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The Electric Light Vehicle Report

  • July 2013
  • -
  • Supplier Business
  • -
  • 207 pages

Although today electric vehicle (EV) technology is attracting significant attention and investment, it is certainly not a new sector but the resurgence of one that enjoyed considerable popularity during the latter years of the 19th century and the first decade or two of the 20th. Indeed, before the meteoric rise of the internal combustion engine (ICE) it was electric and steam propulsion that competed for dominance in the motorised transportation sector.

However, the ICE had distinct advantages over the other two technologies, particularly with respect to operating range and convenience: the electric vehicle’s batteries frequently required time-consuming recharging and the steam vehicle could not be used before a lengthy warm-up period, and its range was limited by the quantity of water that it could carry. The abundance of cheap oil, the advent of the mass-production assembly line and the development of the self-starter then assured the ICE’s advance as the dominant propulsion technology.

This report focuses primarily on vehicles that rely solely on electric propulsion, and also includes a review of ‘range-extended’ electric vehicles (REEV) that carry an internal combustion engine (ICE) and generator set that is capable of recharging the batteries to enable travel beyond the electric range available from batteries alone. REEVs are predominantly series hybrid vehicles on which the ICE cannot directly power the driving wheels and which feature significant battery capacity.

Table Of Contents

The Electric Light Vehicle Report
Uncertainty and scenarios
Global and local consideration
Grid connectivity, batteries and business models
A brief history of electric vehicles
Electric drive as part of a range of powertrain solutions

Fuel economy and CO2 emissions
The United States
The European Union
Other countries
Fuel costs as a driver for grid-connected vehicles
Energy security
Incentives for grid-connected vehicles
The United States
The European Union
South Korea

Recharging infrastructure
Vehicle manufacturers
Charging facilities
Recharging technology companies
Wireless charging technology
Grid capacity Management
Charging Standards
Cost Issues
Recharging time
Resource supplies
Rare earth elements
Potential vehicle technology issues

Batteries and energy storage
Energy and power density
Cycle life
Battery costs
Lithium ion battery construction
Lithium cobalt Oxide - LiCo02
Lithium Manganese Oxide Spinel - LiMn204
Lithium Iron Phosphate - LiFeP04
Lithium (NMC) - Nickel Manganese cobalt - LiNiCo Mn02
Future cathode development
Anode Chemistries
New anode technologies
Graphene based anode technology
CoS2 hollow spheres
Cobalt oxide
Silicon based anode technology
Tin based anode technology
Nano-Tin Carbon Graphene Anodes
Electrolytes and additives
Electrolyte materials
Cell packaging
Safety circuits
Battery packaging
Manufacturing issues and quality
Chemistry development
Metal-Air batteries
Other battery chemistries
Energy storage membrane
Electric motors
Direct-current (DC) Motors
Asynchronous alternating-current (AC) motors
Synchronous AC motors
Switched reluctance motors
Axial-Flux Motors
In-wheel motors
Electric corner modules
Fallbrook Technologies
Oerlikon Graziano and Vocis
Range extenders
Fuel cell range extenders
Electronic components
Electrically-driven ancillaries
Power steering
Climate control
Regenerative braking
Electric vehicle supply equipment
Fast charging
Battery exchange
Charging station networks
Inductive charging
EVSE suppliers
New players, relationships and collaborations
Public infrastructure development
Private infrastructure development
Integrated solutions
Integrating the charging infrastructure through IT

New markets
Vehicle Market forecasts

Electric cars and light commercial vehicles
Range-extended electric vehicles

Appendix 2 - United States incentives for grid-connected vehicles

Appendix 3 - Supplier Profiles
Axion Power
Blue Energy Japan
Deutsche Accumotive
Dow Kokam
Exide Technologies
LG Chem
Lithium Energy Japan
SK Innovation
Sumitomo Electric
Valence Techology


Figure 1: Well-to-wheel GHG emissions for different powertrain options
Figure 2: Vehicle size and duty cycle aligned to powertrain
Figure 3: Light-duty EV stock forecast under various scenarios
Figure 4: 1900 Lohner-Porsche Rennwagen
Figure 4: GM's EV 1
Figure 6: IEA forecast for alternative powertrains
Figure 7: Well-to-wheel CO2 emissions by powertrain including source considerations
Figure 8: Comparative drivetrain costing per percentage point CO2 reduction
Figure 9: Well-to-wheel powertrain costs relative to conventional
Figure 10: The relative attractiveness of vehicle in Germany 2010
Figure 11: The relative attractiveness of vehicle in China 2010
Figure 12: Different powertrains meet different needs - 2030
Figure 13: Global enacted and proposed fuel economy standards
Figure 14: Lifecycle emissions and fuel use per mile for light gasoline and electric cars
Figure 15: Crude oil (Brent Spot monthly) 1987 to 2013
Figure 16: Comparison of average well-to-wheel CO2 emissions of ICEs with those of EVs powered by the average EU electricity mix
Figure 17: Fuel chain efficiency rates for ICE and EV vehicles
Figure 18: US petroleum product imports 2012
Figure 19: Level 2 charging units from Advanced Energy
Figure 20: SAE J1772 Connectors
Figure 21: SAE J1772 Combined Plug
Figure 22: WPT charging schematic
Figure 23: Evatran's aftermarket available charging system
Figure 24: A floor-mounted induction charge plate
Figure 25: California summer peak loading with unmanaged EV charging scenario
Figure 26: California summer peak loading with work and home EV charging scenario
Figure 27: California summer peak loading with 50% acceptance of differential pricing for EV charging scenario
Figure 28: California summer peak loading with differential pricing for EV charging scenario
Figure 29: Rapidly converging powertrain costs
Figure 30: Powertrain competitiveness in terms of fuel and battery costs
Figure 31: Rapidly converging powertrain costs
Figure 32: Range expectations exceed typical driving distances
Figure 33: Range of EVs launched lags expectations
Figure 34: Energy density improvement over time
Figure 35: European and US consumer expectations of plug-in hybrid range (miles)
Figure 36: EV driving range as a function of ambient temperature
Figure 37: 1990 US driving patterns (miles)
Figure 38: Percentage of daily journeys (km) by country
Figure 39: Charge time expectations by country
Figure 40: Global lithium deposits Lithium Carbonate equivalents)
Figure 41: Lithium demand forecast to 2025
Figure 42: Principal uses of selected rare earth oxides
Figure 43: Projected REE demand at historical growth rates
Figure 44: Inrekor lightweight EV chassis structure
Figure 45: Qualcomm's Halo Wireless EV charging in motion
Figure 46: A graphic representation of vehicle range versus auxiliary load (HVAC) usage
Figure 47: A simple comparison of electrical energy storage systems
Figure 48: The energy density of different fuels
Figure 49: Specific power (W/kg) versus specific energy (Wh/kg)
Figure 50: Cycles by chemistry (deep discharge)
Figure 51: Application cycle requirements
Figure 52: Lithium-ion battery pack cost breakdown
Figure 53: Nominal and usable costs for EV batteries
Figure 54: Patent activity in lithium-ion batteries
Figure 55: Cathode performance compromises
Figure 56: Voltage versus capacity for some electrode materials
Figure 57: Lithium-ion and nanotechnology roadmap
Figure 58: Graphite, soft carbon, hard carbon
Figure 59: Nexeon nano structured silicon anode material
Figure 60: Anode energy density for various anode technologies
Figure 61: Silicon anode dimensional changes
Figure 62: SiNANOdeâ„¢ silicon graphite composite anode material
Figure 63: LTO anode material
Figure 64: Lithium-ion prismatic battery design
Figure 65: Lithium-ion battery construction
Figure 66: Zinc-Air battery systems
Figure 67: Theoretical maximum energy density for different cell chemistries
Figure 68: Redox battery technology
Figure 69: Technology roadmap for electric traction motors
Figure 70: Typical torque and power comparisons
Figure 71: A schematic of a 6/4 SRM design
Figure 72: An exploded view of a switched reluctance motor's rotor and stator
Figure 73: Axial Flux PM motors
Figure 74: Hiriko Fold pre-production model
Figure 75: Mitsubishi MIEV
Figure 76: Protean Electric's in-wheel electric drive modules
Figure 77: Michelin ActiveWheel
Figure 78: Continental eCorner
Figure 79: Ford Fiesta E-Wheel Drive development vehicle
Figure 80: Optimum EV transmission ratios for each performance criterion
Figure 81: Antonov three-speed EV transmission
Figure 82: BorgWarner 31-03 eGearDrive single-speed transmission
Figure 83: IAV DrivePacEV80
Figure 84: Oelikon Graziano-Vocis two-speed EV transmission
Figure 85: Wrightspeed GTD
Figure 86: Xtrac transmission for the Rolls-Royce 102EX
Figure 87: Chevrolet Volt
Figure 88: Fisker Karma
Figure 89: Lotus range-extender system
Figure 90: Honda FCX Clarity
Figure 91: Continental regenerative braking unit
Figure 92: Mazda regenerative braking using a supercapacitor
Figure 93: Continental spindle-actuated electromechanical brake
Figure 94: A summary of charging locations in the US
Figure 95: A summary of charging locations in the Germany
Figure 96: Different options for grid connection
Figure 97: Better Place battery exchange system
Figure 98: A Schematic of an inductive charging system
Figure 99: GE's WattStation electric vehicle charging station
Figure 101: The vehicle electrification value chain
Figure 100: Changes and opportunities in the automotive value chain
Figure 102: A better place switch station
Figure 103: A Blink charger facility linked to Cisco's Home Energy Controller
Figure 104: 2012 EV sales by country
Figure 105: 2012 EV stock by country
Figure 106: EV stock for selected countries according to EVI
Figure 107: Growth of EV charging facilities in China
Figure 108: Grid-connected vehicle production forecast to 2019 by region
Figure 109: Grid-connected production forecast to 2019 by type
Figure 110: EV and REEV production forecast to 2019 by region
Figure 111: Plugged-in vehicle market forecast - business-as-expected scenario

Table 1: 2030 Global market shares of grid-connected vehicles by IHS scenario
Table 2: Global estimates of demand for rare earth oxides 2012
Table 3 Lithium-ion battery cost breakdown
Table 4: Battery cost evolution from 2010 with a CAGR of 14%
Table 5: Four main types of cathode technology in use today (2010)
Table 6: Comparison of typical carbon anode capacities
Table 7: PHEV-EV lithium-ion cell design favoured by various companies (current/ future)
Table 8: Hybrid lithium-ion cell design favoured by various companies (current/ future)
Table 9: Global market for EV charging stations (thousands)
Table 10: Potential roles within the charging infrastructure value chain
Table 11: Comparison of emerging business models

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