The Advanced Internal Combustion Engine Technologies Report

  • August 2013
  • -
  • Supplier Business
  • -
  • 200 pages

This report looks at the market drivers currently affecting the advanced powertrain sector, in particular fuel economy, CO2 emissions, fuel prices and criterion emissions.

Furthermore, the report provides detailed analysis of spark-ignition, compression-ignition and combined spark and compression ignition engines technologies.
Powertrain has always been perhaps the single most critical aspects of the automotive engineering; the decision taken in the early years of the 20th century to concentrate on internal combustion engines (ICE) rather than electric traction or sterling cycle heat engines has meant that throughout the last century development of ICE was absolutely critical, not only for the competitive aspects of the automotive and commercial vehicle industries, but also in terms of much of the military and civilian aircraft sectors, marine and stationary engines.

As one well-known commentator on technology once said, “if as much research and development resource had been devoted to the sterling cycle engine as has been invested in the sterling engine, we would all be driving around in vehicles powered by external heat engines”. And, while this quote might seem to express a gross simplification of the real situation with vast variability across the realm of ICE engines with different cycles, spark and compression ignition, different levels of forced induction and many variations in control systems from the simple to the very complex, it fails completely to identify the fact that a combination of concepts is now needed to meet requirements for further efficiency.

Table Of Contents

Introduction

Market drivers
• Emissions regulations
The United States
The European Union
Japan
China
• Other countries
• Fuel costs
• Criterion emissions
The United States
Japan
Europe
China
Other countries
• Powertrain design

Powertrain technology
Engine downsizing and down-speeding
• Combustion cycles
• Altered combustion modes
• Variable valve actuation
Variable valve timing and lift
• Camless valve actuation
Electro-hydraulic valve actuation
Electromagnetic valve actuation
• Cylinder deactivation
• Direct injection technology
Spray-guided injection
Diesel injection technology
• Advanced ignition systems
Laser ignition systems

Compression-ignition engine technologies
• Combustion cycles
• Downsizing
• Material development

Forced induction
• Compressors
Reciprocating compressors
Screw compressors
Centrifugal compressors
• Bearing systems
• Micro turbocharging
• Waste-gated turbochargers
• Twin-scroll turbochargers
• Variable geometry turbochargers
Parallel twin turbocharging
Sequential twin turbocharging
Regulated twin turbocharging
Three-stage turbocharging
• Twin vortices supercharger
• Multi-speed superchargers
• Electric superchargers
The Future of Turbocharging
• Charge air coolers (intercoolers)

Exhaust and emissions control
• Gasoline engine emissions control
Three-Way Catalytic converter (TWC)
Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR)
• Diesel engine emissions control
Diesel oxidation catalyst
Selective catalytic reduction
Lean NOx trap or NOx adsorber catalyst
CRT Process
Diesel particulate filter
Catalyst Poisoning
The SCR versus EGR debate
SCR plus EGR for Euro 6
• Thermal management
• Alternative compression-ignition technologies
Homogenous charge compression ignition
Reactivity controlled compression ignition
Gasoline direct-injection compression ignition

Alternative engine technologies
Achates Power opposed-piston engine
EcoMotors OPOC
RadMax Rotary Turbine Engine
Tour Engines
Axial Vector
• Variable compression ratio engines
FEV
MCE-5
Gomecsys GoEngine
Lotus Engineering
Ilmore five-stroke
Ricardo 2/4SIGHT engine
Scuderi
Transonic Combustion
Pinnacle Engine
Wave Disk Generator
Cyclone Power Technologies

Alternative fuels
Alcohols
Algal biofuels
Bacterial biofuels
Biogasoline
Dimethyl ether
Hydrogen
Hythane
Liquefied petroleum gas
• Natural gas
Coal to liquid fuels
Biodiesel
Dimethyl ether
Natural gas

Powertrain market outlook
North America
Europe
China



Table of figures

Figure 1: Global CO2 (g/km) progress normalised to NEDC test cycle
Figure 2: CO2 (g/km) performance and standards in the EU new cars 1994 - 2011
Figure 3: Fuel economy standards to 2015 for selected countries (US mpg)
Figure 4: US Regular Gasoline prices $/gallon, January 2011 to June 2013
Figure 5: WTI crude oil prices (US$ per barrel, monthly average 2010 dollars), 2001 - March 2012
Figure 6: NOx limits in the EU, Japan and the US, 1995 - 2010 (g/kWh)
Figure 7: PM limits in the EU, Japan and the US, 1995 - 2010 (g/kWh)
Figure 8: Emissions standards timetable in selected countries, 2005 - 2014
Figure 9: Aluminium/ magnesium lightweight design 6 cylinder engine
Figure 10: Engine weight and performance for aluminium and cast iron blocks
Figure 11: Active engine mount technology
Figure 12: cumulative sales of Ford’s EcoBoost engine family
Figure 13: 1.0L EcoBoost cylinder head with integrated exhaust manifold
Figure 14: Progress through powertrain technologies
Figure 15 The effects of downsizing on fuel consumption
Figure 16: Regional turbocharger penetration
Figure 17: Low-end torque versus mid-high speed brake specific fuel consumption for gasoline engines from MY2005 to MY2012
Figure 18: Atkinson versus Otto cycle operation
Figure 19: A schematic of homogenous and stratified charge modes
Figure 20 Honda i-VTEC system
Figure 21 BMW Valvetronic system
Figure 22 Comparison of airflow with VVT on a diesel engine
Figure 23 Variable valve actuation on 6.7-litre Cummins diesel
Figure 24 Fiat MultiAir system
Figure 25: Valeo electromagnetic valve actuation
Figure 26: LaunchPoint’s electromechanical valve actuator system
Figure 27: Variable cylinder management
Figure 28: Pattern of variable cylinder management operation
Figure 29: A6 cylinder on demand system
Figure 30: Direct injection operation
Figure 31: Measures to improve fuel economy
Figure 32: A comparison of wall-guided and spray-guided direct injection
Figure 33 Comparison of piezo-actuated and servo-hydraulic-actuated injector spray patterns
Figure 34: BorgWarner’s Dual Coil ignition system
Figure 35: Federal Mogul’s Corona Ignition System
Figure 36: Schematics of ignition using conventional spark and laser technology
Figure 37: Schlieren photographs for early stage of ignition in a constant-volume chamber ignited by spark plug and micro-laser in a stoichiometric mixture.
Figure 38: New diesel car registrations, EU15 + EFTA, 1991 - 2010
Figure 39: Total cost of ownership, diesel versus gasoline US over 3 years/ 45,000 miles
Figure 40: Case study for downsizing versus de-rating for a 1460kg curb weight passenger car
Figure 41: A polyamide air intake manifold
Figure 42: Ultra-thin steel coated cylinder bores in aluminium crankcases (LH image) compared with conventional grey cast iron (RH image)
Figure 43: Federal Mogul’s DuraBowl technology for piston crown strengthening
Figure 44: Material properties comparing CGI 400, Gray Iron 250 and AlSi9Cu alloy
Figure 45: Global supercharger/ turbocharger fitment by type, 2011 - 2017
Figure 46 close tolerance screws from a twin-screw supercharger
Figure 47 An Eaton roots-type supercharger with integrated bypass
Figure 48 Compressor map of a turbocharger for passenger car applications
Figure 49 Fiat two-cylinder MultiAir engine
Figure 50 Volvo D12D 500hp Euro 3 engine turbo-compound set up
Figure 51: Multi-scroll turbine housing design
Figure 52: A schematic of a twin scroll turbocharger
Figure 53: Deflection through a dual-volute-turbine housing with VTG guide vanes
Figure 54: Twin volute VTG with optimised exhaust manifold design
Figure 55 Holset VGTâ„¢ Turbocharging Technology
Figure 56 BMW bi-turbo
Figure 57 Exploded view of a Rotrak variable-speed supercharger
Figure 58 Antonov dual-speed supercharger
Figure 59 Valeo’s electric supercharger
Figure 60 Turbocharging technologies for high-pressure charging
Figure 61: GM’s LF3 twin turbocharged V6 engine with integral manifold mounted intercooler
Figure 62: A comparison of exhaust systems 1975 and 2009
Figure 63 Tenneco’s technology road map for exhaust systems
Figure 64 A 2012 exhaust system including emissions control, CO2 reduction and acoustic design
Figure 65: Three-way catalytic converter
Figure 66: The effect of temperature on catalytic converter operation
Figure 67: The effect of fuel-air mixture on catalytic converter operation
Figure 68: The construction of an electrically heated TWC
Figure 69: Exhaust gas recirculation with cooler
Figure 70: EGR rates for conventional gasoline and diesel engines (top) and for DI gasoline engines
Figure 71: Denso’s compact EGR cooler for gasoline engines
Figure 72: The construction of a diesel oxidation catalytic converter
Figure 73: Selective catalytic reduction
Figure 74: Selective catalytic reduction schematic
Figure 75: Delphi’s on-board reformer
Figure 76: Faurecia ASDS unit
Figure 77: A schematic of Faurecia’s ASDS system
Figure 78: Lean NOx trap/ storage catalyst converter (NSC) system
Figure 79: NOx trap system with ECU control
Figure 80: A schematic of a wall-flow DPF
Figure 81: Mercedes Benz E Class DPF
Figure 82: Acicular Mulite process effects in DPF substrate
Figure 83: A comparison between EGR and SCR technology
Figure 84: Schaeffler’s Thermal Management module
Figure 85 Criterion emissions from RCCI engine by % gasoline
Figure 86 GDICI emissions results for single, double and triple injection
Figure 87 EcoMotors OPOC engine
Figure 88: Achates opposed piston engine
Figure 89 RadMax RTE engine driving a pump
Figure 90 The Tour engine
Figure 91 The Tour engine
Figure 92 Axial Vector engine
Figure 93: Ilmore 5-Stroke engine
Figure 94 2/4SIGHT V6 research engine
Figure 95 2/4SIGHT engine concept
Figure 96 Scuderi split-cycle engine design
Figure 97 Wave Disk Generator principles
Figure 98 Detonation Cycle Gas Turbine engine
Figure 99 Cyclone external combustion engine
Figure 100 Switchgrass
Figure 101 SunEco algal fuel production ponds
Figure 102 GDICI emissions compared to a conventional diesel



Tables

Table 1: US emissions standards for light-duty vehicles, to five years/50,000 miles (g/mile)
Table 2: Japan emissions limits for light gasoline and LPG vehicles (g/km)
Table 3: Japan emissions limits for light diesel vehicles (g/km)
Table 4: Euro 5 emissions limits for light gasoline vehicles (g/km)
Table 5: Euro 5 emissions limits for light diesel vehicles (g/km)
Table 6: Fuel economy improvement and costs for powertrain
Table 7: Comparison between downsized turbocharged diesel and non-turbocharges gasoline (Volvo) and turbocharged gasoline and non-turbocharged gasoline (Opel) performance
Table 8: Performance evolution through downsizing and turbocharging for the Volkswagen Golf
Table 9: General classification of variable valve actuation technology
Table 10: Emissions control strategies
Table 11: Reactions in a three- way catalytic converter
Table 12: Cost comparison EGR vs SCR in Europe
Table 13: Energy content of common fuels
Table 14: Energy input versus output for alternative fuels
Table 15: Global powertrain technology penetration: 2012/2019
Table 16: North American technology penetration: 2012/2019
Table 17: European technology penetration: 2012/2019
Table 18: Chinese technology penetration: 2012/2019

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