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Global Markets and Technologies for Natural Gas Storage

  • January 2016
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 280 pages

This BCC Research report on natural gas storage market anticipates technology shifts, evaluates pricing trends for key North American and European wholesale gas markets, assesses the impacts of new and proposed infrastructure on liquefied natural gas (LNG) and underground gas storage projects, and determines their effects on the market, and identifies the key structural and strategic factors that will drive growth and opportunity in the LNG and natural gas storage industry to 2020.

Use this report to:

Assess how new technology developed by the industry has greatly reduced the cost of storing and delivering natural gas and LNG to customers.
Quantify the impact of new technologies, industry structure, business trends and regulatory change.
Identify the key structural and strategic factors that will drive growth and opportunity in the LNG and natural gas storage industry to 2020.
Evaluate the economic, industrial and environmental benefits of storage.

Highlights

The global natural gas storage market will reach $796.4 billion in 2020, up from $562.2 billion in 2015, registering a CAGR of 7.2% for the preiod of 2015-2020.
Underground gas storage (UGS) as a segment will increase at a CAGR of 2.9% over the forecast period to grow from $374.2 billion in 2015to $430.5 billion in 2020.
The liquefied natural gas (LNG) tanker trade segment is expected to reach $120.5 billion in 2015 and $197.0 billion by 2020 increasing at a CAGR of 10.3%.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goals of this report on the demand for natural gas storage infrastructure are to:

anticipate gas supply drivers and trends, including technology shifts; evaluate pricing trends for key North American and European wholesale gas markets; assess the impacts of new and proposed infrastructure on liquefied natural gas (LNG) and underground gas storage projects, and determine their effects on the market; quantify the impact of new technologies, industry structure, business trends and regulatory change; identify the key structural and strategic factors that will drive growth and opportunity in the LNG and natural gas storage industry to 2020; and provide details on the various technologies involved in LNG and natural gas storage, including the critical stages of integration, and how they relate to the global natural gas trade and demand pattern.

The objective of this market research report is to provide a balanced and detailed evaluation of the current status of the global natural gas storage infrastructure industry.

More than 98% of all LNG traded worldwide is transported by ship. Driven by increasing global demand and decreasing costs of natural gas, is it any wonder that LNG storage and shipping are being thrown into the limelight? More and more, industry players are realizing that LNG storage and shipping is more than just an integral part of the LNG supply chain. To put it simply, getting storage and shipping right is critical to the natural gas industry.
The consumption of natural gas varies day-to-day and month-to-month. Weather and the varying demands of electric power generation translate into usage fluctuations.

Seasonally the fluctuation is as much as 50%, and short term it can be even more variable. Exact timing, location and volume of peak demand are unpredictable. Since natural gas is not produced in a way that corresponds to these fluctuations, surplus gas is pumped during slumps in usage into numerous storage facilities (underground and LNG) for use during inevitable surges in consumption. In international trade, LNG storage provides the vital link between gas producers and consuming countries. This allows continuous service even when production or pipeline transportation services cannot meet demand.

Table Of Contents

Global Markets and Technologies for Natural Gas Storage
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE 4
SCOPE AND FORMAT 6
METHODOLOGY 7
INFORMATION SOURCES 8
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 8
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 8
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 8
DISCLAIMER 9
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 11
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS MARKET VALUE 11
LNG TANKER TRADE VALUE 11
UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE MARKET VALUE 11
RECEIVING/LIQUEFACTION TERMINAL STORAGE MARKET VALUE 11
MERCHANT LNG MARKET VALUE 11
SUMMARY TABLE VALORIZATION OF GAS STORAGE BY SECTOR, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 12
SUMMARY FIGURE VALORIZATION OF GAS STORAGE BY SECTOR, 2012-2020 ($
BILLIONS) 12
CHAPTER 3 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 14
WHY STORE NATURAL GAS? 14
TABLE 1 THE REASONS AND NEED FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE 14
THE VALUE AND IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE IN THE NATURAL GAS VALUE CHAIN 14
TABLE 2 THE USE OF STORAGE FOR SECURITY OF SUPPLY: RISKS COVERED
DEPENDING ON CONTROL OF STORAGE CAPACITY 15
TABLE 3 THE "VALUE" OF STORAGE IN THE NATURAL GAS VALUE CHAIN 16
IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE 17
TABLE 4 THE IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE IN THE NATURAL GAS VALUE CHAIN 18
TYPES OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE FACILITIES 18
TABLE 5 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY LOCATION,
THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 18
TABLE 6 ABOVE GROUND VERSUS UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE 19
TABLE 7 GLOBAL SHARE OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE FACILITIES BY TYPE, 2015 (%) 19
UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE (UGS) 20
TABLE 8 CHARACTERISTICS OF UGS CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS, 2013 21
TABLE 9 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE
BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (%)* 23
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE (CNG) 23
TABLE 10 DEMAND FOR COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE OF TANK
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (%)* 23
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) STORAGE 24
TABLE 11 DEMAND FOR LNG TANKER, RECEIVING AND LIQUEFACTION TERMINAL
STORAGE BY CAPACITY RANGE, THROUGH 2020 (%) 24
DELIVERABILITY 24
TABLE 12 THE DELIVERABILITY OF DIFFERENT NATURAL GAS STORAGES 25
WHERE LNG AND NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE FITS IN THE
GLOBAL ECONOMY 26
TABLE 13 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL
PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (%/BILLION CUBIC METERS) 26
HISTORY OF THE NATURAL GAS STORAGE INDUSTRY 26
UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION 27
LNG STORAGE TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION 27
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE (CNG) 28
TABLE 14 EVOLUTION OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE IN NUMBERS,
1900-2010 29
ECONOMICS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE 29
LNG TANKERS 29
TABLE 15 COST BREAKDOWN OF A MODERN LNG VESSEL (%) 30
LNG STORAGE AT IMPORT AND REGASIFICATION TERMINALS 30
TABLE 16 COST BREAKDOWN OF A MODERN BASE-LOAD LNG REGASIFICATION
PLANT (%) 30
UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE 30
TABLE 17 COST COMPONENTS OF UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE (%) 31
MERCHANT LNG (LNG PEAK SHAVING AND SATELLITE STORAGE) 31
TABLE 18 COST BREAKDOWN OF A MODERN PEAK-SHAVING AND SATELLITE LNG
PLANT (%) 32
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE 32
TABLE 19 COST BREAKDOWN OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS PROJECT (%) 32
TABLE 20 COST BREAKDOWN OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE TANKS (%) 33
FUTURE OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE 33
TABLE 21 NATURAL GAS SUBSTITUTION IN GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION 34
OVERVIEW OF GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE 34
TABLE 22 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY SEGMENT/SECTOR,
THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 35
CHAPTER 4 DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE 37
TABLE 23 DEMAND FOR GLOBAL UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE AS A
PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (%/BILLION
CUBIC METERS)
37
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR DEPLETED OIL and GAS FIELD STORAGE 37
TABLE 24 DEMAND FOR GLOBAL DEPLETED OIL and GAS FIELD STORAGE AS A
PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (%/BILLION
CUBIC METERS)
38
TABLE 25 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD
NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 39
NORTH AMERICA 39
TABLE 26 NORTH AMERICA DEMAND FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS
STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 39
United States 40
Depleted Gas Fields 40
Depleted Oil Fields 40
TABLE 27 UNITED STATES WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR OIL/GAS DEPLETED FIELD
NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 40
Canada 40
Depleted Gas Fields 40
Depleted Oil Fields 41
TABLE 28 CANADA WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD
NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 41
EUROPE 41
TABLE 29 EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD
NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 41
Austria 42
Bulgaria 42
Croatia 42
Czech Republic 42
France 42
Germany 42
Hungary 43
Ireland 43
Italy 43
Netherlands 43
Poland 43
Romania 44
Slovak Republic 44
Spain 44
Turkey 44
United Kingdom 44
TABLE 30 EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD
NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 45
CIS 45
Russia 45
Ukraine 46
Uzbekistan 46
Kazakhstan 46
Azerbaijan 46
TABLE 31 CIS WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL
GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 47
ASIA-PACIFIC 47
Australia 47
New Zealand 47
China 48
TABLE 32 ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD
NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 48
ROW 48
Latin America 48
Middle East 49
TABLE 33 ROW WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL
GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 49
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD STORAGE BY TYPE 49
TABLE 34 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD
NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 49
NORTH AMERICA 50
TABLE 35 NORTH AMERICA DEMAND FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD NATURAL GAS
STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 50
United States 50
East 50
West 51
Producing Region 51
Alaska 51
TABLE 36 UNITED STATES WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD
STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 51
EUROPE AND CIS 51
TABLE 37 EUROPE AND CIS WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER
FIELD STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 52
Europe 52
Czech Republic 52
Denmark 52
France 52
Germany 52
Latvia 53
Spain 53
Other 53
TABLE 38 EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD
STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 53
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 54
Russia 54
Other 54
TABLE 39 CIS WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD STORAGE
BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 54
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CAVERN STORAGE BY TYPE 54
TABLE 40 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR GLOBAL CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE
AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020
(%/BILLION CUBIC METERS)
54
TABLE 41 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY
GEOGRAPHIC REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 55
NORTH AMERICA 56
TABLE 42 DEMAND FOR NORTH AMERICA NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE OF
CAVERN, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 56
United States 56
TABLE 43 DEMAND FOR UNITED STATES SALT CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY
U.S. REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 57
Canada 57
Salt Cavern 57
Rock Cavern 57
TABLE 44 DEMAND FOR CANADA CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 58
EUROPE 58
TABLE 45 DEMAND FOR EUROPE CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 58
Denmark 58
France 58
Germany 59
The Netherlands 59
Poland 59
Portugal 59
United Kingdom 59
TABLE 46 EUROPE'S DEMAND FOR CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY,
THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 60
Sweden 60
Czech Republic 60
Other 60
TABLE 47 EUROPE'S DEMAND FOR ROCK CAVERN STORAGE BY COUNTRY,
THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 61
COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES (CIS) 61
Russia 61
Other 61
TABLE 48 DEMAND BY CIS FOR SALT CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY
COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 61
CHAPTER 5 DEMAND FOR ABOVE GROUND STORAGE 63
TABLE 49 DEMAND FOR GLOBAL ABOVE GROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE AS A
PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (%/BILLION
CUBIC METERS)
63
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE 63
TABLE 50 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL
NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (%/BILLION CUBIC METERS) 64
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LNG TANKER STORAGE 64
TABLE 51 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LNG TANKER TRADE STORAGE BY
EXPORTING REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 65
NORTH AMERICA 65
United States of America 65
Canada 66
TABLE 52 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR NORTH AMERICA LNG TANKER STORAGE
BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 66
TABLE 53 MAJOR LIQUEFACTION PROJECTS IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
THROUGH 2020 *(BILLION CUBIC METERS PER YEAR/%) 66
EUROPE 67
TABLE 54 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR EUROPE LNG TANKER STORAGE CAPACITY
BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 67
CIS 67
TABLE 55 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CIS LNG TANKER STORAGE BY EXPORTING
COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 67
ASIA-PACIFIC 68
Indonesia 68
Malaysia 68
Australia 68
Other Asia-Pacific 69
TABLE 56 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR ASIA-PACIFIC LNG TANKER STORAGE BY
EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 69
ROW 69
TABLE 57 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR ROW LNG TANKER STORAGE BY TYPE OF
EXPORTING REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 69
Central and South America 70
Trinidad and Tobago 70
Other 70
TABLE 58 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA LNG
TANKER STORAGE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC
METERS)
70
Africa 70
Nigeria 71
Algeria 71
Equatorial Guinea 71
Angola 71
Other Africa 71
TABLE 59 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR AFRICA LNG TANKER STORAGE BY
EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 72
Middle East 72
Qatar 72
Oman 72
Yemen 72
Brunei 73
UAE 73
TABLE 60 WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MIDDLE EAST TANKER STORAGE BY
EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 73
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT LNG STORAGE BY REGION 73
TABLE 61 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT LNG
STORAGE BY COUNTRY. 2015 74
TABLE 62 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE
CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 75
NORTH AMERICA 75
United States 76
Canada 76
TABLE 63 NORTH AMERICA WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT
STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 77
EUROPE AND CIS 77
Europe 77
CIS 77
TABLE 64 EUROPE AND CIS WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT
STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 78
ASIA-PACIFIC 78
Indonesia 78
Australia 78
Other 78
TABLE 65 ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT
STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 79
ROW 79
TABLE 66 ROW WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE
CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 79
Latin American 79
Trinidad and Tobago 80
TABLE 67 LATIN AMERICA'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT
STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 80
Middle East 80
Qatar 80
Yemen 81
Brunei 81
UAE 81
TABLE 68 MIDDLE EAST'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT
STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 81
Africa 81
Algeria 82
Nigeria 82
Egypt 82
Angola 82
Eq. Guinea 82
Other 82
TABLE 69 AFRICA WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE
BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 83
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG STORAGE BY REGION 83
TABLE 70 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG
STORAGE BY REGION THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 84
NORTH AMERICA 84
United States of America 84
Canada 84
Mexico 84
TABLE 71 NORTH AMERICA'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL
LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 84
TABLE 72 WORKING GAS CAPACITY OF U.S. FOR REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE,
2015 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 85
TABLE 73 CANADA'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE,
2015 85
TABLE 74 MEXICO'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE,
2015 86
EUROPE 86
TABLE 75 EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG
STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 87
Spain 87
TABLE 76 EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE
BY COUNTRY, 2015 87
ASIA-PACIFIC 88
TABLE 77 ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG
STORAGE CAPACITY BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 89
Japan 89
China 89
South Korea 90
India 90
TABLE 78 ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR REGASIFICATION AND
STORAGE BY COUNTRY, 2015 90
ROW 92
TABLE 79 ROW'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG
STORAGE CAPACITY BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 92
TABLE 80 ROW WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE BY
COUNTRY, 2015 93
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR MERCHANT AND SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY
REGION 93
TABLE 81 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT AND SMALL-SCALE
LNG STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 94
NORTH AMERICA 94
United States 94
Canada 95
Mexico 95
TABLE 82 NORTH AMERICA'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT OR
SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC
METERS)
95
EUROPE AND CIS 95
Netherlands 95
Spain 95
Norway 96
CIS 96
TABLE 83 EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT OR SMALL-SCALE
LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 96
ASIA-PACIFIC 96
China 97
Japan 97
Thailand 97
Korea 97
Other 98
TABLE 84 ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT OR
SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC
METERS)
98
ROW 98
Latin America 98
Middle East 98
Africa 98
TABLE 85 ROW WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT OR SMALL-SCALE LNG
STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 99
DEMAND FOR COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS (CNG) STORAGE 99
TABLE 86 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE
OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (%/BILLION CUBIC
METERS)
99
TABLE 87 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG STORAGE TANK BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 100
TYPE I TANKS 100
North America 100
Europe 101
Asia-Pacific 101
ROW 101
TABLE 88 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG TYPE I STORAGE TANKS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 101
TYPE II TANKS 101
North America 102
Europe 102
Asia-Pacific 102
ROW 102
TABLE 89 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG TYPE II STORAGE TANKS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 102
TYPE III/IV TANKS 102
North America 103
Europe 103
Asia-Pacific 103
ROW 103
TABLE 90 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG TYPE III/IV STORAGE TANKS
BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 104
TYPE V CNG STORAGE TANKS 104
North America 104
Europe 104
Asia-Pacific 104
ROW 105
TABLE 91 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR TYPE V CNG STORAGE TANKS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 105
CHAPTER 6 DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY APPLICATION 107
TABLE 92 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 107
DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY APPLICATION AND
REGION 108
TABLE 93 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 108
SEASONAL BALANCING 109
NORTH AMERICA 109
EUROPE 109
CIS 109
ASIA-PACIFIC 109
ROW 110
TABLE 94 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE FOR SEASONAL
BALANCING BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 110
SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION AND SECURITY OF SUPPLY 110
NORTH AMERICA 110
EUROPE 110
CIS 111
ASIA-PACIFIC 111
ROW 111
TABLE 95 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE FOR SYSTEM
OPTIMIZATION AND SECURITY OF SUPPLY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION
CUBIC METERS)
111
ARBITRAGE, TRANSIT BACK-UP AND DIRECT END-USE 111
NORTH AMERICA 111
EUROPE 112
CIS 112
ASIA-PACIFIC 112
ROW 112
TABLE 96 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR ARBITRAGE, TRANSIT BACK-UP AND DIRECT
END-USE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 112
LNG TRADE 112
TABLE 97 DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN INTERNATIONAL AND MERCHANT TRADE,
THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 113
DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE 113
United States of America 113
Qatar 113
Australia 114
TABLE 98 DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE BY EXPORTING
COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 114
DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN LIQUEFACTION AND RECEIVING
TERMINALS 115
TABLE 99 DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN LIQUEFACTION AND RECEIVING
TERMINALS, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 115
DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN MERCHANT AND SMALL-SCALE TRADE 115
TABLE 100 DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN MERCHANT AND SMALL-SCALE TRADE
BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 115
NORTH AMERICA 116
Peak Shaving 116
Remote and Stranded Supply 116
LNG as Transport Fuel 116
EUROPE AND CIS 116
Peak Shaving 116
Remote and Stranded Supply 117
LNG as Transport Fuel 117
ASIA-PACIFIC 117
Peak Shaving 117
Remote and Stranded Supply 117
LNG as Transport Fuel 117
ROW 117
Latin America 117
Peak Shaving 118
Remote and Stranded Supply 118
LNG as Transport Fuel 118
Middle East 118
Peak Shaving 118
Remote and Stranded Supply 118
LNG as Transport Fuel 118
Africa 118
Peak Shaving 119
Remote and Stranded Supply 119
LNG as Transport Fuel 119
TABLE 101 GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT AND SMALL-SCALE
LNG STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 119
DEMAND FOR COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS IN TRANSPORT 120
TABLE 102 DEMAND FOR CNG TANK STORAGE IN TRANSPORT BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 120
NORTH AMERICA 121
EUROPE 121
CIS 121
ASIA-PACIFIC 121
ROW 121
Middle East 122
Latin America 122
Africa 122
TABLE 103 ROW DEMAND FOR GAS STORAGE IN TRANSPORT BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 122
CHAPTER 7 TECHNOLOGY 124
TABLE 104 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY CONTAINMENT
TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 124
DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND CONTAINMENT BY POROSITY 125
TABLE 105 DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONTAINMENT BY
POROSITY TECHNOLOGY (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 125
NONPOROUS UNDERGROUND CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY 125
Leached Salt 125
Other 126
TABLE 106 DEMAND FOR CAVERN STORAGE BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 126
RESERVOIR CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF FLUID DEPLETION 126
Oil Depleted Reservoir Containment Technology 126
Gas Depleted Reservoir Containment Technology 126
Water Depleted Reservoir (Aquifer) Containment Technology 127
TABLE 107 DEMAND FOR WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR FLUID DEPLETED
RESERVOIRS CONTAINMENT BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 127
DEMAND FOR LNG CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY 127
MEMBRANE CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY 127
MOSS CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY 127
TABLE 108 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR MEMBRANE GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY BY
MATERIAL TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 128
DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE TANK CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY 128
Single Containment LNG Storage Tank Technology 128
Double Containment LNG Storage Tank Technology 128
Full Containment LNG Storage Tank Technology 129
TABLE 109 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LNG TANK STORAGE BY CONTAINMENT
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 129
DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE TANK BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY 129
TABLE 110 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE TANK BY CONTAINMENT
MATERIALS, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 130
METALLIC 130
CrMoSteel 130
Modified CrMoSteel 130
TABLE 111 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE METALLIC TANKS BY
CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 130
METALLIC COMPOSITE 131
Steel and Glass Fiber 131
Steel and Carbon Fiber 131
Aluminum and Carbon Fiber 131
TABLE 112 DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE METALLIC COMPOSITE TANKS BY
CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 131
NONMETALLIC COMPOSITE 132
Polymer and Glass/Carbon Hybrid 132
Polymer and Carbon Fiber 132
Collapsible or Sacrificial Mandrel and Carbon Fiber 132
Collapsible or Sacrificial Mandrel / Glass Fiber 132
TABLE 113 DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE NONMETALLIC TANKS BY CONTAINMENT
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 133
CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON 133
UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE 133
TABLE 114 TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON OF UGS CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS 134
LNG CARGO CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGIES 134
TABLE 115 TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON OF LNG CARGO CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS 135
SMALL-SCALE LNG CARGO CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGIES 135
TABLE 116 TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON OF SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE (SSLNGS)
TANK CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS 136
COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY 136
TABLE 117 TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON OF UGS CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS 137
DEMAND FOR CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY 137
TABLE 118 DEMAND FOR CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020
(CUBIC METERS/MILLION CUBIC METERS) 138
DEMAND FOR MERCHANT LNG STORAGE TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY 138
TABLE 119 DEMAND FOR MERCHANT LNG STORAGE TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY,
THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 139
DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY 139
TABLE 120 DEMAND FOR UGS TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION
CUBIC METERS/MILLION CUBIC METERS) 139
DEMAND FOR COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY
INTENSITY 140
TABLE 121 DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020
(BILLION CUBIC METERS/MILLIONS/CUBIC METERS PER VEHICLE) 140
DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE TANK TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY 140
TABLE 122 DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE TANK TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH
2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 140
DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE CARRIER TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY 141
TABLE 123 DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE CARRIER TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY,
THROUGH 2020 (MILLION CUBIC METERS) 141
NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 142
TABLE 124 NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY
DEVELOPMENT 142
NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS 151
TABLE 125 NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE PRODUCT
DEVELOPMENTS/IMPORTANT APPROACHES 151
NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE PROCESS APPLICATION 157
TABLE 126 NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE PROCESS/APPLICATION 157
COMPANY MARKET SHARES 158
UGS OPERATING COMPANIES 158
Gazprom 158
Storengy 158
Ukrtransgaz SC 158
STOGIT 159
TABLE 127 COMPANY SHARES FOR UGS OPERATING COMPANIES (WORKING GAS
CAPACITY) 159
COMPANY SHARES FOR LNG TANKER CAPACITY 159
Hyundai 159
Samsung 160
Daewoo 160
TABLE 128 LNG TANKERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION BY PROJECTED DELIVERY AND
CAPACITY, 2015-2020 (CUBIC METERS) 160
COMPANY SHARES FOR CNG PRESSURE VESSEL MANUFACTURERS 164
Faber Industrie 164
Luxfer 164
Inflex Argentoil S.A. 164
Hexagon Lincoln 165
TABLE 129 COMPANY SHARES FOR PRESSURE VESSEL MANUFACTURERS 165
CHAPTER 8 INTERNATIONAL OVERVIEW 167
POPULATION 167
TABLE 130 GLOBAL POPULATION GROWTH, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION) 167
UNITED STATES AND CANADA 167
ASIA-PACIFIC 167
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 168
OTHERS 168
TABLE 131 GLOBAL POPULATION GROWTH BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS) 168
GLOBAL GDP AND GDP PER CAPITA 168
GLOBAL GDP 169
TABLE 132 GLOBAL GDP AND GDP PER CAPITA, THROUGH 2020 (2005 $ BILLIONS) 169
GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FEEDSTOCK 169
PETROLEUM 170
NATURAL GAS 170
COAL 170
NUCLEAR 170
HYDROELECTRIC 170
RENEWABLES 170
TABLE 133 GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FEEDSTOCK, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION TONS OF OIL EQUIVALENT) 171
GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PROVEN RESERVES BY REGION 171
TABLE 134 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS RESERVES, THROUGH 2020 (TRILLION CUBIC
FEET) 171
NORTH AMERICA 172
EUROPE 172
ASIA-PACIFIC 172
ROW 172
TABLE 135 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
(TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 172
South America 172
Africa 173
Middle East 173
TABLE 136 ROW'S NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
(TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 173
GLOBAL OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION INVESTMENTS 173
TABLE 137 GLOBAL OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION and PRODUCTION INVESTMENTS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 173
NORTH AMERICA 174
EUROPE 174
ASIA-PACIFIC 174
ROW 174
TABLE 138 GLOBAL OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION INVESTMENTS
BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 175
Central and South America 175
Africa 175
Middle East 175
TABLE 139 ROW'S OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION INVESTMENTS
BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 176
GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION 176
TABLE 140 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION,THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC
METERS) 176
NORTH AMERICA 177
EUROPE 177
ASIA-PACIFIC 177
ROW 177
TABLE 141 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION,THROUGH 2020
(BILLION CUBIC METERS) 177
South America 178
Middle East 178
Africa 178
TABLE 142 ROW NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
(BILLION CUBIC METERS) 178
GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY TYPE 178
CONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION 179
TABLE 143 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY TYPE,THROUGH 2020 (BILLION
CUBIC METERS) 179
UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION 179
TABLE 144 GLOBAL UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY
GEOGRAPHIC REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 179
North America 180
United States 180
Canada 180
Mexico 180
Europe 180
Asia-Pacific 181
Australia 181
China 181
Middle East, Latin America and Africa 181
TABLE 145 GLOBAL UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY
COUNTRY/REGION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC METERS) 182
GLOBAL NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION BY REGION 182
TABLE 146 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2020 (BILLION CUBIC
METERS) 182
TABLE 147 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
(BILLION CUBIC METERS) 183
NORTH AMERICA 183
EUROPE 183
ASIA-PACIFIC 183
ROW 184
INTERNATIONAL CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATES 184
EURO/DOLLAR 184
YEN/DOLLAR 184
RMB/DOLLAR 184
TABLE 148 YEARLY AVERAGE EXCHANGE RATES FOR CONVERTING FOREIGN
CURRENCIES INTO U.S. DOLLARS* (2012-2020) 184
NATURAL GAS AND OIL PRICES 186
CRUDE OIL 186
NATURAL GAS 186
TABLE 149 NATURAL GAS PRICES, THROUGH 2020 (U.S. $ PER MILLION BTU) 187
THE METAL MARKET 187
STEEL 188
IRON ORE 188
NICKEL 188
ALUMINUM 188
COPPER 188
COBALT 189
ZINC 189
TIN 189
CHROMIUM 189
MOLYBDENUM 189
LEAD 190
SILVER 190
TABLE 150 GLOBAL MARKET FOR METALS USED FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY
TYPE,THROUGH 2020 ($/TONNE) 190
CHAPTER 9 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 192
TABLE 151 STORAGE ALONG THE NATURAL GAS CHAIN 192
BARRIERS TO FURTHER DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT 192

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