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Lithium Batteries: Markets and Materials

  • January 2016
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 408 pages

This BCC Research report provides an overview of lithium battery technologies and markets. It includes sales projections through 2020.

Use this report to:

Gain insight into primary and secondary lithium battery technologies and markets, and significant recent developments.
Assess lithium battery markets for portable products, medical products, stationary applications, military/aerospace and automotive power applications, and materials.
Identify the leading global companies dealing in lithium batteries and view their corporate profiles.

Highlights

The global market for lithium batteries should reach $10.6 billion in 2015 and nearly $13.3 billion in 2020, demonstrating a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.5% from 2015 to 2020.
The secondary (rechargeable) lithium battery market dominates the global market and is valued at $9.4 billion in 2015. The market should reach $11.9 billion in 2020, growing at a CAGR of 4.8% from 2015 to 2020.
The global market for primary lithium batteries reached $1.3 billion in 2015, and should reach $1.4 billion in 2020 at a CAGR of 2.2% from 2015 to 2020.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Originally, the term “battery” referred to a number of individual electrochemical cells; therefore, a single cell, like the familiar cylindrical flashlight power source, was not considered a battery at all. Now a battery refers to any electrochemical storage mechanism.

A battery has five components: two active elements (a cathode and an anode), a separator, an electrolyte medium for carrying ions between the reactants through the separator and a container. One reactant or electrode has a net negative charge and is called the anode. In lithium batteries, the anode material is lithium, or in a few cases, a lithium-aluminum alloy. In some cases, the anode is metallic lithium; in other instances, including lithium-ion cells, the anode consists of an ionic lithium compound. The other reactant electrode, with a positive charge, is called the cathode. The cathode usually is a metallic compound. The electrolyte is usually similar to the cathode to promote ion transfer. Finally, the battery is contained in a case that provides dimensional stability and a positive and negative electrode or battery cap for discharging (or recharging) the cell. A number of separate electrochemical cells are combined within the same case to create a battery.

Until about 25 years ago, the battery market was seen as mature, with demand closely related to sales of either automobiles or various consumer products. Since then, improved lithium batteries have helped spark a dramatic change in this relationship.
Just as lithium batteries replaced nickel-based and primary batteries for many applications, traditional lithium-ion battery designs are beginning to be replaced by advanced lithium-ion chemistries like lithium phosphate, lithium-iron phosphate, lithium titanate, lithium-sulfur and lithium-polymer systems.

Lithium batteries were developed in the 1960s and were first commercialized in the early 1970s, but did not receive wide consumer use until 1981. There are now six general commercial and developmental lithium battery designs, nearly 30 commercialized lithium-containing electrode couples and more than 1,000 specific designs. The latest generation of lithium batteries includes very large cells suitable for powering vehicles or storing significant amounts of utility power as well as very small thin-film cells capable of powering micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS).

Improved lithium batteries have allowed the commercialization of entire new classes of portable products, including portable computer computers, smartphones and tablet computers. Lithium batteries have now been used in commercial plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs).

During the 1990s, lithium batteries posted double-digit market growth. Between 2000 and 2005, there was a period of steady sales or incremental growth (as opposed to the double-digit growth of the 1990s). Lithium battery unit sales then picked up through the 2008 financial crash. In mid-2008, sales and market value fell due to the global recession. The market has now recovered and is once more growing incrementally.

Predictions that a new era of double-digit growth will soon take place depend on the fortunes of the electric vehicle market, and to a lesser extent, the large stationary utility power markets. Companies are now preparing to expand production to support both these markets, even as sharply reduced oil prices remove some of the economic incentives for EVs.

Table Of Contents

Lithium Batteries: Markets and Materials
LITHIUM BATTERIES: MARKETS AND MATERIALS
FCB028G
January 2016
Donald Saxman
Project Analyst
ISBN: 1-62296-207-9
BCC Research
49 Walnut Park, Building 2
Wellesley, MA 02481 USA
866-285-7215 (toll-free within the USA),
or (+1) 781-489-7301
www.bccresearch.com
information@bccresearch.com
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 3
SCOPE OF THE REPORT 4
METHODOLOGY 5
INTENDED AUDIENCE 6
INFORMATION SOURCES 6
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 6
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 6
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 7
DISCLAIMER 7
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 9
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 9
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE,
2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 9
CHAPTER 3 LITHIUM BATTERY TECHNOLOGIES 12
LITHIUM BATTERY TECHNOLOGY BACKGROUND 12
PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 12
PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY SUMMARY 12
TABLE 1 PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY TYPES 12
PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPOSITIONS 14
TABLE 2 PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPOSITIONS 14
PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 15
TABLE 3 CONSUMER PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 15
TABLE 4 INDUSTRIAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 16
TABLE 5 MILITARY/AEROSPACE PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 17
PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY TYPES 17
Lithium-Carbon Monofluoride Batteries 17
Lithium-Copper Oxyphosphate and Lithium Copper Oxide Batteries 18
Lithium-Iodine Batteries 18
Lithium-Iron Sulfide Batteries 19
Lithium-Manganese Dioxide Batteries 19
Lithium-Silver Vanadium Pentoxide Batteries 21
Lithium-Sulfur Dioxide Batteries 21
Lithium-Sulfuryl Chloride Batteries 22
Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries 22
PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPANIES 22
TABLE 6 PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPANIES 23
Duracell International 23
EaglePicher Corp. (OM Group) 23
Energizer Holdings 24
GP Batteries (Gold Peak International) 24
Greatbatch Inc. 25
ICCNexergy (including Applied Power Inc.) 25
Medtronic Inc. 26
MinMax Energy Technology 26
Panasonic 26
Saft 27
Sony Corp. (Sony Energy Devices Corp.) 28
Spectrum Brands (Rayovac) 28
Ultralife Batteries Inc. 28
Varta AG Microbatteries 30
Yardney (OM Group) 30
PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SUMMARY 31
TABLE 7 PRIMARY LITHIUM MARKET SUMMARY 31
Portable Product Primary Lithium Batteries 31
Medical Product Primary Lithium Batteries 32
Stationary Product Primary Lithium Batteries 32
Military/Aerospace Primary Lithium Batteries 32
Automotive/Motive Primary Lithium Batteries 33
Primary Lithium Battery Market Prediction 33
TABLE 8 GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY VOLUME AND VALUE, 2015
(MILLIONS/$ MILLIONS) 33
TABLE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY BY PRODUCT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 34
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 35
TABLE 11 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 35
SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 35
SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY SUMMARY 35
TABLE 12 SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY TYPES 36
SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPOSITIONS 38
TABLE 13 SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPOSITIONS 38
SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY TYPES 39
Lithium/Aluminum-Polymer Batteries 39
Lithium/Aluminum-Manganese Dioxide Batteries 39
Lithium/Aluminum-Vanadium Pentoxide Batteries 39
Lithium-Cobalt Oxide Batteries 40
Lithium-Copper Chloride Batteries 40
Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries 40
Lithium-Ion Compared with Lithium-Ion Polymer 41
TABLE 14 CONDUCTIVE POLYMER BATTERY ENERGY DENSITIES 42
Lithium Metal Polymer Batteries 43
Lithium-Ion as Smart Batteries 45
State of the Art and Recent Developments 48
Blue Current: Berkeley Lab and UNC-Chapel Hill Nonflammable
Electrolyte 49
High-Temperature Lithium-Iron Sulfide Batteries 50
TABLE 15 HISTORICAL HIGH-TEMPERATURE LITHIUM-IRON SULFIDE BATTERY R andD 50
Rechargeable Lithium-Manganese Dioxide Batteries 52
Lithium-Molybdenum Disulfide Batteries 52
Lithium-Niobium Selenide Batteries 53
Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Dioxide Batteries 53
Lithium-Titanium Disulfide Batteries 53
Lithium-Titanium Disulfide Polymer Electrolyte Batteries 53
Lithium-Vanadium Oxide Polymer Electrolyte Batteries 53
Micro Thin-Film Batteries 53
TABLE 16 THIN-FILM MICRO-BATTERY COMPANIES 56
Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries 56
SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPANIES 58
TABLE 17 SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPANIES 58
A123 Systems 59
TABLE 18 COMPARISON OF A123 SYSTEMS' BATTERY WITH OTHER HIGH-CAPACITY
BATTERY SYSTEMS 60
TABLE 19 A123 SYSTEM'S BATTERY PULSE DURATION AND POWER DENSITY 61
Accutronics Ltd. 69
Advanced Lithium Electrochemistry (Alees) 70
Advanced Battery Systems Inc. 70
Advanced Battery Technologies Inc. (ABAT) 71
Amprius 73
Apple Inc. 73
Arotech Corp. (Electric Fuel Battery Corp.) 74
BASF Battery Materials 74
Battery-Biz 77
Battery Clinic Inc. 78
Battery Systems Inc. 78
Battery Technology Inc. 78
Bollore Group 78
Boston-Power 80
Bren-Tronics 82
BrightVolt 82
BYD Co. Ltd. 83
CandD Technologies Inc. 86
Cell-Con 87
China BAK Battery Inc. 87
China Sun (Dalian Xinyang High-Tech Development Co.) 89
Continental Corp. 90
DelTran Battery Tender 90
Denchi Power Ltd. (ABSL Power) 90
Ecolocap Solutions Inc. 91
Electrovaya 92
Ener1 Inc. (EnerDel) 97
Enerize Corp. (Fife Batteries) 100
Enersys Inc. 101
Envia Systems Inc. 104
EverExceed Corp. 105
Farasis Energy 106
Flux Power 108
Furukawa Battery Co. 109
General Motors 110
GP Batteries (Gold Peak International) 112
GoogleX 113
Hitachi Maxell Corp. 113
Highpower International 114
HYB Battery Co. Ltd. 115
Industrial Battery Engineering 116
Johnson Controls 116
Johnson Matthey Battery Systems (Axeon) 120
K2 Energy 121
LG Chemical 123
Magna International Inc. 124
Magna International of America 125
Microvast Power Systems Ltd. 126
Mining Corp. of Bolivia (Comibol) 126
Linyi Dake Trade 126
Minmax Energy Technology Co. Ltd. 128
Mitsubishi Corp. 128
NEC Energy Devices Ltd. 129
Nexcell Battery Co. 132
Nissan Motor Co. 132
Odyne Systems LLC 134
OXIS Energy 135
Panasonic 135
Polyplus Battery Co. 138
Power Japan Plus 139
Primearth EV Energy 140
SAFT 140
Sakti 143
Samsung SDI 144
Seeo 145
Silatronix Inc. 146
Sion Power 146
Solidenergy 147
Sony Corp. (Sony Energy Devices Corp.) 148
TABLE 20 COMPARISON BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL BATTERY AND NEXELION 149
Tesla Motors 150
TIAX LLC 153
Tianjin Lishen Battery Joint-Stock Co. Ltd. 155
Toshiba 155
TABLE 21 SCIB SPECIFICATIONS 156
Valance Technology Inc. 157
Winston Battery Ltd. 162
Xalt Energy LLC 162
Yardney (OM) 164
Yuasa Battery Inc. 165
ZAF Energy Systems 168
SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SUMMARY 168
TABLE 22 SECONDARY LITHIUM MARKET SUMMARY 168
PORTABLE PRODUCT SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 169
MEDICAL PRODUCT SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 169
STATIONARY PRODUCT SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 169
MILITARY/AEROSPACE SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 170
AUTOMOTIVE/MOTIVE SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 170
SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET PREDICTION 171
TABLE 23 SECONDARY GLOBAL LITHIUM BATTERY VOLUME AND VALUE, 2013
(MILLIONS/$ MILLIONS) 171
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY BY PRODUCT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 172
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 172
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY BY
TECHNOLOGY, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 173
CHAPTER 4 LITHIUM BATTERY MATERIALS 175
LITHIUM BATTERY MATERIAL BACKGROUND 175
TYPES OF LITHIUM BATTERY MATERIALS 175
TABLE 26 LITHIUM BATTERY CATHODE MATERIALS 176
TABLE 27 LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTE MATERIALS 177
TABLE 28 LITHIUM BATTERY SEPARATOR MATERIALS 179
ELECTRODE MATERIALS AND ACTIVE ELEMENTS 180
ELECTRODE MATERIAL AND ACTIVE ELEMENT COMPANIES 180
TABLE 29 LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTRODE MATERIAL COMPANIES 180
3M 182
Aberdeen International Inc. 183
Acheson Colloids Inc. (Henkel) 184
Acta S.p.A. 184
Admiralty Resources 184
Advanced NanoPower Inc. 185
Advanced Research Chemicals (ARC) 185
Ajay SQM Group 186
Akzo Nobel 186
Alfa Aesar (Johnson Matthey) 186
Allan Chemical Corp. 187
Allchem Industries Inc. 187
Altair Nanotechnologies Inc. 188
Ametek 190
Amsyn (Amber Synthetics) 190
Applied Nanomaterials Inc (ApNano) 191
NanoMaterials Ltd. 191
Arkema 191
Asbury Carbons 192
Ashland Chemicals 192
Ashburton Ventures Inc. 193
Avalon Rare Metals 193
Avcarb 194
Barium and Chemicals Inc. 195
BASF Corp. 195
Bayer MaterialScience 196
Cabot Corp. 197
Caledonia Mining Corp. 197
Canada Lithium Corp. 198
Cannon-Muskegon Corp. (C-M Group) 199
Celanese (Ticona) 199
Ticona 199
Celgard LLC 199
Celgard K.K 199
Chambishi Metals PLC (ZCCM-IH) 201
Climax Molybdenum 201
Columbus Chemical Industries 201
Covalent Associates Inc. 201
Coyne Chemical 202
CTT 202
Dais Analytic Corp. 202
Daramic 202
Darton Commodities Ltd. 203
Dexmet Corp. 203
Dynatec Madagascar S.A. 204
Entek Membranes LLC 204
Eramet/Eurotungstene Poudres S.A. 205
Evonik Industries AG 205
Li-Tec Battery GmbH 205
Enevate 207
European Lithium 207
Evraz Stratcor Inc. 208
Ferro Corp. 208
FMC Corp. 208
Formation Metals Inc. 210
Frontier Carbon Corp. (FCC) 210
Frontier Carbon Corp. America 210
Fusite 211
Galaxy Resources 211
GFS Chemicals Inc. 211
Glencore Xstrata 212
W. L. Gore and Associates Inc. 212
Gore Fuel Cell Technologies 212
W. L. Gore and Associates, GmbH 212
Japan Gore-Tex Inc. 212
GrafTech International Ltd. 213
Henkel (Acheson) 213
Hermetic Seal Technology Inc. 214
Hollingsworth and Vose Co. 214
Honjo Chemical Corp. 214
Hunan Xiangtan Electrochemical Group 215
Innovia 215
International Cobalt Co. Inc. 215
International Lithium Corp. (Ganfeng Lithium Co.) 216
Johnson Matthey Inc. 217
Jungfer 218
Lamart Corp. 218
Lithium Corp. 219
Lithium Exploration Group 220
LG Chemical 221
Lynntech Inc. 221
mPhase Technologies 221
Materials and Electrochemical Research Corp. (MER) 223
MaxPower Inc. 223
Mays Chemical Co. 224
McGean Specialty Chemicals/Mcgean Rohco 224
Mitsui and Co. Ltd. 224
Nano-C Inc. 224
Nanocyl S.A. 225
Nemaska Lithium 225
Neptco 226
Nippon Kodoshi Corp. (NKK) 226
Norilsk Nickel 226
OM Group Inc. 227
Phillips 66 228
Phostech Lithium (Clariant Battery Materials) 229
Porex Technologies 230
PPG, Silica Products 231
Prayon 231
Pred Materials 231
Prince Minerals (American Minerals Inc.) 231
Prince International Corp. 231
QNI Pty Ltd. (Queensland Nickel) 232
Raymor Industries Inc. 233
Reade Advanced Materials 234
Retriev Technologies (Toxco Inc. LithChem International) 234
Rock Tech Lithium 234
Rockwood Lithium (Albemarle) 235
Shalina Resources Ltd. (SRL) 237
Sheldahl Technical Materials 238
Sheperd Chemical Co. 238
Showa Denko K.K. (SDK) 238
Shu Powders Ltd. 239
Sichuan Tianqi Lithium Industries (Shehong Lithium) 240
SK Energy Corp. 240
Solvay Performance Chemicals 241
Rhodia 241
Spectrum Chemicals 242
SQM (Sociedad Quimica Y Minera) 242
Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd. 243
Superior Graphite Co. 243
Technical Fibre Products Ltd. 244
Technical Fibre Products Inc. (TFP) 244
Teck Resources Ltd. 244
Texmac Inc. 245
Thomas Swan and Co. Ltd. 245
Swan Chemical Inc. 245
TIAX 246
Timcal Graphite and Carbon 246
Toray 247
Toray Tonen Specialty Separator Godo Kaisha 247
Tronox Inc. 249
Ube Industries 249
Umicore 250
Unidym 251
Vale Canada 251
Western Lithium 251
Wogen Resources Ltd. 252
Xiamen Tungsten Co. Ltd. 252
LITHIUM METAL AND COMPOUNDS 253
Lithium Miners and Processors 253
TABLE 30 ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION FOR LITHIUM MINERALS AND BRINE BY
COUNTRY, 2002-2006 (MT) 253
TABLE 31 ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION FOR LITHIUM MINERALS AND BRINE BY
COUNTRY, 2007-2011 (MT) 254
TABLE 32 ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION LITHIUM MINERALS AND BRINE BY
COUNTRY, 2012 AND 2013 (MT) 255
TABLE 33 LITHIUM PRODUCERS 256
Lithium Compound Companies 260
TABLE 34 LITHIUM COMPOUND COMPANIES 260
U.S. Lithium Applications, Production and Consumption 261
TABLE 35 U.S. LITHIUM CONSUMPTION, 1994-2014 (MT OF CONTAINED LITHIUM) 261
TABLE 36 GLOBAL LITHIUM MARKETS, 2011-2015 (%) 261
Lithium Prices 262
COPPER COMPOUNDS 262
NICKEL AND IRON METAL AND COMPOUNDS 263
Nickel Metal and Compounds 263
Iron Compounds (Lithium Iron Phosphate) 263
ELECTROLYTIC MANGANESE DIOXIDE COMPOUNDS 264
Manganese Dioxide Companies 265
TABLE 37 BATTERY GRADE MANGANESE DIOXIDE COMPANIES 265
COBALT COMPOUNDS 266
Cobalt Companies 266
TABLE 38 COBALT COMPOUND COMPANIES 266
Cobalt Consumption Patterns 267
TABLE 39 GLOBAL COBALT MARKETS (%) 267
TABLE 40 U.S. COBALT CONSUMPTION, 1994-2014 (MT OF COBALT CONTENT) 268
TABLE 41 COBALT PRODUCTION AND RESERVES BY COUNTRY, 2011-2014 (MT OF
COBALT CONTENT) 269
Cobalt Prices 269
TABLE 42 HISTORIC GLOBAL COBALT PRICES, 1991-2014 ($/LB) 270
ALUMINUM METAL COMPOUNDS 270
SULFUR COMPOUNDS 271
VANADIUM COMPOUNDS 271
TABLE 43 VANADIUM COMPOUND COMPANIES 272
RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS 272
INORGANIC CARBON 272
TABLE 44 CARBON COMPOUND COMPANIES 273
FULLERENES AND GRAPHENES 274
TABLE 45 FULLERENE COMPANIES 276
CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS 277
TABLE 46 CONDUCTIVE POLYMER BATTERY ENERGY DENSITIES 278
HALOGENS 278
TABLE 47 HALOGEN BATTERY APPLICATIONS 279
Iodine Compounds 280
Bromine Compounds 280
Chlorine Compounds 280
Halogen Companies 280
TABLE 48 HALOGEN COMPOUND COMPANIES 280
LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTES 281
TABLE 49 LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTE MATERIALS 281
Lithium Battery Electrolyte Companies 282
TABLE 50 LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTE MATERIAL COMPANIES 282
LITHIUM BATTERY SEPARATORS 283
Lithium Battery Separator Companies 283
TABLE 51 BATTERY SEPARATOR COMPANIES 284
LITHIUM BATTERY MATERIALS MARKET SUMMARY 284
TABLE 52 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY ACTIVE ELEMENT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 285
TABLE 53 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTE,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 285
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY SEPARATOR,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 286
TABLE 55 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY ACTIVE ELEMENT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 286
TABLE 56 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTE,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 287
TABLE 57 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY SEPARATOR,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 287
TABLE 58 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LITHIUM BATTERY MATERIAL BY TYPE, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 287
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR LITHIUM BATTERY MATERIALS BY TYPE,
2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 288
CHAPTER 5 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ASPECTS 290
THE DRIVING FORCES OF THE INDUSTRY 290
SEGMENTATION 290
TABLE 59 LITHIUM MARKET SEGMENTATION SUMMARY 290
DRIVING FORCE 1: LITHIUM BATTERY AND BATTERY MATERIAL PATENT
SITUATION 293
Patent Disputes 293
University of Texas, Hydro Quebec, NTT and Others 293
3M, Sony and Lenovo 294
3M and Panasonic 294
Valence Technology versus Phostech Lithium and Hydro Quebec 294
DRIVING FORCE 2: IMPROVING BATTERY TECHNICAL MATURITY 295
DRIVING FORCE 3: DEVELOPING NEW APPLICATIONS FOR LITHIUM
BATTERIES 296
DRIVING FORCE 4: EVOLVING TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS—EVS TO
HEVS TO PLUG-INS 297
DRIVING FORCE 5: ACADEMIC AND PUBLIC SECTOR RandD 297
A*STAR Institute of Materials Research 297
Ames National Laboratory 298
Argonne National Laboratory 298
Arizona State University 299
Battelle Memorial Institute 300
Brookhaven National Laboratory 300
California Institute of Technology 301
California NanoSystems Institute (UCLA) 301
California NanoSystems Institute (UCSB) 301
Center for Advanced Materials 302
Center for Nanoscale Science (CNS) 302
Clean Energy Group 302
Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne 304
Florida State University 304
Fluid Mechanics Research Group 304
Georgia Institute of Technology 305
Hunter College 305
Idaho National Laboratory 306
John H. Glenn Research Center 306
John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory 306
Kyoto University 306
Kyushu University 307
Laboratoire d'Electrochimie Organique et de Photochimie Redox 307
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 307
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 307
Los Alamos National Laboratory 308
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 308
Max Planck Institut fur Festkorperforschung 310
Michigan State University 310
NASA Ames Research Center 310
NASA Jet Propulsion Lab 311
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 311
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 311
North Carolina State University 312
Northwestern University 312
NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering 312
Oak Ridge National Laboratory 312
Ohio State University 313
Oregon State University 313
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 313
Princeton University 314
Purdue University 314
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) 315
Rice University 315
Rochester Institute of Technology 315
Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey 315
Sandia National Laboratories 315
Savannah River National Laboratory 316
Simon Fraser University 316
Sophia University 316
Stanford University 317
State University of New York (SUNY) 317
The Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and
Technology 317
Universita La Sapienza 318
Universitat Tubingen Institut fur Organische Chemie 318
University of California 318
University of Chicago 319
University of Colorado 319
University of Dayton Research Institute 319
University of Durham 319
University of Illinois 319
University of Kentucky 319
University of Massachusetts 320
University of Minnesota 320
University of Missouri 321
University of Nevada at Las Vegas 321
University of New Mexico 321
University of New South Wales 321
University of North Carolina 321
University of Oklahoma Carbon Nanotubes Technology Center
(CaNTeC) 322
University of Pennsylvania 322
University of Rhode Island 322
University of Southern California 323
University of St. Andrews 323
University of Texas at Austin 323
University of Tokyo 323
USCAR 323
Virginia Commonwealth University 324
Waseda University 325
DRIVING FORCE 6: BATTERY QUALITY CONTROL AND PRODUCT SAFETY 325
The Manufacturing and Assembly Process 325
TABLE 60 GENERIC BATTERY MANUFACTURING TREE 326
Product Safety Issues 327
Alternative Designs 329
Material Safety Issues 329
TABLE 61 TYPICAL C60 MSDS DATA 330
MARKET SEGMENTATION AND INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION FACTORS 333
LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SEGMENTATION FACTORS 333
TABLE 62 LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SEGMENTATION AND MARKET FORCES 333
TABLE 63 LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SEGMENTATION AND MARKET FORCES 333
LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET CONCENTRATION FACTORS 336
TABLE 64 LITHIUM BATTERY CONCENTRATION FACTORS 336
MATERIAL MARKET SEGMENTATION FACTORS 336
Mining 337
Processing/Refining 337
Chemical Synthesis 337
Compounding 338
Recycling 338
TABLE 65 LITHIUM BATTERY RECYCLING COMPANIES 339
INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE PRACTICES 339
LITHIUM BATTERIES AS PART OF THE OVERALL GLOBAL BATTERY MARKET 339
TABLE 66 GLOBAL BATTERY MARKET BY BATTERY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 339
DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 340
TABLE 67 LITHIUM BATTERY DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 340
INDUSTRY PURCHASING INFLUENCES 342
LITHIUM BATTERY PURCHASING INFLUENCE SIGNIFICANCE 342
TABLE 68 LITHIUM BATTERY PURCHASING INFLUENCES 342
LITHIUM BATTERY PURCHASING INFLUENCES 343
TABLE 69 TYPICAL RETAIL LITHIUM BATTERY PRICES, 1998-2015 ($) 343
LITHIUM BATTERY MATERIAL PURCHASING INFLUENCES 344
How Significant are Material Prices? 344
CHAPTER 6 LITHIUM BATTERY MARKETS 346
LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET ANALYSIS CONVENTIONS 346
MARKET VALUE MODEL 346
DEFINITIONS OF REGIONS 347
ANALYSIS DURATION 347
MONETARY CONVENTIONS 347
LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SECTORS 348
TABLE 70 LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SECTORS 348
PORTABLE PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERIES 349
COMPUTER, TABLET AND SMARTPHONE LITHIUM BATTERIES 349
Computer, Tablet and Smartphone Lithium Battery Market Summary 350
TABLE 71 PORTABLE COMPUTER, TABLET AND SMARTPHONE DRIVING FORCES
AND MARKET DEVELOPMENTS 350
TABLE 72 PORTABLE COMPUTER, TABLET AND SMARTPHONE BATTERY DRIVING
FORCES AND MARKET DEVELOPMENTS 351
TABLE 73 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PORTABLE COMPUTER, TABLET AND SMARTPHONE
LITHIUM BATTERY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 351
TABLE 74 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PORTABLE COMPUTER, TABLET AND SMARTPHONE
LITHIUM BATTERY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 352
PORTABLE TOOL LITHIUM BATTERIES 352
Portable Tool Lithium Battery Market Summary 354
TABLE 75 PORTABLE TOOLS DRIVING FORCES AND MARKET DEVELOPMENTS 354
TABLE 76 PORTABLE TOOL LITHIUM BATTERY DRIVING FORCES AND MARKET
DEVELOPMENTS 355
TABLE 77 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PORTABLE TOOL LITHIUM BATTERY BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 356
TABLE 78 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PORTABLE TOOL LITHIUM BATTERY BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 356
OTHER PORTABLE PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERIES 356
Other Portable Product Lithium Battery Market Prediction 359
TABLE 79 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER PORTABLE PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERIES
BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 359
TABLE 80 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER PORTABLE PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERIES
BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 359
MEDICAL PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERIES 359
TABLE 81 PORTABLE MEDICAL PRODUCT DRIVING FORCES AND MARKET
DEVELOPMENTS 362
Medical Product Lithium Battery Market Summary 363
TABLE 82 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MEDICAL LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 363
TABLE 83 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MEDICAL LITHIUM BATTERIES BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 363
STATIONARY APPLICATION LITHIUM BATTERIES 363
COMPUTER MEMORY PRESERVATION 364
Computer Memory Preservation Lithium Battery Market Summary 364
TABLE 84 GLOBAL MARKET FOR COMPUTER MEMORY PRESERVATION LITHIUM
BATTERIES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 364
TABLE 85 GLOBAL MARKET FOR COMPUTER MEMORY PRESERVATION LITHIUM
BATTERIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 364
UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY BATTERIES 365
UPS Lithium Battery Market Summary 365
TABLE 86 GLOBAL MARKET FOR UPS LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 366
TABLE 87 GLOBAL MARKET FOR UPS LITHIUM BATTERIES BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 366
EMERGENCY LIGHTING LITHIUM BATTERIES 366
Emergency Lighting Lithium Battery Market Summary 367
TABLE 88 GLOBAL MARKET FOR EMERGENCY LIGHTING LITHIUM BATTERIES BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 367
TABLE 89 GLOBAL MARKET FOR EMERGENCY LIGHTING LITHIUM BATTERIES BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 367
REMOTE POWER AND ALTERNATIVE POWER STORAGE LITHIUM BATTERIES 368
Remote Power and Alternative Energy Storage Battery Background 368
Solar 369
Tidal and Wave 376
Geothermal 377
Remote Power and Alternative Energy Lithium Battery Market
Summary 377
TABLE 90 GLOBAL MARKET FOR REMOTE AND ALTERNATIVE ENERGY STORAGE
LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 378
TABLE 91 GLOBAL MARKET FOR REMOTE AND ALTERNATIVE ENERGY STORAGE
LITHIUM BATTERIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 378
UTILITY LOAD LEVELING 378
TABLE 92 LOAD LEVELING AND PEAK SHIFTING APPROACHES 379
TABLE 93 POWER STORAGE FUNCTIONALITY 382
Utility Load-leveling Lithium Battery Market Summary 382
TABLE 94 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LOAD LEVELING LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 383
TABLE 95 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LOAD LEVELING LITHIUM BATTERIES BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 383
MILITARY/AEROSPACE LITHIUM BATTERIES 384
PORTABLE MILITARY PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERIES 384
TABLE 96 MILITARY/AEROSPACE PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 385
EMERGING MILITARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 386
Emerging Military/Aerospace Market Summary 386
Military Electric Vehicles Scenario 386
Battery-Powered Fighting Vehicle Scenario 387
Military Automated Factory Scenario 390
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Revival Scenario 391
AVIATION LITHIUM BATTERIES 391
MILITARY LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SUMMARY 392
TABLE 97 DRIVING FORCES AND DEVELOPMENTS IN PORTABLE MILITARY PRODUCT
MARKET 393
TABLE 98 DRIVING FORCES AND DEVELOPMENTS IN PORTABLE MILITARY PRODUCT
BATTERIES MARKET 394
TABLE 99 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MILITARY PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERY BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 394
TABLE 100 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MILITARY PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERY BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 395
Emerging Military Lithium Battery Market Prediction 395
TABLE 101 GLOBAL MARKET FOR EMERGING MILITARY LITHIUM BATTERIES BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 395
TABLE 102 GLOBAL MARKET FOR EMERGING MILITARY LITHIUM BATTERIES BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 396
Aviation Battery Market Summary 396
TABLE 103 GLOBAL MARKET FOR AVIATION LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 396
TABLE 104 GLOBAL MARKET FOR AVIATION LITHIUM BATTERIES BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 396
AUTOMOTIVE AND MOTIVE POWER LITHIUM BATTERIES 397
INDUSTRIAL VEHICLE (TRACTION) LITHIUM BATTERIES 397
Traction Lithium Battery Market Summary 398
TABLE 105 MOTIVE/TRACTION BATTERY DRIVING FORCES AND MARKET
DEVELOPMENTS 398
TABLE 106 CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC MOTIVE/TRACTION
BATTERY SCENARIOS 399
TABLE 107 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TRACTION LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 400
TABLE 108 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TRACTION LITHIUM BATTERIES BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 400
HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE LITHIUM BATTERIES 401
HEV Lithium Battery Market Summary 401
TABLE 109 HEV AND HEV BATTERY DRIVING FORCES AND MARKET
DEVELOPMENTS 401
TABLE 110 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HEV LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 402
TABLE 111 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HEV LITHIUM BATTERIES BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 403
PLUG-IN VEHICLE LITHIUM BATTERIES 403
Types of Plug-ins 403
Plug-in Battery Background 404
HEV AND EV MARKET DRIVERS 406
Pollution Abatement 406
TABLE 112 PROJECTED ANNUAL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM
PHEVS, 2050 (MILLION MT) 408
TABLE 113 PEAK NEW VEHICLE MARKET SHARE FOR THE THREE PHEV ADOPTION
SCENARIOS, 2050 (%) 409
Electric Utility Efficiency 409
Promotion of Domestic Energy Sources 410
Maintaining Technological Competitiveness 410
Plug-in Vehicle Lithium Battery Market Summary 411
TABLE 114 PHEV AND EV BATTERY DRIVING FORCES AND MARKET DEVELOPMENTS 411
TABLE 115 CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC PHEV AND EV SCENARIOS 412
TABLE 116 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PLUG-IN VEHICLE LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 413
TABLE 117 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PLUG-IN VEHICLE LITHIUM BATTERIES BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 413
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY LITHIUM BATTERIES 414
Automotive Security Lithium Battery Market Summary 414
TABLE 118 GLOBAL MARKET FOR AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY LITHIUM BATTERIES BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 414
TABLE 119 GLOBAL MARKET FOR AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY LITHIUM BATTERIES BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 414

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 9
TABLE 1 PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY TYPES 12
TABLE 2 PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPOSITIONS 14
TABLE 3 CONSUMER PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 15
TABLE 4 INDUSTRIAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 16
TABLE 5 MILITARY/AEROSPACE PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 17
TABLE 6 PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPANIES 23
TABLE 7 PRIMARY LITHIUM MARKET SUMMARY 31
TABLE 8 GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY VOLUME AND VALUE, 2015
(MILLIONS/$ MILLIONS) 33
TABLE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY BY PRODUCT, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 34
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 35
TABLE 11 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 35
TABLE 12 SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY TYPES 36
TABLE 13 SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPOSITIONS 38
TABLE 14 CONDUCTIVE POLYMER BATTERY ENERGY DENSITIES 42
TABLE 15 HISTORICAL HIGH-TEMPERATURE LITHIUM-IRON SULFIDE BATTERY R andD 50
TABLE 16 THIN-FILM MICRO-BATTERY COMPANIES 56
TABLE 17 SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPANIES 58
TABLE 18 COMPARISON OF A123 SYSTEMS' BATTERY WITH OTHER HIGH-CAPACITY
BATTERY SYSTEMS 60
TABLE 19 A123 SYSTEM'S BATTERY PULSE DURATION AND POWER DENSITY 61
TABLE 20 COMPARISON BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL BATTERY AND NEXELION 149
TABLE 21 SCIB SPECIFICATIONS 156
TABLE 22 SECONDARY LITHIUM MARKET SUMMARY 168
TABLE 23 SECONDARY GLOBAL LITHIUM BATTERY VOLUME AND VALUE, 2013
(MILLIONS/$ MILLIONS) 171
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY BY PRODUCT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 172
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 172
TABLE 26 LITHIUM BATTERY CATHODE MATERIALS 176
TABLE 27 LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTE MATERIALS 177
TABLE 28 LITHIUM BATTERY SEPARATOR MATERIALS 179
TABLE 29 LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTRODE MATERIAL COMPANIES 180
TABLE 30 ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION FOR LITHIUM MINERALS AND BRINE BY
COUNTRY, 2002-2006 (MT) 253
TABLE 31 ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION FOR LITHIUM MINERALS AND BRINE BY
COUNTRY, 2007-2011 (MT) 254
TABLE 32 ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION LITHIUM MINERALS AND BRINE BY
COUNTRY, 2012 AND 2013 (MT) 255
TABLE 33 LITHIUM PRODUCERS 256
TABLE 34 LITHIUM COMPOUND COMPANIES 260
TABLE 35 U.S. LITHIUM CONSUMPTION, 1994-2014 (MT OF CONTAINED LITHIUM) 261
TABLE 36 GLOBAL LITHIUM MARKETS, 2011-2015 (%) 261

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