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Protective Sports Equipment: The North American Market

  • September 2015
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 138 pages

Use this report to:
- Identify current and emerging technologies for protecting participants in various sports against traumatic or repeated-use injuries.
- Analyze trends in user markets for each of these technologies, as the basis for developing baseline estimates of the sports market for protective sports equipment.
- Quantify the key demand drivers in each of these markets and their projected market impacts.
- Learn about recent sports protective equipment patents issued.

Highlights
- The U.S. market for protective sports equipment reached $1.9 billion in 2014. This market is expected to reach $2.0 billion by 2015 and $2.2 billion by 2020, registering a compound
annual growth rate (CAGR) of 2.9% from 2015 to 2020.
- Football equipment will grow from $354.9 million in 2015 to $521.4 million by 2020, increasing at a CAGR of 8.0% from 2015 to 2020.
- Cycling as a segment will grow from $$773.7 million in 2015 to about $884.0 million in 2020, at a 2.7% CAGR from 2015 to 2020.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION

STUDY BACKGROUND
Over the past several years, people have become very aware of the risk of long-term brain damage due to injuries suffered in contact sports such as football. The number of boys playing youth and high school football has declined significantly over the last few years, to the point where college and professional teams have expressed concerns over a shrinking pool of young talent in the game. The National Football League (NFL) has been sued by over 5,000 of its former players on the grounds that it did not do enough to inform them about the dangers of concussion and is not doing enough to take care of players who were injured. In 2015,
a federal judge approved a settlement that provides up to $5 million per player for serious medical conditions associated with repeated head trauma. As long ago as 1905, Teddy Roosevelt convened a meeting of the most influential figures in football to reduce the level of violence. Roosevelt’s meeting resulted in significant rule changes in the game, such as the outlawing of rugby-style mass formations and gang tackling, increasing the distance required for a first down from five yards to ten yards to encourage plays that did not go through the center of the line, and the introduction of the forward pass. The introduction of new rules to reduce the likelihood of injury has represented on element of a two-pronged strategy for reducing serious head injuries in football; the other prong has been the introduction of new types of football helmets that do a better job of protecting the player. The attempt to design a better football helmet goes back at least as far as World War I, when the first full skull protection football helmets were introduced to replace the soft leather “head
harnesses” that many players then wore.

While the risks of playing football are more widely known than those of most other sports due to the game’s popularity and its players’ visibility, other sports must contend with safety risks of their own.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
The overall goal of this study is to identify and quantify the market for protective sports equipment. Specific objectives include the following:
- Identifying current and emerging technologies for protecting participants in various sports against traumatic or repeated-use injuries.
- Analyzing and predicting trends in user markets for each of these technologies, as the basis for developing baseline estimates of the sports market for protective sports
equipment.
- Identifying and quantifying the key demand drivers in each of these markets and their projected market impacts.
- Drawing attention to manufacturers of sports protection equipment that are most likely to benefit from the trends identified above.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
The report is directed to the various companies interested in protective sports equipment, including:
- Companies involved in developing, manufacturing and supplying protective sports equipment.
- Manufacturers, suppliers and users of the materials used in protective sports equipment.
- Companies interested in participating in the development, manufacture, supply and/or use of protective sports equipment.
- Organizations that purchase/use protective sports equipment.

This report is intended especially for developers and vendors of protective sports equipment and materials used in the fabrication of such equipment and others with an interest in understanding where the market is headed with respect to sports protective technologies, including:
- Members of industry and technical organizations such as the Sports and Fitness Industry Association (SFIA) and ASTM (formerly the American Society for Testing and Materials).
- Officials of sports organizations.
- Government regulatory authorities.
- The general sports and technology interest communities, including journalists.

SCOPE AND FORMAT
This report focuses on protective equipment worn in nonmotor sports, including:
- Football.
- Baseball/softball.
- Ice hockey.
- Soccer.
- Lacrosse.
- Cycling.
- Fencing.
- Skiing/snowboarding.
- Wrestling.
- Roller sports.
- Water polo.
- Climbing.
- Equestrian sports.
- Boxing.
The emphasis is on commercially available equipment that is designed to prevent injury, rather than to protect injured tissue and promote healing once injury has occurred. The report also does not cover devices whose main purpose is enhancing performance and/or comfort, although they may also protect against injury. Athletic footwear is not included, because of the difficulty of distinguishing between sales of shoes to serious athletes, to whom their protective value is significant, and more casual wearers who wear them primarily for comfort and/or style. A similar rationale applies to cold weather clothing, such as ski parkas.

The report format includes the following major elements:
- Executive summary.
- Definitions.
- Regulation.
- Technologies (basic principles, materials, specific applications, major patents).
- Major end-user markets, 2014.
- Market drivers.
- Projected sales, 2015 to 2020.
- Manufacturer profiles.

METHODOLOGY
The findings and conclusions of this report are based on both primary and secondary research methodologies. Market information was gathered from sports products manufacturers, materials and devices vendors, and sports-related organizations. Interview data were combined with information gathered through an extensive review of secondary sources such as trade publications, trade associations, company literature
and on-line databases to produce the baseline market estimates contained in this report. The base-year for analysis and projection is 2014. With 2014 as a baseline, market projections were developed for 2015 to 2020. These projections are based on a combination of a consensus among the primary contacts combined with BCC Research’s understanding of the key market drivers and their impact from a historical
and analytical perspective. The analytical methodologies used to generate the market estimates are described in detail in the section on the U.S. market for sports protective equipment. All market projections presented in this report are in 2014 constant dollars at the retail level, unless otherwise noted.

Table Of Contents

Protective Sports Equipment: The North American Market
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY BACKGROUND 2
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE AND FORMAT 3
METHODOLOGY 4
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS (STEVE C. UPDATED) 5
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE U.S. PROTECTIVE SPORT EQUIPMENT MARKET BY TYPE OF SPORT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. PROTECTIVE SPORT EQUIPMENT MARKET BY PART OF BODY
PROTECTED, 2014-2020 (% OF TOTAL SALES) 7
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10
SCOPE OF STUDY AND DEFINITIONS 10
HISTORY 10
BASEBALL 10
Catcher's Masks 10
Helmets 11
Shin Guards 11
FOOTBALL 11
Football Helmets 11
Football Pads 11
Athletic Supporter 12
HOCKEY 12
Pads 12
Masks 13
Helmets 13
SOCCER 13
Shin Guards 13
Goalie Gloves 14
Soccer Headgear 14
WRESTLING 14
Wrestling Headgear 14
CYCLING 15
Cycle Helmets 15
SNOW SPORTS 15
Ski Helmets 15
FENCING 16
Fencing Mask 16
Other Fencing Clothes 16
CLIMBING SPORTS 17
Climbing Helmets 17
Climbing Harnesses 17
LACROSSE 17
ROLLER SPORTS 18
Skateboard Helmets 18
TYPES OF PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 18
HEAD AND FACE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 18
Helmets 18
TABLE 1 TYPES OF SPORTS PROTECTIVE HELMETS 18
Face Guards 19
Throat Protection 19
Mouth Guards 19
Ear Guards 20
Eye Protection 20
TRUNK AND THORAX PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 20
Shoulder Pads 20
Chest Protectors and Rib Belts 20
Hip and Buttock Protectors 21
Groin and Genitalia Protectors 21
UPPER EXTREMITY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 21
Elbow Protectors 21
Protective Gloves 21
LOWER EXTREMITY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 21
Knee Protectors 21
Shin Protectors 22
MAJOR END-USER MARKETS 22
FOOTBALL 22
FIGURE 1 U.S. FOOTBALL PARTICIPATION, 2013/2014 SEASON (%) 22
FIGURE 2 NCAA FOOTBALL PARTICIPATION, 2007/2008-2013/2014 SEASONS
(NUMBER OF PLAYERS) 23
FIGURE 3 HIGH SCHOOL FOOTBALL PARTICIPATION, 2007/2008-2013/2014
SEASONS (NUMBER OF PLAYERS) 23
ICE HOCKEY 24
FIGURE 4 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN ICE HOCKEY, 2007-2014
(NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 24
BASEBALL AND SOFTBALL 25
FIGURE 5 TRENDS IN THE NUMBER OF AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN BASEBALL
AND SOFTBALL AT LEAST ONCE PER YEAR, 2005-2013 (MILLIONS) 26
SOCCER 27
FIGURE 6 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN SOCCER,
2007/2008-2013/2014 (NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 27
CYCLING 28
FIGURE 7 TRENDS IN THE NUMBER OF AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN CYCLING,
2007-2013 (MILLIONS) 28
FENCING 28
FIGURE 8 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN FENCING, 2007-2013
(NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 28
SNOW SPORTS 30
FIGURE 9 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN SNOW SPORTS REQUIRING
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, 2007/2008-2013/2014 (NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 30
ROLLER SPORTS 31
FIGURE 10 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN ROLLER SPORTS, 2007-2013
(NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 31
LACROSSE 32
FIGURE 11 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN LACROSSE, 2007-2014
(NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 32
WRESTLING 33
FIGURE 12 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN WRESTLING, 2007-2014
(NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 33
CLIMBING SPORTS 34
FIGURE 13 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN CLIMBING SPORTS,
2007-2013 (NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 34
WATER POLO 34
FIGURE 14 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN WATER POLO,
2007/2008-2013/2014 (NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 35
WHITEWATER RAFTING AND KAYAKING 35
FIGURE 15 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN WHITEWATER RAFTING AND
KAYAKING, 2007-2013 (NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 35
OTHER SPORTS 36
Equestrian Sports 36
Boxing 37
FIGURE 16 NUMBER OF U.S. PARTICIPANTS IN CONTACT BOXING, 2013 (%) 37
REGULATIONS 37
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AGENCIES 37
Occupational Safety and Health Administration 38
Consumer Product Safety Commission 38
State and Other Government Regulation 39
ROLE OF NONGOVERNMENT AGENCIES 39
National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment 39
Hockey Equipment Certification Council 40
Canadian Standards Association 40
ASTM Committee F08 on Sports Equipment and Facilities 40
LITIGATION 41
NFL CONCUSSION LITIGATION 41
NCAA CONCUSSION LAWSUIT 42
CHAPTER 4 SPORTS PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES 44
TYPES OF SPORTS INJURIES 44
TABLE 2 COMMON TYPES OF SPORTS INJURIES 44
ACHILLES TENDON INJURIES 45
ANKLE INJURIES 45
ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURIES 45
CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME 46
CHONDROMALACIA 46
CONCUSSIONS AND OTHER HEAD INJURIES 46
FIGURE 17 MOST COMMON SPORTS-RELATED HEAD INJURIES TREATED IN U.S.
EMERGENCY ROOMS, 2009 (NUMBER OF INJURIES) 47
DISLOCATED SHOULDER 48
EYE INJURIES 48
GOLFER'S ELBOW 48
GROIN PULL 49
HAMSTRING INJURIES 49
ILIOTIBIAL BAND FRICTION SYNDROME 49
PLANTAR FASCIITIS 50
POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURIES 50
ROTATOR CUFF TEARS 50
SHIN SPLINTS 51
SKIER'S THUMB 51
SPRAINS, FRACTURES AND BROKEN BONES 51
TAILBONE INJURIES 52
TENNIS ELBOW 52
TURF TOE 52
PRINCIPLES OF SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 53
TRAUMA PROTECTION 53
REPETITIVE STRESS INJURY PROTECTION 53
MATERIALS 54
POLYMERS 54
TABLE 3 POLYMERIC MATERIALS USED IN SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 55
Polycarbonate 55
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene 56
Polyethylene 56
Polyurethane 56
Ethylene Vinyl Acetate 56
Polystyrene 56
Polypropylene 57
Fiberglass 57
Kevlar and Other Aramid Fibers 57
NXT 57
Zoombang 58
D3O 58
Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene 58
CARBON FIBER 58
NANOMATERIALS 59
Nanoparticles 59
Nanocomposites 59
SMART MATERIALS 59
Shear Thickening Composite 60
CHAPTER 5 TYPES OF PROTECTIVE SPORTS EQUIPMENT 62
TABLE 4 TYPES OF SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 62
HEAD AND FACE PROTECTION 62
HELMETS 62
TABLE 5 HELMET SUPPLIERS 62
Football Helmets 63
Baseball Helmets 65
Snow Sports Helmets 66
Cycling Helmets 66
Ice Hockey Helmets 67
Equestrian Helmets 67
Whitewater Helmets 67
FACE GUARDS 67
TABLE 6 FENCING MASK SUPPLIERS 68
THROAT PROTECTORS 68
TABLE 7 THROAT PROTECTOR SUPPLIERS 68
EAR PROTECTORS 69
TABLE 8 WRESTLING EAR PROTECTOR SUPPLIERS 69
EYE PROTECTORS 69
TABLE 9 SPORTS EYE PROTECTION SUPPLIERS 70
MOUTH GUARDS 70
TORSO AND THORAX 70
SHOULDER PADS 71
TABLE 10 SHOULDER PAD SUPPLIERS 71
CHEST PADS AND RIB PROTECTORS 71
TABLE 11 CHEST PAD AND RIB PROTECTOR SUPPLIERS 72
THIGH AND BUTTOCK PROTECTORS 73
GROIN PROTECTORS 73
UPPER EXTREMITIES 73
GLOVES 73
Catcher's Mitts 73
Other Protective Gloves 73
Soccer 73
Hockey 74
Lacrosse 74
Boxing Gloves 74
Cycling Gloves 75
ELBOW PROTECTORS 75
LOWER EXTREMITIES 75
KNEE BRACES 75
SHIN GUARDS 76
CHAPTER 6 U.S. PROTECTIVE SPORTS EQUIPMENT MARKET 78
SUMMARY 78
MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH TRENDS 78
FIGURE 18 U.S. SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 78
MARKET SEGMENTATION 78
Segmentation by Type of Sport 78
TABLE 12 U.S. PROTECTIVE SPORTS EQUIPMENT MARKET BY TYPE OF SPORT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 79
FIGURE 19 U.S. PROTECTIVE SPORT EQUIPMENT MARKET BY TYPE OF SPORT,
2014-2020 (% OF TOTAL SALES) 80
Segmentation by Type of Equipment 81
TABLE 13 U.S. PROTECTIVE SPORTS EQUIPMENT MARKET BY TYPE OF EQUIPMENT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 81
FIGURE 20 U.S. PROTECTIVE SPORT EQUIPMENT MARKET BY TYPE OF EQUIPMENT,
2014-2020 (% OF TOTAL SALES) 82
FOOTBALL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 83
CURRENT MARKET 83
FIGURE 21 U.S. FOOTBALL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 83
MARKET DRIVERS 84
Concussion Risks 84
FIGURE 22 TRENDS IN REPORTED NUMBER OF NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE
CONCUSSIONS, 2008-2014 (NUMBER OF CONCUSSIONS) 85
Football Participation Trends 86
PROJECTED SALES 86
TABLE 14 U.S. FOOTBALL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 87
FIGURE 23 U.S. FOOTBALL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014-2020 (% OF
TOTAL SALES) 87
BASEBALL/SOFTBALL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 89
CURRENT MARKET 89
FIGURE 24 U.S. BASEBALL/SOFTBALL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 89
MARKET DRIVERS 90
Trends in Baseball/Softball Participation 90
Introduction of New Safety Equipment 90
PROJECTED SALES 90
TABLE 15 U.S. BASEBALL/SOFTBALL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 91
ICE HOCKEY 92
CURRENT MARKET 92
FIGURE 25 U.S. ICE HOCKEY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 92
MARKET DRIVERS 93
Increasing Player Participation 93
TABLE 16 PROJECTED U.S. ICE HOCKEY PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER) 93
Declining Average Expenditures on Protective Equipment 93
FIGURE 26 AVERAGE EXPENDITURES ON ICE HOCKEY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT,
2014-2020 ($ PER PARTICIPANT) 94
PROJECTED SALES 94
TABLE 17 U.S. ICE HOCKEY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 95
SOCCER 95
CURRENT MARKET 95
FIGURE 27 U.S. SOCCER PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 96
MARKET DRIVERS 97
Soccer Participation 97
Growing Sales of New Types of Protective Equipment Leading to
Growth of Average per-Player Expenditures 97
PROJECTED SALES 97
TABLE 18 U.S. SOCCER PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 97
LACROSSE 98
CURRENT MARKET 98
FIGURE 28 U.S. LACROSSE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 99
MARKET DRIVERS 100
Increasing Player Participation 100
TABLE 19 PROJECTED U.S. LACROSSE PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER OF
PARTICIPANTS) 100
Trends in Average Protective Equipment Expenditures 100
TABLE 20 AVERAGE PER PLAYER EXPENDITURES ON LACROSSE PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER OF PLAYERS/$) 101
PROJECTED SALES 101
TABLE 21 U.S. LACROSSE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 101
CYCLING 102
CURRENT MARKET 102
FIGURE 29 U.S. CYCLING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 102
MARKET DRIVERS 103
Participation Rates 103
TABLE 22 PROJECTED NUMBER OF U.S. CYCLING PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH 2020
(MILLIONS) 104
Protective Clothing Market Penetration 104
PROJECTED SALES 105
TABLE 23 U.S. CYCLING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 105
FENCING 105
CURRENT MARKET 105
FIGURE 30 U.S. FENCING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 106
MARKET DRIVERS 106
Participation Rates 107
TABLE 24 PROJECTED U.S. FENCING PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER) 107
Equipment Replacement Rates 107
PROJECTED SALES 107
TABLE 25 AVERAGE PER PLAYER EXPENDITURES ON FENCING PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2020 107
TABLE 26 U.S. FENCING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 108
SNOW SPORTS 108
CURRENT MARKET 108
FIGURE 31 U.S. SKIING/SNOWBOARDING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014
(%) 109
MARKET DRIVERS 110
PROJECTED SALES 110
TABLE 27 U.S. SNOW SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 110
WRESTLING 111
CURRENT MARKET 111
FIGURE 32 U.S. WRESTLING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 111
MARKET DRIVERS 111
Increasing Participation 111
TABLE 28 PROJECTED U.S. WRESTLING PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER) 112
Replacement Sales 112
PROJECTED SALES 112
TABLE 29 AVERAGE PER-PLAYER EXPENDITURES ON WRESTLING PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2020 112
TABLE 30 U.S. WRESTLING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 113
ROLLER SPORTS 113
CURRENT MARKET 113
FIGURE 33 U.S. ROLLER SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 113
MARKET DRIVERS 114
Declining Participation 114
TABLE 31 PROJECTED NUMBER OF U.S. ROLLER SPORTS PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH
2020 (MILLIONS) 114
PROJECTED SALES 114
TABLE 32 U.S. ROLLER SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 115
WATER POLO 115
CURRENT MARKET 115
MARKET DRIVERS 115
Increasing Participation 115
TABLE 33 PROJECTED NUMBER OF U.S. WATER POLO PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH
2020 (MILLIONS) 116
PROJECTED SALES 116
WHITEWATER RAFTING AND KAYAKING 116
CURRENT MARKET 116
FIGURE 34 ESTIMATED EXPENDITURES ON WHITEWATER SPORTS PROTECTIVE
HELMETS, 2014 (%) 116
MARKET DRIVERS 117
Increasing Participation 117
TABLE 34 PROJECTED NUMBER OF U.S. WHITEWATER SPORTS PARTICIPANTS,
THROUGH 2020 117
PROJECTED SALES 118
TABLE 35 U.S. WHITEWATER SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 118
CLIMBING 118
CURRENT MARKET 118
FIGURE 35 U.S. CLIMBING SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 118
MARKET DRIVERS 119
Increasing Participation 119
TABLE 36 PROJECTED NUMBER OF U.S. CLIMBING SPORTS PARTICIPANTS,
THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS) 119
PROJECTED SALES 120
TABLE 37 U.S. CLIMBING SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 120
OTHER SPORTS 120
EQUESTRIAN SPORTS 120
TABLE 38 U.S. EQUESTRIAN PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 121
BOXING 121
FIGURE 36 U.S. BOXING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 121
TABLE 39 U.S. BOXING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 122
CHAPTER 7 COMPANY PROFILES 124
ADAMS USA 124
ADIDAS AG 124
AGON SPORT LLC 124
ALL STAR SPORTS INC. 124
ALLSTAR FECHT-CENTER GMBH and CO. KG 125
ASICS AMERICA CORP, 125
BANGERZ SPORTS EYE PROTECTION 125
BAUER HOCKEY INC. 125
BELL SPORTS 126
BERN UNLIMITED LLC 126
BIKE ATHLETIC CO. 126
BLUE GAUNTLET FENCING GEAR INC. 126
BOLLE INC. 127
BRUTE WRESTLING 127
BURTON SNOWBOARDS 127
C.A.M.P. USA 127
CASCADE SPORTS CO. 128
CHAMPRO SPORTS 128
CLIFF KEEN WRESTLING PRODUCTS 128
CCM HOCKEY INC. 128
CORNING S.A.S OPHTHALMIC 129
D3O LAB 129
DOUGLAS PADS and SPORTS INC. 129
EASTON-BELL SPORTS INC. 129
EVERLAST WORLDWIDE INC. 130
FINIS INC. 130
FULL 90 SPORTS 130
GEAR PRO-TEC 131
IMPACT INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS LLC 131
IMPACT PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LLC 131
INTERCAST EUROPE S.P.A. 131
LEON PAUL EQUIPMENT COMPANY LTD. 132
MARKWORT SPORTING GOODS CO. 132
MATMAN WRESTLING CO. 132
MAVERIK LACROSSE 132
MISSION HOCKEY CO. 133
MIZUNO USA INC. 133
NASYCON 133
L. NEGRINI and F. SNC 133
NUTCASE INC. 134
PANOPTX 134
PBT FENCING 134
PETZL INTERNATIONAL 134
POC VENTURES LLC 135
PREDATOR DESIGNS INC. 135
PRORIDER 135
PRO-TEC 136
RAWLINGS SPORTING GOODS CO. INC. 136
REEBOK INTERNATIONAL LTD. 136
RIDDELL 137
ROCK ON DISTRIBUTION 137
SCHUTT SPORTS INC. 137
SG HELMETS 138
SHOCK DOCTOR INC. 138
SHRED READY 138
SMITH SPORT OPTICS INC. 139
THERMOPRAXIS HOLDINGS INC. 139
TOUR HOCKEY 139
TRIPLE EIGHT 139
TROXEL LLC 140
UHLMANN FECHTSPORT GMBH and CO. KG 140
UNDER ARMOUR INC. 140
UNEQUAL TECHNOLOGIES CO. 140
UVEX SPORTS GMBH and CO. KG 141
VAUGHN CUSTOM SPORTS USA 141
WARRIOR SPORTS INC. 141
WHITEWATER RESEARCH AND SAFETY INSTITUTE INC. 141
WILSON SPORTING GOODS CO. 142
XENITH LLC 142
CHAPTER 8 PATENT ANALYSIS 144
FIGURE 37 SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT PATENTS ISSUED AS OF AUG. 1, 2015
(%) 144
FIGURE 38 TRENDS IN NUMBER OF HELMET-RELATED U.S. PATENTS ISSUED
ANNUALLY, 2008-2014 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 145
FIGURE 39 DISTRIBUTION OF HELMET-RELATED U.S. PATENTS BY SPORT,
2008-2014 (% OF TOTAL PATENTS) 146

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE U.S. PROTECTIVE SPORT EQUIPMENT MARKET BY TYPE OF SPORT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 TYPES OF SPORTS PROTECTIVE HELMETS 18
TABLE 2 COMMON TYPES OF SPORTS INJURIES 44
TABLE 3 POLYMERIC MATERIALS USED IN SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 55
TABLE 4 TYPES OF SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 62
TABLE 5 HELMET SUPPLIERS 62
TABLE 6 FENCING MASK SUPPLIERS 68
TABLE 7 THROAT PROTECTOR SUPPLIERS 68
TABLE 8 WRESTLING EAR PROTECTOR SUPPLIERS 69
TABLE 9 SPORTS EYE PROTECTION SUPPLIERS 70
TABLE 10 SHOULDER PAD SUPPLIERS 71
TABLE 11 CHEST PAD AND RIB PROTECTOR SUPPLIERS 72
TABLE 12 U.S. PROTECTIVE SPORTS EQUIPMENT MARKET BY TYPE OF SPORT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 79
TABLE 13 U.S. PROTECTIVE SPORTS EQUIPMENT MARKET BY TYPE OF EQUIPMENT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 14 U.S. FOOTBALL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 87
TABLE 15 U.S. BASEBALL/SOFTBALL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 91
TABLE 16 PROJECTED U.S. ICE HOCKEY PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER) 93
TABLE 17 U.S. ICE HOCKEY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 95
TABLE 18 U.S. SOCCER PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 19 PROJECTED U.S. LACROSSE PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER OF
PARTICIPANTS) 100
TABLE 20 AVERAGE PER PLAYER EXPENDITURES ON LACROSSE PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER OF PLAYERS/$) 101
TABLE 21 U.S. LACROSSE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 22 PROJECTED NUMBER OF U.S. CYCLING PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH 2020
(MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 23 U.S. CYCLING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 105
TABLE 24 PROJECTED U.S. FENCING PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER) 107
TABLE 25 AVERAGE PER PLAYER EXPENDITURES ON FENCING PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2020 107
TABLE 26 U.S. FENCING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 27 U.S. SNOW SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 110
TABLE 28 PROJECTED U.S. WRESTLING PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER) 112
TABLE 29 AVERAGE PER-PLAYER EXPENDITURES ON WRESTLING PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2020 112
TABLE 30 U.S. WRESTLING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 113
TABLE 31 PROJECTED NUMBER OF U.S. ROLLER SPORTS PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH
2020 (MILLIONS) 114
TABLE 32 U.S. ROLLER SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 115
TABLE 33 PROJECTED NUMBER OF U.S. WATER POLO PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH
2020 (MILLIONS) 116
TABLE 34 PROJECTED NUMBER OF U.S. WHITEWATER SPORTS PARTICIPANTS,
THROUGH 2020 117
TABLE 35 U.S. WHITEWATER SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 118
TABLE 36 PROJECTED NUMBER OF U.S. CLIMBING SPORTS PARTICIPANTS, THROUGH
2020 (MILLIONS) 119
TABLE 37 U.S. CLIMBING SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 120
TABLE 38 U.S. EQUESTRIAN PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 39 U.S. BOXING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 122

LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. PROTECTIVE SPORT EQUIPMENT MARKET BY PART OF BODY
PROTECTED, 2014-2020 (% OF TOTAL SALES) 7
FIGURE 1 U.S. FOOTBALL PARTICIPATION, 2013/2014 SEASON (%) 22
FIGURE 2 NCAA FOOTBALL PARTICIPATION, 2007/2008-2013/2014 SEASONS
(NUMBER OF PLAYERS) 23
FIGURE 3 HIGH SCHOOL FOOTBALL PARTICIPATION, 2007/2008-2013/2014
SEASONS (NUMBER OF PLAYERS) 23
FIGURE 4 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN ICE HOCKEY, 2007-2014
(NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 24
FIGURE 5 TRENDS IN THE NUMBER OF AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN BASEBALL
AND SOFTBALL AT LEAST ONCE PER YEAR, 2005-2013 (MILLIONS) 26
FIGURE 6 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN SOCCER, 2007/2008-2013/2014
(NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 27
FIGURE 7 TRENDS IN THE NUMBER OF AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN CYCLING,
2007-2013 (MILLIONS) 28
FIGURE 8 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN FENCING, 2007-2013 (NUMBER
OF PARTICIPANTS) 28
FIGURE 9 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN SNOW SPORTS REQUIRING
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, 2007/2008-2013/2014 (NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 30
FIGURE 10 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN ROLLER SPORTS, 2007-2013
(NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 31
FIGURE 11 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN LACROSSE, 2007-2014
(NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 32
FIGURE 12 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN WRESTLING, 2007-2014
(NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 33
FIGURE 13 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN CLIMBING SPORTS, 2007-2013
(NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 34
FIGURE 14 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN WATER POLO,
2007/2008-2013/2014 (NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 35
FIGURE 15 TRENDS IN AMERICANS PARTICIPATING IN WHITEWATER RAFTING AND
KAYAKING, 2007-2013 (NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS) 35
FIGURE 16 NUMBER OF U.S. PARTICIPANTS IN CONTACT BOXING, 2013 (%) 37
FIGURE 17 MOST COMMON SPORTS-RELATED HEAD INJURIES TREATED IN U.S.
EMERGENCY ROOMS, 2009 (NUMBER OF INJURIES) 47
FIGURE 18 U.S. SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 78
FIGURE 19 U.S. PROTECTIVE SPORT EQUIPMENT MARKET BY TYPE OF SPORT,
2014-2020 (% OF TOTAL SALES) 80
FIGURE 20 U.S. PROTECTIVE SPORT EQUIPMENT MARKET BY TYPE OF EQUIPMENT,
2014-2020 (% OF TOTAL SALES) 82
FIGURE 21 U.S. FOOTBALL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 83
FIGURE 22 TRENDS IN REPORTED NUMBER OF NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE
CONCUSSIONS, 2008-2014 (NUMBER OF CONCUSSIONS) 85
FIGURE 23 U.S. FOOTBALL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014-2020 (% OF
TOTAL SALES) 87
FIGURE 24 U.S. BASEBALL/SOFTBALL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 89
FIGURE 25 U.S. ICE HOCKEY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 92
FIGURE 26 AVERAGE EXPENDITURES ON ICE HOCKEY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT,
2014-2020 ($ PER PARTICIPANT) 94
FIGURE 27 U.S. SOCCER PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 96
FIGURE 28 U.S. LACROSSE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 99
FIGURE 29 U.S. CYCLING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 102
FIGURE 30 U.S. FENCING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 106
FIGURE 31 U.S. SKIING/SNOWBOARDING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 109
FIGURE 32 U.S. WRESTLING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 111
FIGURE 33 U.S. ROLLER SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 113
FIGURE 34 ESTIMATED EXPENDITURES ON WHITEWATER SPORTS PROTECTIVE
HELMETS, 2014 (%) 116
FIGURE 35 U.S. CLIMBING SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 118
FIGURE 36 U.S. BOXING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MARKET, 2014 (%) 121
FIGURE 37 SPORTS PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT PATENTS ISSUED AS OF AUG. 1, 2015
(%) 144
FIGURE 38 TRENDS IN NUMBER OF HELMET-RELATED U.S. PATENTS ISSUED
ANNUALLY, 2008-2014 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 145
FIGURE 39 DISTRIBUTION OF HELMET-RELATED U.S. PATENTS BY SPORT, 2008-2014
(% OF TOTAL PATENTS) 146

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