016 177
Table 91: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Healthcare Expenditure (percentage of GDP), 2009-2016 178
Table 92: Public Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Share of Major Components (%), 2015 179
Table 93: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Healthcare Expenditure, Public-Private Share (%), 2009-2016 180
Table 94: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, RandD Expenditure ($bn), 2009-2016 181
Table 95: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Major Healthcare Trade Fairs, 2017 183

1.2 List of Figures
Figure 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2021 10
Figure 2: Medical Device Market, Japan, Revenue ($m), 2009-2021 11
Figure 3: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Country Profile, 2017 14
Figure 4: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 17
Figure 5: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Revenue ($bn), 2017-2021 18
Figure 6: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Exports and Imports ($bn), 2009-2016 19
Figure 7: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Supply Channels, 2016 20
Figure 8: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Generics Share by Volume (%), 2009-2015 21
Figure 9: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Biologics Production (%), 2014 22
Figure 10: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, OTC Drug Market Revenue ($bn), 2009-2015 24
Figure 11: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Major Therapeutic Areas, Production Value ($bn), 2014 25
Figure 12: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Cardiovascular Agents, Production Share (%), 2014 26
Figure 13: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, CNS Agents, Production Share (%), 2014 27
Figure 14: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Digestive Organ Agents, Production Share (%), 2014 28
Figure 15: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Blood and Body Fluid Agents, Production Share (%), 2014 29
Figure 16: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Blood and Body Fluid Agents, Production Share (%), 2014 30
Figure 17: Medical Device Market, Japan, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 57
Figure 18: Medical Device Market, Japan, Revenue ($bn), 2017-2021 58
Figure 19: Medical Device Market, Japan, Revenue by Segment ($bn), 2016 59
Figure 20: Medical Device Market, Japan, Ophthalmic Devices Market, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 60
Figure 21: Medical Device Market, Japan, Orthopedic Devices Market, Sales Share for Major Players (%), 2015 61
Figure 22: Medical Device Market, Japan, Nephrology and Urology Devices Market, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 62
Figure 23: Medical Device Market, Japan, Nephrology and Urology Devices Market, Sales Share for Major Players (%), 2012 63
Figure 24: Medical Device Market, Japan, Healthcare IT Market, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 64
Figure 25: Medical Device Market, Japan, Healthcare IT, Sales Share for Major Players (%), 2015 65
Figure 26: Medical Device Market, Japan, Hospital Supplies Market, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 66
Figure 27: Medical Device Market, Japan, Hospital Supplies Market, Sales Share for Major Players (%), 2015 66
Figure 28: Medical Device Market, Japan, Diagnostic Imaging Market, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 67
Figure 29: Medical Device Market, Japan, Diagnostic Imaging Market, Sales Share for Major Players (%), 2015 68
Figure 30: Medical Device Market, Japan, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2009-2016 69
Figure 31: Medical Device Market, Japan, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2017-2021 70
Figure 32: Healthcare Market, Japan, Drivers and Barriers, 2017 94
Figure 33: Healthcare System, Organizational Structure, Japan, 2015 96
Figure 34: Healthcare System, Reimbursement Pricing for New Drugs, 2015 97
Figure 35: Healthcare System, Public Health Insurance System, 2015 99
Figure 36: Market Access, Japan, Out-of-Pocket Payment (% of Healthcare Expenditure), 2009-2016 101
Figure 37: Market Access, Japan, Change in Average Price of Prescription Drugs (%), 2004-2014 102
Figure 38: Market Access, Japan, Organizational Structure of PMDA and PFSB, 2015 105
Figure 39: Market Access, Japan, New Drug Development and Approval Process, 2015 107
Figure 40: Market Access, Japan, Approval Review Process, 2015 109
Figure 41: Market Access, Japan, New Generic Drug Approval Process, 2015 110
Figure 42: Market Access, Japan, Patent Approval Process, 2016 114
Figure 43: Market Access, Japan, Trademark Process, 2016 116
Figure 44: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2009-2016 132
Figure 45: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2017-2021 133
Figure 46: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2009-2016 134
Figure 47: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2017-2021 135
Figure 48: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross National Income per Capita ($), 2009-2016 136
Figure 49: Economic Indicators, Japan, Consumer Price Index, 2009-2016 137
Figure 50: Economic Indicators, Japan, Consumer Price Index, 2017-2021 138
Figure 51: Economic Indicators, Japan, Consumer Price Annual Change (%), 2009-2016 139
Figure 52: Economic Indicators, Japan Currency Exchange Rate ($/JPY), 2009-2016 140
Figure 53: Economic Indicators, Japan, Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2009-2016 141
Figure 54: Economic Indicators, Japan, Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2009-2016 142
Figure 55: Economic Indicators, Japan, Imports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2009-2016 143
Figure 56: Economic Indicators, Japan, Exports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2009-2016 144
Figure 57: Economic Indicators, Japan, Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2009-2016 145
Figure 58: Economic Indicators, Japan, General Government Net Debt ($bn), 2009-2016 146
Figure 59: Economic Indicators, Japan, General Government Net Debt ($bn), 2017-2021 147
Figure 60: Economic Indicators, Japan, Major Industries, Output ($bn), 2013 148
Figure 61: Demographics, Japan, Population (million), 2009-2016 149
Figure 62: Demographics, Japan, Population (million), 2017-2021 150
Figure 63: Demographics, Japan, Population, Urban-Rural Population Share (%), 2009-2016 151
Figure 64: Demographics, Japan, Population, Urban-Rural Population Share (%), 2017-2021 152
Figure 65: Demographics, Japan, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2009-2016 153
Figure 66: Demographics, Japan, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2017-2021 154
Figure 67: Demographics, Japan, Births (per 1,000 population), 2009-2016 155
Figure 68: Demographics, Japan, Mortality (per 1,000 population), 2009-2016 156
Figure 69: Demographics, Japan, Number of Deaths, 2014 157
Figure 70: Demographics, Japan, Mortality Rate in Children under Five (per 1,000 live births), 2009-2016 158
Figure 71: Demographics, Japan, Immunization Rate (%), 2009-2016 159
Figure 72: Demographics, Japan, Major Causes of Mortality in Males, Number of Deaths, 2014 160
Figure 73: Demographics, Japan, Major Causes of Mortality in Females, Number of Deaths, 2014 161
Figure 74: Demographics, Japan, Gender Ratio (M/F), 2009-2016 162
Figure 75: Demographics, Japan, Life Expectancy at Birth (years), 2009-2016 163
Figure 76: Demographics, Japan, Gross Enrollment by Level of Education (%), 2009-2016 164
Figure 77: Demographics, Japan, Unemployment Rate (%), 2009-2016 165
Figure 78: Demographics, Japan, Disability-Adjusted Life Years by Major Disease (‘000), 2014 166
Figure 79: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospitals, 2009-2016 167
Figure 80: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospitals by Service, 2009-2016 168
Figure 81: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Clinics by Type, 2009-2016 169
Figure 82: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospital Beds, 2009-2016 170
Figure 83: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Diagnostic Units (per million population), 2009-2016 171
Figure 84: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospital Beds (per 1,000 population), 2009-2016 172
Figure 85: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Doctors (per 1,000 population), 2009-2016 173
Figure 86: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, PM2.5 Emissions (µg/m3), 2009-2016 174
Figure 87: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, CO2 Emissions (metric tons per capita), 2009-2016 175
Figure 88: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, CO2 Emissions by Sector (%), 2014 175
Figure 89: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Nurses (per 1,000 population), 2009-2016 176
Figure 90: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Dentists (per 1,000 population), 2009-2016 177
Figure 91: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Pharmacists (per 1,000 population), 2009-2016 178
Figure 92: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Healthcare Expenditure (percentage of GDP), 2009-2016 179
Figure 93: Public Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Share of Major Components (%), 2015 180
Figure 94: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Public-Private Share of Healthcare Expenditure (%), 2009-2016 181
Figure 95: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, RandD Expenditure ($bn), 2009-2016 182
Figure 96: Healthcare Market, Japan, Opportunities and Challenges, 2017 186

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