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An electroactive polymer (EAP) is a polymer that exhibits a mechanical response – such as stretching, contracting, or bending, for example – in response to an electric field, or a polymer that produces energy in response to a mechanical stress.

The actuator property of some EAPs has been attractive for a broad range of potential applications, including but not limited to robotic arms, grippers, loudspeakers, active diaphragms, dust wipers, heel strikers (dental) and numerous automotive applications. There are also numerous applications within the medical field, including but not limited to artificial muscles, synthetic limbs or prostheses, wound pumps, active compressing socks, and catheter or other implantable medical device steering elements.

EAP materials have high energy density, rapid response time, customizability (shape and performance characteristics), compactness, easy controllability, low power consumption, high force output and deflections/amount of motion, natural stiffness, combined sensing and actuation functions, relatively low raw materials costs, and relatively inexpensive manufacturing costs.

Electroactive ceramic actuators (for example, piezoelectric and electro-strictive) are effective, compact actuation materials, and they are used to replace electromagnetic motors. While these materials are capable of delivering large forces, they produce a relatively small displacement, on the order of magnitude of a fraction of a percent.

Since the beginning of the 1990s, new EAP materials have emerged that exhibit large strains, and they have led to a paradigm shift because of their capabilities. The unique properties of these materials are highly attractive for bio-mimetic applications such as biologically inspired intelligent robots. Increasingly, engineers are able to develop EAP-actuated mechanisms that were previously imaginable only in science fiction. Electric motors tend to be too weak, while hydraulics and pneumatics are too heavy for use in robotics or prosthetics. In comparison, EAPs are lightweight, quiet and capable of energy densities similar to biological muscles.

In ionic EAPs, actuation is caused by the displacement of ions inside the polymer. Only a few volts are needed for actuation, but the ionic flow implies a higher electrical power needed for actuation, and energy is needed to keep the actuator at a given position. Examples of EAPS in this area are dielectric elastomers, polymers, ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs), conductive polymers and responsive gels.

An EAP actuator not only is completely different from conventional electromechanical devices, but also separates itself from other high-tech approaches that are based on piezoelectric materials or shape-memory alloys by providing a significantly more power-dense package and, in many instances, a smaller footprint.

Electro-active polymer technology could potentially replace common motion-generating mechanisms in positioning, valve control, pump and sensor applications, where designers are seeking quieter, power efficient devices to replace cumbersome conventional electric motors and drive trains.

This study reports new concepts in mechanism design and digital mechatronics, which have the potential to significantly impact a wide variety of systems and devices, including medical devices, haptic actuators, haptic switches, aperture adjustments in mobile cameras, manufacturing systems, toys and robotics, among others. The survey mainly targets dielectric elastomer actuators, conductive polymers actuators and IMPC actuators as the most likely candidates to act as EAP devices, on the basis of material characteristics, maturity of technology, reliability, and cost to meet design requirements of applications considered.

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

Markets for EAP devices are strongly driven by the expanding medical market, E-textiles and robotics, with its demand for a novel class of electrically controlled actuators based on polymer materials. Almost any laboratory for molecular biology must be equipped with a dextrous robotic gripper. The artificial muscle envisioned is a low-cost actuator capable of being accurately electrically controlled, expanding or contracting linearly, and performing in a manner similar to natural skeletal muscles. Such an actuator has potential applications in areas where flexibility of a moving system goes together with a need for accurate control of the motion: haptic actuators, haptic switches, aperture adjustments in mobile phone cameras, robotics, advanced consumer products like smart fabrics, toys and medical technology. Totally new design principles and novel products for everyday use with a large economic potential can be anticipated.

In addition, new and much larger markets will open up if microfluidic devices using micropumps and microvalves can enter the arena of clinical and point-of-care medicine and even the home diagnostics market. This study focuses on EAP devices, types, applications, new developments, industry and global markets, providing market data about the size and growth of the application segments, including a detailed patent analysis, company profiles and industry trends. Another goal of this report is to provide a detailed and comprehensive multi-client study of the market in North America, Europe, Japan and the rest of the world (ROW) for EAPs and potential business opportunities in the future.

The objectives include thorough coverage of the underlying economic issues driving the EAP and devices businesses, as well as assessments of new advanced EAPs and devices that are being developed. Another important objective is to provide realistic market data and forecasts for EAPs and devices. This report provides the most thorough and up-to-date assessment that can be found anywhere on the subject. The study also provides extensive quantification of the many important facets of market developments in EAPs and devices all over the world. This, in turn, contributes to the determination of what kinds of strategic responses companies may adopt in order to compete in this dynamic market.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

EAPs exhibit many qualities that make them ideal for a low-cost actuator capable of being accurately electrically controlled, expanding or contracting linearly, and performing in a manner that resembles the natural skeletal muscles. Such an actuator has potential applications in areas where flexibility of a moving system goes together with a need for accurate control of the motion, such as EAP-based medical devices, advanced consumer products like haptic actuators, aperture adjustments in mobile phone cameras, robotics, smart fabrics, and toys.

Development of EAP fields will benefit companies that use EAP components to add value to products and services, companies skilled in using EAP to design new products and services, and materials processors that add value to raw materials. The small volumes of EAP consumption likely will have little impact on raw materials suppliers. Near-term returns on investment by EAP suppliers generally will be modest, because most EAP fields still are building infrastructure and knowledge bases for efficient and effective production, marketing and use of EAPs. The specialized knowledge necessary to produce EAPs and incorporate those effectively into products will slow the spread of EAP use, but it also has led to high market valuations for companies developing products for high-value applications.

EAPs also are finding applications in haptics, which provides a tactile feedback technology taking advantage of the sense of touch by applying forces, vibrations, or motions to the user. Haptic feedback interface devices using EAP actuators provide haptic sensations and/or sensing capabilities. A haptic feedback interface device is in communication with a host computer and includes a sensor device that detects the manipulation of the interface device by the user and an EAP actuator responsive to input signals and operative to output a force to the user caused by motion of the actuator. The output force provides a haptic sensation to the user.

Smart structures, which fully integrate structural and mechatronic components, represent the most refined use of EAPs and might eventually enjoy very large markets. Only a very simple EAP-based smart-structure product is in commercial use today. Other important areas of opportunity include applications in which designers are looking for performance improvements or new features but are unwilling to accept the compromises necessary to use conventional mechanisms and products (including non-mechanical devices) that must operate in a variety of conditions but have rigid designs optimized for a single operating point. Though improvements in EAP performance would increase the range of possible applications, the major barriers to widespread EAP use are users' lack of familiarity with the technology, the need for low-cost, robust production processes, and the need for improved design tools to enable non-experts to use the materials with confidence.

Since publishing our last report in 2008, many changes have occurred, including the emergence of new market segments such as haptic sensors and adjustable apertures for cellular phone cameras, new materials and new fabrication processes, new manufacturers and new patents. Therefore, iRAP felt a need to do a detailed technology update and analysis of this industry.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY

The study is intended to benefit existing manufacturers of robotics, advanced consumer products like smart fabrics, toys, and medical technology, who seek to expand revenues and market opportunities through new technology such as low-cost EAPs and devices, which are positioned to become a preferred solution over conventional actuator applications.

This study also provides the most complete accounting of EAPs and devices growth in North America, Europe, Japan and the rest of the world currently available in a multi-client format. The markets have also been estimated according to the type of materials used, such as dielectric elastomer actuators, conductive polymers and ionic polymer metal composites.

The report provides the most thorough and up-to-date assessment that can be found anywhere on the subject. The study also provides extensive quantification of the many important facets of market developments in the emerging markets of EAPs and devices, such as China. This, in turn, contributes to the determination of what kind of strategic response suppliers may adopt in order to compete in this dynamic market.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

The market data contained in this report quantify opportunities for EAPs and devices. In addition to product types, the report also covers the many issues concerning the merits and future prospects of the EAP and devices business, including corporate strategies, information technologies, and the means for providing these highly advanced products and service offerings. It also covers in detail the economic and technological issues regarded by many as critical to the industry’s current state of change. The report provides a review of the EAP and devices industry and its structure and the many companies involved in providing these products. The competitive position of the main players in the market and their strategic options are also discussed, as well as such competitive factors as marketing, distribution and operations.

TO WHOM THE STUDY CATERS

The study will benefit existing manufacturers of EAP-tipped catheters, haptic actuators, aperture adjustment mechanisms in mobile cameras, robotics, advanced consumer products like smart fabrics and toys, and medical technology. EAP materials exhibit large strains, and they led to a paradigm shift based on their capabilities. The unique properties of these materials are highly attractive for biomimetic applications such as biologically inspired intelligent robots.

This study provides a technical overview of EAPs and related devices, especially recent technology developments and existing barriers. Therefore, audiences for this study include marketing executives, business unit managers and other decision makers working in the areas of haptic applications, aperture adjustment mechanisms in mobile cameras, robotics, advanced consumer products like smart fabrics and toys, and medical technology, as well as those in companies peripheral to these businesses.

REPORT SUMMARY

Electroactive polymers are increasingly used in niche actuators and sensor applications demanding large strains as compared to other piezoelectric materials. New applications are emerging in medical devices, haptic actuators, cellular phone cameras, smart fabrics for sensors, digital mecha-tronics and high strain sensors.

New EAP devices are already replacing some mechanisms that rely on direct or indirect displacement to produce power. Shape-memory alloys contract with a thermal cycle, and piezoelectric technologies expand and contract with voltage at high frequencies. While both these technologies provide direct displacement, they are usually limited to 1% direct displacement. Electromagnetic solutions typically consist of a motor that rotates an output shaft, so there is no direct displacement from the motor itself, but there can be “indirect” displacement from a mechanism connected to the output shaft.

EAP devices are facing competition in a new rapidly evolving and highly competitive sector of the medical market. Increased competition could result in reduced prices and gross margins for EAP products and could require increased spending on research and development, sales and marketing, and customer support.

This study separated markets for EAP devices and products into six application segments – medical devices, haptic actuators, adjustable apertures for cellular phone cameras, smart fabrics, digital mechatronics, and high-strain sensing instruments for construction.

MAJOR FINDINGS OF THIS REPORT

• Global market for EAP actuators and sensors reached $148 million in 2012. This will increase to $363 million by 2017.

• Medical devices had the largest market share in 2012 followed by haptic actuators, adjustable apertures for cellular phones, high strain sensing in construction, smart fabrics, and digital mechatronics.

• While medical devices will continue to maintain the lead in 2017, that sector will see a modest average annual growth rate (AAGR) of 11.8% for the period. Haptic actuators will see maximum growth at an AAGR of 35% from 2012 to 2017.

• Among the regions, North America has the largest market share with 66% of the market and will be maintained around 60% share till 2017.

Table Of Contents

Electro-active Polymer Actuators and Sensors - Types, Applications, New Developments, Industry Structure and Global Markets
1. INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION I
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES II
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY III
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY IV
SCOPE AND FORMAT IV
METHODOLOGY V
INFORMATION SOURCES V
WHOM THE STUDY CATERS TO VI
AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS VI

2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY VIII
SUMMARY TABLE A -GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE
SHARE FOR ELECTRO-ACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATORS AND
SENSORS BY APPLICATION, 2012 AND 2017 X
SUMMARY FIGURE A - GLOBAL MARKET
SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ELECTRO-ACTIVE
POLYMER ACTUATORS AND SENSORS BY
APPLICATION, 2012 AND 2017 XI
SUMMARY TABLE B - NORTH AMERICAN AND
GLOBAL MARKET FOR ELECTRO-ACTIVE POLYMER
ACTUATORS AND SENSORS, 2012 AND 2017 XII
SUMMARY FIGURE B - NORTH AMERICAN AND
GLOBAL MARKET FOR ELECTRO-ACTIVE POLYMER
ACTUATORS AND SENSORS, 2012 AND 2017 XII

3. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 1
EAP TECHNOLOGY AND TYPES 1
IONIC EAPS 1
FIELD-ACTIVATED OR ELECTRONIC EAPS 2
Dielectric Polymers 3
Dielectric Polymers (Continued) 4
Phase Transition Polymers 5
TABLE 1 - SUMMARY OF THE ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES OF THE TWO BASIC EAP GROUPS 6
DEFINITIONS 6
TABLE 2-DEFINITIONS OF TECHNICAL TERMS
USED FOR ELECTRO-ACTIVE POLYMER
ACTUATORS 7
EAP MATERIALS FOR ACTUATOR APPLICATIONS 8
EAP ACTUATOR APPLICATIONS 9
DETAILED APPLICATIONS 10
DETAILED APPLICATIONS (CONTINUED) 11
DETAILED APPLICATIONS (CONTINUED) 12
MARKET ACCORDING TO APPLICATIONS 13
TABLE 3 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR
ELECTRO-ACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATORS AND SENSORS
2012 AND 2017 14
FIGURE 1- GLOBAL MARKET FOR EAP ACTUATORS
AND SENSORS BY APPLICATION IN 2012 AND 2017 15
MEDICAL APPLICATIONS 16
Micro-pumps 16
Micro-pumps(Continued) 17
Active Catheters 18
Active Catheters (Continued) 19
Active Catheters (Continued) 20
FIGURE 2 - APPLICATION OF AN EAP CATHETER 21
Enabling new functionality for medical devices 22
Enabling new functionality for medical devices (Continued) 23
Eye focus correction 24
FIGURE 3 -ILLUSTRATION OF EYELID SLING
ATTACHED TO EAP ARTIFICIAL MUSCLE DEVICE25
Disposable Infusion Pumps 26
FIGURE 4 - APPLICATION OF ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMER IN A DIAPHRAGM PUMP 27
Medical Markets 28
TABLE 4 - FORECAST OF ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER USE IN
MICRO-PUMPS, ACTIVE CATHETERS, MRI EQUIPMENT, EYE
FOCUS CORRECTION AND DISPOSABLE INFUSION PUMPS
2012 - 2017 29
ROBOTICS EMULATING BIOLOGY 29
ROBOTICS EMULATING BIOLOGY (CONTINUED) 30
ROBOTICS EMULATING BIOLOGY (CONTINUED) 31
FIGURE 5- APPLICATION OF EAP ACTUATORS IN ROBOTS 32
ROBOTICS MARKET 33
TABLE 5 -FORECAST FOR EAP DEVICE USAGE IN DIGITAL
MECHATRONICS FOR MEDICAL BIOMETICS ROBOTICS AND
TOY ROBOTICS, 2012 AND 2017 33
HAPTIC ACTUATORS 33
HAPTIC ACTUATORS (CONTINUED) 34
FIGURE 6 -APPLICATION OF ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMER-HAPTIC SWITCH 35
FIGURE 7 -APPLICATION OF ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMER - HAPTIC SWITCH LAYOUT 36
TABLE 6- FORECAST FOR EAP ACTUATOR USAGE IN 36
HAPTIC APPLICATIONS, 2012 AND 2017 36
ADJUSTABLE APERTURES FOR CELLULAR PHONE CAMERAS 37
TABLE 7 -SPECIFICATIONS FOR TYPICAL EAP
APERTURE MECHANISMS IN MOBILE PHONES 37
FIGURE 8 -ILLUSTRATIONS OF EAP APERTURE
MECHANISMS FOR PHONE CAMERAS 38
TABLE 8 -FORECAST FOR EAP DEVICE USAGE IN
AJUSTABLE APERTURE ACTUATORS FOR CELL
PHONE CAMERA APPLICATIONS, 2012 AND 2017 38
LARGE STRAIN SENSING FUNCTIONS: WALL SHEAR
STRESS SENSORS 39
LARGE STRAIN SENSING FUNCTIONS: WALL SHEAR
STRESS SENSORS (CONTINUED) 40
WALL SHEAR STRESS SENSOR MARKET 41
TABLE 9 - FORECAST FOR EAP DEVICE USAGE AS
SENSORS IN CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL
CONSTRUCTION, 2012 AND 2017 42
WEARABLE DIELECTRIC ELASTOMER ACTUATORS 42
WEARABLE DIELECTRIC ELASTOMER ACTUATORS (CONT.) 43
WEARABLE DE MARKET 44
TABLE 10 - FORECAST FOR EAP DEVICE USAGE IN
SMART FABRIC SENSORS, 2012 AND 2017 44
COMBINED MARKET ACCORDING TO APPLICATIONS 44
TABLE 11 - SUMMARY OF GLOBAL MARKET FOR EAP
ACTUATORS BY APPLICATION, 2012 AND 2017 45
MARKET ACCORDING TO MATERIAL TYPES 45
TABLE 12 - FORECAST FOR MATERIAL USAGE IN EAP
ACTUATORS AND SENSORS, 2012 AND 2017 46
FIGURE 9 - ILLUSTRATION OF MARKET SHARE FOR
MATERIAL USAGE IN EAP ACTUATORS AND SENSORS
2012 AND 2017 47

4. INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS 48
TABLE 13 - BRANDED EAP ACTUATORS ON THE
MARKET IN 2012 48
TABLE 13 - BRANDED EAP ACTUATORS ON THE
MARKET IN 2012 (CONTINUED) 49
FACTORS INFLUENCING MARKET PERFORMANCE
SUCCESS STORIES 50
BUSINESS MODELS AND INDUSTRY PARTICIPANTS 51
BUSINESS MODELS AND INDUSTRY PARTICIPANTS (CONTINUED) 52
TABLE 14 - EAP DEVICE MANUFACTURERS AND
PRODUCT AREAS 53
TABLE 14 - EAP DEVICE MANUFACTURERS AND
PRODUCT AREAS (CONTINUED) 54
TABLE 15 - MARKET SHARE OF TOP MANUFACTURERS
OF EAP ACTUATORS IN 2012 55
REGIONAL MARKETS 56
FIGURE 10 - REGIONAL PERCENTAGES OF MARKET
SHARE FOR EAP DEVICES, 2012 AND 2017 57
ACQUISITIONS AND MERGERS 58
TABLE 17 - PARTNERSHIP AND COLLABORATION
DEALS OF POLYMER ACTUATORS, 2005 TO 2012 58
TABLE 17 - PARTNERSHIP AND COLLABORATION
DEALS OF POLYMER ACTUATORS, 2005 TO 2012 (CONTINUED) 59

5. TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW CHAPTER
TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW OF EAP ACTUATORS AND SENSORS 60
DIELECTRIC EAPS AND ELASTOMER ACTUATORS 60
CONSTRUCTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 61
CONSTRUCTION AND CHARACTERISTICS (CONTINUED) 62
FIGURE 11 - DIELECTRIC ELASTOMER POLYMER
ACTUATOR CONSTRUCTION 63
IONIC POLYMER METAL COMPOSITES ACTUATORS 64
FIGURE 12 - STRUCTURE OF IONIC POLYMER METAL
COMPOSITES 65
CONDUCTIVE POLYMER ACTUATORS 65
COMPARISON OF EAP ACTUATORS VERSUS OTHER ACTUATORS 66
FIGURE 13 - COMPARISION OF EAP ACTUATORS WITH
OTHER ACTUATORS 67
FIGURE 14 - PERFORMANCE OF KEY TYPES OFACTUATORS 69
COMPARISON OF EAP SENSORS 69
TABLE 18 - COMPARISON OF IONOMERIC POLYMER
SENSORS AND PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS 70
MATERIALS USED IN EAP ACTUATORS 71
TABLE 19 - MATERIALS USED IN ELECTROACTIVE
ACTUATORS AND SENSORS 72
CHARACTERSTICS OF EAP ACTUATORS 73
CHARACTERSTICS OF EAP ACTUATORS (CONTINUED) 74
TABLE 20 - CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTIES
OF EAP-TYPE ACTUATORS 75
DEVELOPING EAP TECHNOLOGIES 76
TABLE 21 - COMPARISION OF WORK DENSITIES
AND STRAINS OF EAP ACTUATORS 77

6. NEW DEVELOPMENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS CHAPTER
NEW DEVELOPMENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS 78
U.S. PATENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS 78
TABLE 22 - NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS GRANTED TO COMPANIES
MANUFACTURING EAP ACTUATORS AND SENSORS FROM
2008 THROUGH 2012 (TO MAY 31) 79
FIGURE 15 - TOP COMPANIES IN TERMS OF U.S.PATENTS
GRANTED FOR EAP ACTUATORS AND SENSORS FROM
JANUARY 2008 THROUGH MAY 2012 80
OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY
IN EAP ACTUATORS AND SENSORS 80
TABLE 23 - NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS GRANTED BY
ASSIGNED COUNTRY/REGION FOR EAP ACTUATORS
AND SENSORS FROM JANUARY 2008 THROUGH MAY 2012 81
DETAILS OF U.S. PATENTS ISSUED FOR ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMERS AND DEVICES 81
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATED DEVICES 81
INTERNAL MEDICAL DEVICES FOR DELIVERY OF
THERAPEUTIC AGENT IN CONJUNCTION WITH A
SOURCE OF ELECTRICAL POWER 82
DEVICES AND METHODS FOR STRICTURE DILATION 82
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR
A MEDICAL DEVICE 82
METHOD FOR FABRICATING ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMER TRANSDUCER 82
ELECTROADHESIVE DEVICES 83
WALL CRAWLING ROBOTS 83
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER BASED ARTIFICIAL
SPHINCTERS AND ARTIFICIAL MUSCLE PATCHES 83
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER DEVICE 84
ELECTROCHEMICAL ACTUATOR 84
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER TRANSDUCERS BIASED
FOR OPTIMAL OUTPUT 84
OPTICAL LENS DISPLACEMENT SYSTEMS 85
METHOD OF FABRICATING AN ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMER TRANSDUCER 85
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATED MEDICAL DEVICES 85
ELECTROCHEMICAL ACTUATOR 85
ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS, DEVICES, AND STRUCTURES 86
HIGH-PERFORMANCE ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER
TRANSDUCERS 86
CIRCUITS FOR ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER GENERATORS 86
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER DEVICES FOR
CONTROLLING FLUID FLOW 87
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER TRANSDUCERS FOR
SENSORY FEEDBACK APPLICATIONS 87
EMBEDDED ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER STRUCTURES
FOR USE IN MEDICAL DEVICES 87
OPTICAL LENS DISPLACEMENT SYSTEMS 88
ROTATABLE CATHETER ASSEMBLY 88
METHOD FOR FORMING AN ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMER TRANSDUCER 88
MEDICAL BALLOON INCORPORATING ELECTROACTIVE
POLYMER AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THE SAME 89
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER TRANSDUCERS BIASED
FOR INCREASED OUTPUT 89
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER ACTUATED LIGHTING 89
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER-BASED ARTICULATION
MECHANISM FOR MULTI-FIRE SURGICAL FASTENING
INSTRUMENT 90
FAULT-TOLERANT MATERIALS AND METHODS OF
FABRICATING THE SAME 90
MONOLITHIC ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERS 90
CATHETERS HAVING ACTUATABLE LUMEN
ASSEMBLIES 91
COMPLIANT ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER TRANSDUCERS FOR
SONIC APPLICATIONS 91
OPTICAL LENS IMAGE STABILIZATION SYSTEMS 91
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER-BASED ACTUATION MECHANISM
FOR GRASPER 91
CONDUCTIVE POLYMER COMPOSITE STRUCTURE 92
ACTUATOR BODY AND THROTTLE MECHANISM 92
INTERNAL MEDICAL DEVICES FOR DELIVERY OF THERAPUTIC
AGENT IN CONJUNCTION WITH A SOURCE OF ELECTRICAL
POWER 92
TEAR RESISTANT ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER TRANSDUCERS 93
SURFACE DEFORMATION ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER
TRANSDUCERS 93
ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER PRE-STRAIN 93
MRI RESONATOR SYSTEM WITH STENT IMPLANT 94
VARIABLE STIFFNESS CATHETER ASSEMBLY 94

7. COMPANY PROFILES CHAPTER
APPENDIX I - COMPANY PROFILES 108
ARTIFICIAL MUSCLE, INC. 108
BOSTON SCIENTIFIC INC. 109
CEDRAT RECHERCHE SA (CEDRAT) 110
CENTRO RICERCHE FIAT (CRF) S.P.A. 110
CTSYSTEMS LTD. 110
CYPRESS SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION 111
DANFOSS POLYPOWER A/S 112
EAMEX CORPORATION 112
ENVIRONMENTAL ROBOTS INC. 113
ETHICON ENDO-SURGERY, INC. (EES) 115
HANSON ROBOTICS 115
JET PROPULSION LAB 116
MCNC RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE 116
MEDIPACS LLC 117
MICROMUSCLE AB 118
OPHTHALMOTRONICS LLC 118
OPTOTUNE AG 119
PHILIPS RESEARCH EUROPE 119
PIEZOTECH S.A.S. 119
SENSATEX INC. 120
SENSEG 120
APPENDIX II - LIST OF SUPPLIERS OF EAP MATERIAL 122
3M 122
ABTECH SCIENTIFIC, INC. 122
ALFA AESAR 122
AMERICAN DYE SOURCE, INC. 123
ASAHI GLASS 123
DEGUSSA GMBH 124
DOW CORNING CORPORATION 124
DUPONT COMPANY 124
HERAEUS HOLDING 125
JOHNSON MATTHEY PLC 125
KLÖCKNER PENTAPLAST OF AMERICA, INC. 126
MARKTEK INC. 126
MERCK KGAA 126
NANOSONIC, INC. 127
ORMECON GMBH 127
RTP COMPANY 128
SIGMA-ALDRICH CORPORATION 128
STERLING FIBERS, INC. 129
SUMITOMO CHEMICAL 129
THE DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY 129

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