This is the most in-depth report on the Indian Media and Entertainment Industry currently available prepared by a combination of International and Indian researchers who know the market inside and out. If you're a media owner looking to enter the Indian market or need to keep abreast of key changes and developments, this is the report you need to keep you up-to-date in this fast moving, rapidly growing market.
This Report dives the Indian macro economy, and provides a thorough overview of the media landscape in India. The report outlines who the important foreign and domestic players are, will show you what competitors are doing and also identify potential partners (see companies covered for more detail).
The Report provides analysis of the current market conditions and growth forecasts out to 2016 and in some cases 2025; useful in helping you ascertain which areas represent most opportunity.
Areas covered include:
- Macro-Economic Overview and Trends
- Television, Print, Digital Media, Radio, and B2B (including events, Healthcare, Infrastructure, Environment, Education, Travel, Civil Aviation and Automotive) industries
- M&A, PE, VC across various sectors
- Advertising, consumer behaviour, People and Demographics
- Share of Average Household Consumption
- Major players across all of the above sectors
- Key challenges and outlook (to 2016 and beyond)
- Regulatory Environment, FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) policies
- Mobile and Internet adoption
- See table of contents for full listing
Many media companies have bought this complete report from East West Information Services to help with market entry strategy and due diligence in the Indian media market.
a) The macro-economic outlook
India is the world’s second most populous country with a little over 1.2 billion people and is already ranked 3rd in terms of its PPP ranking, representing around 2.98% of world GDP in 2012. By 2030, India will almost certainly be the world’s third largest economy in absolute terms, also. (By 2050, some would predict that it will be the largest).
But this is a market which has remained largely closed to foreign media companies until relatively recently when, in 1991, the cumulative impact of past policies and changing world economic trends meant that India faced a severe foreign exchange crisis. The government moved then to remove some of the regulations governing investment, including many although not all restrictions on foreign investment. This trend has continued, with planned changes to restrictions within the retail sector among the latest developments. The pace of foreign investment is now accelerating.
Despite the recent slowdown in the Indian economy, we are convinced that the fundamentals remain strong and that the country will return to significant growth.
India is not immune to the economic difficulties in the west, although given its growing domestic consumption, it is perhaps more resilient than other nations. The government has to some extent engineered the slowdown to combat inflation and that is showing success and can soon be relaxed. The government has also been criticised for a lack of decisiveness and it is true that there appears to be a power-vacuum at present, which will probably not be solved until after the next general election (due in 2014, but possibly even sooner). Thankfully, India has always been a nation of entrepreneurs and they will continue to drive India’s growth, in spite of government bureaucracy and indecision. (If China’s growth is ‘planned and top-down’, India’s will inevitably remain more bottom-up.)
In terms of the fundamentals….bear in mind that whilst the populations of the west are increasingly ageing and mostly suffer from excessive debt and unaffordable long-term commitments, India has a population of 550 million people under the age of 25, education levels are rising rapidly, a high proportion of young Indian are highly tech- savvy and personal and government debt are low.
People and Demographics – Growing Middle Class
The Government of India defines the middle class as the mid socioeconomic class (SEC C). The National Council for Applied Economic Research (NCAER) defines the Indian middle class as those whose annual household income falls in the income group of $4,000-$21,000. It comprises people who are employed at clerical or supervisory levels, skilled workers, petty traders or shop owners. The purchasing power of the middle class is increasing rapidly, with considerable potential to grow further still. Armed with increased disposable income, their spending on various products has also increased, most rapidly, as you would expect, on discretionary items
Mobile phone handsets provide a good example. The highest percentage of mobile ownership is among the Indian middle class; according to TGI India, 42% of all mobile phone owners in the country are in this socio-demographic group, representing more than 330 million consumers. Mobile will transform the fortunes of many industries in India, including, of course, the media and entertainment industry.
Real household disposable income has more than doubled since 1985. In the next decade, the middle class will be the dominant section of the Indian population
The change in consumption from necessities to discretionary items mirrors the pattern of developed economies, but at an accelerated pace. Commodities such as cars and air-conditioners, which were in the past considered luxury items, are now considered ‘necessities’. In fact, small car ownership in India has grown at a compound annual growth rate of 12.7 percent for the period 2004-05 to 2010-11.
Other industries have also followed the history of western economies. For instance, in the case of apparels the tradition of buying tailored shirts has been replaced by a rising demand for ready-made shirts. The movement from disorganized to organized industrial models is transforming every part of society, from branding and advertising, to supply chains.
Impact of the rising middle class on economic growth
The rise in per capita income of the growing middle class will further propel urbanization.
According to McKinsey & Company, in 2005, around 53 percent of the consumption was in the rural area but by 2025, 62 percent of the consumption will be in the urban area. This will lead to development of the smaller cities, which are now growing at a very fast pace. These cities will host a large number of the middle class and by 2025 around two-thirds of the Indian middle class will be outside the big metro cities like Delhi and Mumbai.
The use of financial services by the middle class is likely to give a push to the growing trends of retail banking and credit card usage. The middle class will also demand better healthcare and education services with a willingness to pay, creating opportunities for the commercial sector
Their discretionary expenditure on recreation activities, leisure travel, and entertainment and luxury items will increase. As income increases, the middle class will not only diversify their consumption baskets, but will demand better quality of and innovation in the products they purchase.
b) The Media Economy
The Indian E&M industry, with revenues of about USD 17.2 billion in 2011, is set to grow robustly over the next few years on the back of steady macro-economic growth, rising spending power and positive demographic indicators. The industry revenues are expected to reach USD 37.6 billion by 2016, with a CAGR of about 17% from 2012 to 2016.
Currently, India is only the 14th largest E&M market in the world with industry revenues contributing about 1% of its GDP.
Indians between the age group of 18-26 are more tech savvy and spend more time on the internet than any other media, as well as being the highest consumers of media, in general
We are confident that the media economy will remain in high growth, beyond the overall economy. There are two main drivers: Growing literacy and slightly improved affluence in the rural areas and smaller cities, above subsistence levels, mean that the market for newspapers and regional language media continues to be robust and will show growth for many years. Simultaneously, among India’s middle class, digitisation in TV, an increase in the number of FM licenses in radio, and the growth of smart phones and broadband connectivity, all mean that the media revolution experienced in the west during the past few decades is now being experienced in India, too, but within a compressed timescale.
The fundamental social change affecting all consumer media is the focus on self-improvement, which will last for at least a generation from now. Simultaneously, growth in income levels is driving expenditure on homes, travel, cars and other needs beyond the most basic and increase in leisure time is driving interest in hobbies and other interests beyond the work-related.
The change affecting B2B media is the transformation of India’s business structures, from fragmented to organized.
We believe that there are two big questions concerning India’s media development, of importance to the higher SEC groups and of principle concern to international investors:
- What impact will digital transition have on TV economics….both the transition of cable to digital set-top boxes and the growth of DTH?
- At what pace can the roll-out of smart phones be anticipated, with either wi-fi connectivity, or 3G/4G subscriptions?
We believe that the answer to both is that over the period of the next decade, these drivers will utterly transform the media sector in India. Neither impact will be instantaneous or follow a straight line. But the correct attitude to the market at this point is to become sufficiently engaged to understand the market and the changes taking place.
Potential Game Changers
Advertising Spends: Television and print dominate the advertising segment in India, with over 80% share of revenue. Digital advertising spend will now rapidly accelerate in absolute terms and proportionately.
Advertising Spends for Television: Television advertising will also increase at pace.The television audience in the country has been on a high growth path, enabling advertisers to reach out to a larger segment of the Indian population. As a result, advertising budget allocation has slowly shifted its focus from other advertising media to this platform. Limited data about the specialist audiences different channels provide has held the medium back from its full potential and will be corrected.
Consumer Spends: Consumers will remain reluctant to pay high prices for content – a strongly ingrained cultural phenomenon. However, rising disposable incomes will lead to some growth in expenditure on TV and mobile subscriptions. There will also be an increasing willingness among the affluent to spend on media perceived as luxury items, such as glossy magazines.
Increasing penetration of Cable and satellite television: While the existing penetration of cable and satellite television is around 83% of television households, there exists a sizeable disparity between different states. For example, locations such as Mumbai, Delhi, and Bangalore have cable & satellite television reaching more than 90% of total television households, while states like Orissa and Assam have a relatively lower penetration, with a potential for significant growth. This, coupled with the rising popularity of multi-television households indicates that a penetration potential is even much higher.
Digitization of Media Delivery: The digitization of cable networks will help deliver high quality content to Indian viewers and also reduce the incidence of value leakage from the industry. Further, the number of channels delivered to consumers will increase substantially. Digitization will also help drive the uptake of HD channels and value-added- services such as pay-per-view (e.g., movies), encouraging higher consumer spend and delivering higher profitability to broadcasters.
Driving Internet penetration: Internet penetration in India is around 7%, but growing at a very fast pace in India. Infrastructural development in rural areas will help internet to reach to every part of India.
Mobile induced transformation: Increasing mobile and internet penetration is expected to positively impact digital media. Affordable broadband service combined with user comfort is likely to result in shift towards digital medium.
The need for quality information by business: The dramatic change to the structures of almost all industries within India, will make the B2B media sector one of the highest growth. The sharp rise in domestic consumption and the resultant pick up in manufacturing and services industry activity has attracted many overseas corporations to look at India for marketing, partnership and sourcing. B2B events and conferences have provided these players – both foreign and local – a platform to understand and evaluate the market opportunities and market participants better.
Regulatory and Policy Support: Significant policy initiatives such as the liberalizing of FDI have already been taken by the government to facilitate faster growth of E&M sector. Mandatory digitization is a key policy measure which is expected to improve the TV sector’s profitability and aid growth in the long term. Lot needs to be done by the government in terms of bringing clarity in its regulatory policies. Policy makers’ inordinate delay in policy announcement and failure to adhere to implementation timelines are some of the areas which continue to frustrate. But despite many drawbacks, India has many positives and assurances to offer: a vibrant democracy and a very active judiciary system.
This report contains is a combination of four separate reports with additional commentary and M&A, VC, PE deal coverage. The individual reports can be viewed through the links below.