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CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape - Japan

Summary

GlobalData, the industry analysis specialist, has released its latest report, "CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape - Japan". The report is an essential source of information on and analysis of the healthcare, regulatory and reimbursement landscape in Japan. It identifies the key trends in the country’s healthcare market and provides insights into its demographic, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape and healthcare infrastructure. Most importantly, the report provides valuable insights into the trends and segmentation of the pharmaceutical and medical device markets. It uses data and information sourced from proprietary databases, secondary research, and in-house analysis by GlobalData’s team of industry experts.

In 2008, Japan’s pharmaceutical market was worth $64.2 billion. It is projected to reach $79.8 billion in 2020, increasing at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 1.8%. The medical device market was valued at $37 billion and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 6.1% to $75 billion in 2020, owing to universal health coverage, government initiatives, and an accessible healthcare system.

In 2013, Japan’s population was approximately 127.2 million, having declined at a negative CAGR of 0.02% from 2008. Its public healthcare expenditure accounted for 82.8% of total healthcare expenditure, and the government spent approximately $14 billion on pharmaceutical R&D.

Scope

The report provides information on the healthcare, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape in Japan and includes -
- An overview of the pharmaceutical and medical device markets, including market size, segmentation, and key drivers and barriers
- Profiles and SWOT analysis of the major players in the pharmaceutical market (Takeda, Otsuka, Pfizer, Astellas and Daiichi Sankyo) and medical device market (Hoya, Siemens Healthcare, Abbott, Medtronic and F. Hoffmann-La Roche)
- A review of the reimbursement and regulatory landscape, with analysis covering details of the country’s healthcare reimbursement process, regulatory agencies and the approval processes for new drugs and medical devices
- Detailed analysis of the political and economic environment, covering economic indicators, demographics, healthcare infrastructure and healthcare expenditure
- An overview of the opportunities for and challenges to growth in the healthcare market

Reasons to buy

This report will enhance your decision-making capability by allowing you to -
- Develop business strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving Japan’s healthcare market
- Drive revenue by understanding the key trends, reimbursement and regulatory policies, pharmaceutical market segments, and companies likely to affect Japan’s healthcare market
- Formulate effective sales and marketing strategies by understanding the competitive landscape and analyzing the performance of various competitors
- Organize your sales and marketing efforts by identifying the market categories and segments that present the best opportunities for consolidation, investment, and strategic partnerships
- Identify, understand, and capitalize on the opportunities and challenges in Japan’s healthcare market

Table Of Contents

CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape - Japan
1 Table of Contents
2 Introduction 21
2.1 GlobalData Report Guidance 21
3 Overview of the Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Markets 22
3.1 Pharmaceutical Market 22
3.1.1 Market Overview 22
3.1.2 Pharmaceutical Imports and Exports 26
3.1.3 Supply Channels 27
3.1.4 Market Segments 28
3.1.5 Major Therapeutic Areas 33
3.1.6 Major Players 40
3.2 Medical Device Market 71
3.2.1 Market Overview 71
3.2.2 Overview of Top-Five Segments 73
3.2.3 Diagnostics Market 88
3.2.4 Major Players 90
3.3 Market Drivers and Barriers 121
3.3.1 Drivers 121
3.3.2 Barriers 122
4 Market Access 124
4.1 Reimbursement and Payer Landscape 124
4.1.1 Overview of the Healthcare System 124
4.1.2 Reimbursement Process 125
4.1.3 Overview of Insurance Providers 128
4.1.4 Patients' Share of Healthcare Spending 132
4.1.5 Prescription Drug Price Trend 133
4.1.6 Pricing Policies 134
4.2 Regulatory Landscape 136
4.2.1 Overview 136
4.2.2 Regulatory Agencies 136
4.2.3 Market Authorization Procedure for Pharmaceutical Products 138
4.2.4 New Device Approval Process 145
4.2.5 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Manufacturing 151
4.2.6 Licensing for Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports 153
4.2.7 Intellectual Property Rights 153
4.2.8 Clinical Trial Regulations 158
4.2.9 Pharmaceutical Advertising Regulations 159
4.2.10 Pharmacy Regulations 160
4.2.11 Labeling and Packaging Regulations 160
5 Country Analysis 167
5.1 Political Environment 167
5.1.1 Political Structure 167
5.1.2 Analysis of Current Political Environment 170
5.1.3 Healthcare Policy Initiatives 171
5.2 Economic Landscape 173
5.3 Economic Indicators 176
5.3.1 Gross Domestic Product 176
5.3.2 Gross National Income 179
5.3.3 Inflation 180
5.3.4 Currency Exchange Rate 184
5.3.5 Foreign Direct Investment 186
5.3.6 Foreign Exchange Reserves 187
5.3.7 Trade Balance 188
5.3.8 General Government Structural Balance 190
5.3.9 General Government Gross Debt 192
5.3.10 Major Industries 193
5.4 Demographics 194
5.4.1 Population 194
5.4.2 Education and Literacy 212
5.4.3 Employment 215
5.4.4 Disease Burden 217
5.5 Healthcare Infrastructure 221
5.5.1 Healthcare Facilities 221
5.5.2 Healthcare Parameters 230
5.5.3 Environmental Health 233
5.5.4 Healthcare Personnel 239
5.6 Healthcare Expenditure 243
5.6.1 Overview 243
5.6.2 Major Components of Healthcare Spending 245
5.6.3 Share of Public and Private Sector 248
5.6.4 Pharmaceutical and Healthcare RandD Expenditure 249
5.7 Trade Associations 250
5.7.1 Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association 250
5.7.2 Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers' Associations 250
5.7.3 Japan Pharmaceutical Traders Association 250
5.7.4 Japan Pharmaceutical Equipment and Machinery Association 250
5.7.5 Japan Federation of Medical Devices Associations 251
5.7.6 The Federation of Japan Pharmaceutical Wholesalers Association 251
5.8 Trade Fairs 251
6 Opportunities and Challenges 253
6.1 Opportunities 253
6.2 Challenges 254
7 Appendix 256
7.1 Abbreviations 256
7.2 Bibliography 259
7.3 Research Methodology 269
7.3.1 Coverage 269
7.3.2 Secondary Research 270
7.3.3 Forecasts 270
7.3.4 Expert Panel 270
7.4 Disclaimer 271

1.1 List of Tables
Table 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 24
Table 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 25
Table 3: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Exports and Imports ($bn), 2008-2013 27
Table 4: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Generics Market Share (%), 2008-2013 29
Table 5: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Biologics Production, 2012 30
Table 6: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Over-the-Counter Production, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 32
Table 7: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Major Therapeutic Areas, Pharmaceutical Production, 2012 34
Table 8: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Major Therapeutic Areas, Pharmaceutical Production (%), 2011-2012 35
Table 9: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Cardiovascular Agents, Segment Shares, 2012 36
Table 10: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Central Nervous System Agents, Segment Shares, 2012 37
Table 11: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Agents Affecting Metabolism, Segment Shares, 2012 38
Table 12: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Digestive Organ Agents, Segment Shares, 2012 39
Table 13: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Blood and Body-Fluid Agents, Segment Shares, 2012 40
Table 14: Pharmaceutical Market, Takeda, Global, Major Products, 2013 41
Table 15: Pharmaceutical Market, Takeda, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2014 42
Table 16: Pharmaceutical Market, Otsuka, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2014 48
Table 17: Pharmaceutical Market, Pfizer, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($bn) and Annual Growth (%), 2013 52
Table 18: Pharmaceutical Market, Pfizer, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2014* 53
Table 19: Pharmaceutical Market, Astellas, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($bn) and Annual Growth (%), 2013 61
Table 20: Pharmaceutical Market, Astellas, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2013 61
Table 21: Pharmaceutical Market, Daiichi Sankyo, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2014 67
Table 22: Medical Device Market, Japan, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 72
Table 23: Medical Device Market, Japan, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 73
Table 24: Medical Device Market, Japan, Revenue by Segment, 2013 74
Table 25: Medical Device Market, Japan, Ophthalmic Devices Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 76
Table 26: Medical Device Market, Japan, Ophthalmic Devices Market, Sales Trends for Major Players, 2012 77
Table 27: Medical Device Market, Japan, In Vitro Diagnostics Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 78
Table 28: Medical Device Market, Japan, In Vitro Diagnostics Market, Sales Trends for Major Players, 2012 79
Table 29: Medical Device Market, Japan, Cardiovascular Devices Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 81
Table 30: Medical Device Market, Japan, Cardiovascular Devices Market, Sales Trends for Major Players, 2012 82
Table 31: Medical Device Market, Japan, Healthcare IT Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 83
Table 32: Medical Device Market, Japan, Healthcare IT Market, Sales Trends for Major Players, 2012 84
Table 33: Medical Device Market, Japan, Nephrology and Urology Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 86
Table 34: Medical Device Market, Japan, Nephrology and Urology Market, Sales Trends for Major Players, 2012 87
Table 35: Medical Device Market, Japan, Diagnostics Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 88
Table 36: Medical Device Market, Japan, Diagnostics Market, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 89
Table 37: Medical Device Market, Japan, Diagnostics Market, Sales Trends for Major Players, 2012 90
Table 38: Medical Device Market, Abbott, Global, Major Products, 2014 101
Table 39: Medical Device Market, Abbott, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2014 102
Table 40: Medical Device Market, Medtronic, Global, Major Products, 2013 109
Table 41: Medical Device Market, Roche, Global, Major Products, 2014 116
Table 42: Market Access, Japan, Types of Health Insurance, 2011 130
Table 43: Market Access, Japan, Out-of-Pocket Payments (% of Healthcare Expenditure), 2008-2013 132
Table 44: Market Access, Japan, Reduction in Average Price of Prescription Drugs (%), 2004-2014 134
Table 45: Market Access, Japan, Requirements for Applying Premiums for Drug Prices, 2014 135
Table 46: Market Access, Japan, Review Time for New Drugs, 2008-2012 144
Table 47: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2008-2013 177
Table 48: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product per Capita Forecast ($), 2014-2020 177
Table 49: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2008-2013 178
Table 50: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth Forecast (%), 2014-2020 179
Table 51: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross National Income per Capita ($), 2008-2013 180
Table 52: Economic Indicators, Japan, Average Consumer Price Index, 2008-2013 181
Table 53: Economic Indicators, Japan, Average Consumer Price Index Forecast, 2014-2020 182
Table 54: Economic Indicators, Japan, Average Consumer Price Annual Change (%), 2008-2013 183
Table 55: Economic Indicators, Japan, Average Consumer Price Annual Change Forecast (%), 2014-2020 184
Table 56: Economic Indicators, Japan, Currency Exchange Rate ($/JPY), 2008-2013 185
Table 57: Economic Indicators, Japan, Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2008-2013 186
Table 58: Economic Indicators, Japan, Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2008-2013 187
Table 59: Economic Indicators, Japan, Imports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 189
Table 60: Economic Indicators, Japan, Exports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 190
Table 61: Economic Indicators, Japan, General Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2008-2013 191
Table 62: Economic Indicators, Japan, General Government Gross Debt (% of GDP), 2008-2013 192
Table 63: Economic Indicators, Japan, Major Industries, Output ($bn), 2011 194
Table 64: Demographics, Japan, Population (million), 2008-2013 195
Table 65: Demographics, Japan, Population Forecast (million), 2014-2020 196
Table 66: Demographics, Japan, Population, Urban-Rural Population Share (%), 2008-2013 197
Table 67: Demographics, Japan, Population, Urban-Rural Population Share Forecast (%), 2014-2020 198
Table 68: Demographics, Japan, Distribution by Age Group (%), 2008-2013 200
Table 69: Demographics, Japan, Distribution by Age Group Forecast (%), 2014-2020 200
Table 70: Demographics, Japan, Births (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 202
Table 71: Demographics, Japan, Mortality (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 203
Table 72: Demographics, Japan, Major Causes of Mortality (per 100,000 population), 2012 204
Table 73: Demographics, Japan, Mortality Rate of Children under Five (per 1,000 live births), 2008-2013 205
Table 74: Demographics, Japan, Immunization Rate (%), 2008-2013 207
Table 75: Demographics, Japan, Major Causes of Male Mortality (per 100,000 population), 2012 208
Table 76: Demographics, Japan, Major Causes of Female Mortality (per 100,000 population), 2012 209
Table 77: Demographics, Japan, Gender Ratio (M/F), 2008-2013 210
Table 78: Demographics, Japan, Life Expectancy at Birth (years), 2008-2013 211
Table 79: Demographics, Japan, Student Enrollment by Level of Education (‘000), 2013 214
Table 80: Demographics, Japan, Unemployment Rate (%), 2008-2013 216
Table 81: Demographics, Japan, Unemployment Rate by Age and Gender, 2013 216
Table 82: Demographics, Japan, Major Diseases, Inpatients (per 1,000 population), 2011 218
Table 83: Demographics, Japan, Major Diseases, Outpatients (per 1,000 population), 2011 219
Table 84: Demographics, Japan, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (per 100,000 population), 2004 220
Table 85: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospitals, 2008-2013 222
Table 86: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospitals by Services, 2008-2013 223
Table 87: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Clinics by Type, 2008-2013 225
Table 88: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Medical Clinics, 2008-2013 226
Table 89: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospital Beds (‘000), 2008-2013 227
Table 90: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospitals by Bed Size, 2008-2013 228
Table 91: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Diagnostic units (per million population), 2008-2013 229
Table 92: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospital Beds (per 100,000 population), 2008-2013 230
Table 93: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Physicians (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 232
Table 94: Healthcare Infrastructure, Global Comparison, Environment-Attributable Deaths (per 100,000 population), 2004 234
Table 95: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, CO2 Emissions (million metric tons), 2008-2013 235
Table 96: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, CO2 Emissions by Sector (%), 2012 236
Table 97: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, PM10 Emissions (µg/m3), 2008-2013 238
Table 98: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Municipal Waste (million tons), 2008-2013 239
Table 99: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Pharmacist (per 100,000 population), 2008-2013 240
Table 100: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Dentists (per 100,000 population), 2008-2013 241
Table 101: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Nurses and Assistant Nurses (per 100,000 population), 2008-2013 243
Table 102: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Gross Domestic Product as Percentage of Healthcare Expenditure (%), 2008-2013 244
Table 103: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Share of Major Components (%), 2009 245
Table 104: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Healthcare Expenditure on Elderly ($bn), 2008-2013 246
Table 105: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Research and Development Expenditure % 2008-2013 247
Table 106: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Public-Private Share (%), 2008-2013 248
Table 107: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Research and Development Expenditure ($bn), 2008-2013 249
Table 108: Trade Fairs, Japan, Major Healthcare Trade Fairs, 2015 252

1.2 List of Figures
Figure 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 24
Figure 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 25
Figure 3: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Imports and Exports ($bn), 2008-2013 26
Figure 4: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Distribution Channel, 2014 27
Figure 5: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Generics Market Share (%), 2008-2013 29
Figure 6: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Biologics Market Share (%), 2012 30
Figure 7: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Over-the-Counter Production, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 32
Figure 8: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Major Therapeutic Areas, Pharmaceutical Production (%), 2012 33
Figure 9: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Major Therapeutic Areas, Pharmaceutical Production (%), 2011-2012 34
Figure 10: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Cardiovascular Agents, Segment Shares (%), 2012 35
Figure 11: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Central Nervous System Agents, Segment Shares (%), 2012 36
Figure 12: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Agents Affecting Metabolism, Segment Shares (%), 2012 37
Figure 13: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Digestive Organ Agents, Segment Shares (%), 2012 38
Figure 14: Pharmaceutical Market, Japan, Blood and Body-Fluid Agents, Segment Shares (%), 2012 39
Figure 15: Medical Device Market, Japan, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 72
Figure 16: Medical Device Market, Japan, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 73
Figure 17: Medical Device Market, Japan, Revenue by Segment ($bn), 2013 74
Figure 18: Medical Device Market, Japan, Ophthalmic Devices Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 75
Figure 19: Medical Device Market, Japan, Ophthalmic Devices Market, Sales Trends for Major Players ($m), 2008-2012 76
Figure 20: Medical Device Market, Japan, In Vitro Diagnostics Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 78
Figure 21: Medical Device Market, Japan, In Vitro Diagnostics Market, Sales Trends for Major Players ($m), 2008-2012 79
Figure 22: Medical Device Market, Japan, Cardiovascular Devices Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 80
Figure 23: Medical Device Market, Japan, Cardiovascular Devices Market, Sales Trends for Major Players ($m), 2008-2012 81
Figure 24: Medical Device Market, Japan, Healthcare IT Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 83
Figure 25: Medical Device Market, Japan, Healthcare IT Market, Sales Trends for Major Players ($m), 2008-2012 84
Figure 26: Medical Device Market, Japan, Nephrology and Urology Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 86
Figure 27: Medical Device Market, Japan, Nephrology and Urology Market, Sales Trends for Major Players ($m), 2008-2012 87
Figure 28: Medical Device Market, Japan, Diagnostics Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 88
Figure 29: Medical Device Market, Japan, Diagnostics Market, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 89
Figure 30: Medical Device Market, Japan, Diagnostics Market, Revenue Forecast ($m), 2012 90
Figure 31: Healthcare Market, Japan, Drivers and Barriers, 2014 123
Figure 32: Market Access, Japan, MHLW, Organizational Structure, 2014 125
Figure 33: Market Access, Japan, Reimbursement Pricing for New Drugs, 2014 127
Figure 34: Market Access, Japan, Health Insurance System, 2014 130
Figure 35: Market Access, Japan, Health Insurers, Market Share (%), 2011 131
Figure 36: Market Access, Japan, Out-of-Pocket Payments (% of Healthcare Expenditure), 2008-2013 132
Figure 37: Market Access, Japan, Reduction in Average Price of Prescription Drugs (%), 2004-2014 134
Figure 38: Market Access, Japan, Organizational Structure of PMDA and PFSB, 2014 137
Figure 39: Market Access, Japan, New Drug Development and Approval Process, 2014 139
Figure 40: Market Access, Japan, Approval Review Process, 2014 142
Figure 41: Market Access, Japan, Standard Review Timeline for New Drug, 2014 144
Figure 42: Market Access, Japan, Medical Device Classification, 2014 147
Figure 43: Market Access, Japan, Medical Device Approval Process, 2007 148
Figure 44: Market Access, Japan, Highly Controlled Medical Devices Approval Process, 2007 150
Figure 45: Market Access, Japan, Licensing Process for Drug Manufacture, Domestic Manufacturers, 2014 152
Figure 46: Market Access, Japan, Licensing Process for Manufacturing of Drugs, Overseas Manufacturers, 2014 152
Figure 47: Market Access, Japan, Patent Approval Process, 2014 154
Figure 48: Market Access, Japan, Patent Right Extension Process, 2014 155
Figure 49: Market Access, Japan, Trademark Approval Process, 2014 157
Figure 50: Market Access, Japan, Clinical Trial Regulation Process, 2014 159
Figure 51: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2008-2013 176
Figure 52: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product per Capita Forecast ($), 2014-2020 177
Figure 53: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2008-2013 178
Figure 54: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth Forecast (%), 2014-2020 179
Figure 55: Economic Indicators, Japan, Gross National Income per Capita ($), 2008-2013 180
Figure 56: Economic Indicators, Japan, Average Consumer Price Index, 2008-2013 181
Figure 57: Economic Indicators, Japan, Average Consumer Price Index Forecast, 2014-2020 182
Figure 58: Economic Indicators, Japan, Average Consumer Price Annual Change (%), 2008-2013 183
Figure 59: Economic Indicators, Japan, Average Consumer Price Annual Change Forecast (%), 2014-2020 184
Figure 60: Economic Indicators, Japan, Currency Exchange Rate ($/JPY), 2008-2013 185
Figure 61: Economic Indicators, Japan, Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2008-2013 186
Figure 62: Economic Indicators, Japan, Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2008-2013 187
Figure 63: Economic Indicators, Japan, Imports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 188
Figure 64: Economic Indicators, Japan, Exports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 190
Figure 65: Economic Indicators, Japan, General Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2008-2013 191
Figure 66: Economic Indicators, Japan, General Government Gross Debt (% of GDP), 2008-2013 192
Figure 67: Economic Indicators, Japan, Major Industries, Output ($bn), 2011 193
Figure 68: Demographics, Japan, Population (million), 2008-2013 195
Figure 69: Demographics, Japan, Population Forecast (million), 2014-2020 196
Figure 70: Demographics, Japan, Population, Urban-Rural Population Share (%), 2008-2013 197
Figure 71: Demographics, Japan, Population, Urban-Rural Population Share Forecast (%), 2014-2020 198
Figure 72: Demographics, Japan, Distribution by Age Group (%), 2008-2013 199
Figure 73: Demographics, Japan, Distribution by Age Group Forecast (%), 2014-2020 200
Figure 74: Demographics, Japan, Births (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 201
Figure 75: Demographics, Japan, Mortality (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 202
Figure 76: Demographics, Japan, Major Causes of Mortality (per 100,000 population), 2012 203
Figure 77: Demographics, Japan, Mortality Rate of Children under Five (per 1,000 live births), 2008-2013 205
Figure 78: Demographics, Japan, Immunization Rate (%), 2008-2013 206
Figure 79: Demographics, Japan, Major Causes of Male Mortality (per 100,000 population), 2012 207
Figure 80: Demographics, Japan, Major Causes of Female Mortality (per 100,000 population), 2012 208
Figure 81: Demographics, Japan, Gender Ratio (M/F), 2008-2013 210
Figure 82: Demographics, Japan, Life Expectancy at Birth (years), 2008-2013 211
Figure 83: Demographics, Japan, Student Enrollment by Level of Education (‘000), 2013 214
Figure 84: Demographics, Japan, Unemployment Rate (%), 2008-2013 215
Figure 85: Demographics, Japan, Unemployment Rate by Age and Gender (%), 2013 216
Figure 86: Demographics, Japan, Major Diseases, Inpatients (per 1,000 population), 2011 217
Figure 87: Demographics, Japan, Major Diseases, Outpatients (per 1,000 population), 2011 218
Figure 88: Demographics, Japan, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (per 100,000 population), 2004 220
Figure 89: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospitals, 2008-2013 222
Figure 90: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospitals by Services, 2008-2013 223
Figure 91: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Clinics by Type, 2008-2013 224
Figure 92: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Medical Clinics, 2008-2013 226
Figure 93: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospital Beds (‘000), 2008-2013 227
Figure 94: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospitals by Bed Size, 2008-2013 228
Figure 95: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Diagnostic Units (per million population), 2008-2013 229
Figure 96: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Hospital Beds (per 100,000 population), 2008-2013 230
Figure 97: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Physicians (per 1,000 population), 2008-2013 232
Figure 98: Healthcare Infrastructure, Global Comparison, Environment-Attributable Deaths (per 100,000 population), 2004 233
Figure 99: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, CO2 Emissions (million metric tons), 2008-2013 235
Figure 100: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, CO2 Emissions by Sector (%), 2012 236
Figure 101: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, PM10 Emissions (µg/m3), 2008-2013 238
Figure 102: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Municipal Waste (million tons), 2008-2013 239
Figure 103: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Pharmacists (per 100,000 population), 2008-2013 240
Figure 104: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Dentists (per 100,000 population), 2008-2013 241
Figure 105: Healthcare Infrastructure, Japan, Nurses and Assistant Nurses (per 100,000 population), 2008-2013 242
Figure 106: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Gross Domestic Product as Percentage of Healthcare Expenditure (%), 2008-2013 244
Figure 107: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Share of Major Components (%), 2009 245
Figure 108: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Healthcare Expenditure on Elderly ($bn), 2008-2013 246
Figure 109: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Pharmaceutical Research and Development Expenditure (% of total healthcare expenditure), 2008-2013 247
Figure 110: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Public-Private Share (%), 2008-2013 248
Figure 111: Healthcare Expenditure, Japan, Research and Development Expenditure ($bn), 2008-2013 249
Figure 112: Healthcare Market, Japan, Opportunities and Challenges, 2014 255

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