Power Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Scenario in Europe - Infrastructure, Investment and Regulations Analysis to 2020



Summary



The report provides an in-depth analysis of the T&D markets in the UK, Norway, Ireland, France, Russia, Germany and Italy in terms of infrastructure, investment and regulatory structure. Information is provided relating to T&D lines, transmission capacity, substations and cross-border grid interconnections. Key drivers and restraints impacting the market are also discussed and information is provided regarding smart grid deployment in these countries. The report throws light on power imports and exports in the countries in question, as well as the investment and initiatives planned in the T&D sector during the forecast period. The report also provides a comparative snapshot of these key countries in Europe in terms of the current status of their T&D markets.



Scope


- Information related to power supply structure in the UK, Norway, Ireland, France, Russia, Germany and Italy
- Analysis of T&D market covering network lines (Ckm), capacity (MVA) and substations (units) in the above mentioned key countries
- Information on operational and under construction/planned cross border grid interconnections for the above mentioned key countries
- Information concerning the smart grid, and power imports and exports in the above mentioned key countries
- T&D investment planned during the forecast period in the above mentioned key countries
- Key regulations influencing the T&D market in the above mentioned key countries
- A comparative snapshot of these key countries in Europe in terms of the current status of the power T&D market in each country



Reasons to buy


- Facilitate decision-making based on historic and forecast data related to T&D capacity, line length and substations in the UK, Norway, Ireland, France, Russia, Germany and Italy
- Refine business strategies with a complete understanding of the trends and developments shaping the T&D markets in the above mentioned key countries
- Evaluate opportunities in promising T&D markets to quantify potential returns on investment

Table Of Contents

1 Table of Contents
1 Table of Contents 5
1.1 List of Tables 13
1.2 List of Figures 17
2 Introduction 21
2.1 GlobalData Report Guidance 21
3 Transmission and Distribution Market, Europe 22
4 Transmission and Distribution Market, Key Markets, the UK 26
4.1 The UK, Country Overview 26
4.2 The UK, Power Supply Structure 27
4.3 The UK, Transmission Infrastructure 29
4.3.1 The UK, Transmission Infrastructure, GB Transmission System 29
4.3.2 The UK, Transmission Infrastructure, Northern Ireland Transmission System 38
4.3.3 The UK, Transmission Infrastructure, Total Electricity Transmission System 39
4.3.4 The UK, Transmission Infrastructure, Interconnections 45
4.3.5 The UK, Transmission Infrastructure, Import and Export Scenario 48
4.3.6 The UK, Transmission Infrastructure, Status of Major Transmission Projects 50
4.3.7 The UK, Transmission Infrastructure, Project, TransmiT 54
4.4 The UK, Distribution Infrastructure 55
4.4.1 The UK, Distribution Infrastructure, GB Distribution System 55
4.4.2 The UK, Distribution Infrastructure, Northern Ireland, Distribution System 66
4.5 The UK, Smart Grid 69
4.6 The UK, Transmission and Distribution Market, Planned Investment 71
4.7 The UK, Transmission and Distribution Market, Drivers 76
4.7.1 Enhanced Security of Electricity Supply through Interconnections 76
4.7.2 Incorporation of New Conventional Power Generation Assets into the Power Grid 76
4.7.3 Diversification of Power Mix through Investment in Renewable Energy 77
4.7.4 Upgrade of Ageing Network 77
4.7.5 Smart Grid Deployment 78
4.8 The UK, Transmission and Distribution Market, Restraints 78
4.8.1 Uncertainty in Country’s Energy Policy 78
4.8.2 Delay in Planning Approval and Land Acquisition Restraining Grid Expansion 78
4.8.3 Financial Constraints 79
4.8.4 Shortage of Skilled Labor 79
4.9 The UK, Transmission and Distribution Market, Regulations and Initiatives 80
4.9.1 Regulatory Structure Overview 80
4.9.2 Regulatory Framework: Unbundling and Network Codes 80
4.9.3 Regulatory Price Control 82
4.9.4 Authorization and Rates for Electricity Transmission in GB 84
4.9.5 Authorization and Rates for Electricity Distribution in GB 85
4.9.6 Climate Change Act 85
4.9.7 Renewable Energy Policies 86
4.9.8 Low Carbon Industrial Strategy 87
4.9.9 OFTO Initiative 88
5 Transmission and Distribution Market, Key Markets, Norway 90
5.1 Norway, Country Overview 90
5.1.1 Norway, Power Supply Structure 91
5.2 Norway, Transmission Infrastructure 93
5.2.1 Norway, Transmission Infrastructure, Interconnections 100
5.2.2 Norway, Transmission Infrastructure, Import and Export Scenario 106
5.2.3 Norway, Transmission Infrastructure, Status of Major Transmission Project 108
5.3 Norway, Distribution Infrastructure 110
5.4 Norway, Smart Grid 116
5.5 Norway, Transmission and Distribution Market, Planned Investments 117
5.6 Norway, Transmission and Distribution Market, Drivers 121
5.6.1 Enhanced Security of Electricity Supply through Interconnections 121
5.6.2 Incorporation of New Non-Conventional Power Generation Assets into the Power Grid 121
5.6.3 Low Security of Supply and Limited Transmission Capacity 122
5.6.4 Rising Power Consumption 122
5.6.5 Smart Grid Deployment 123
5.7 Norway, Transmission and Distribution Market, Restraints 124
5.7.1 Lack of Strong Support for Wind 124
5.7.2 Lower Power Prices to Restrict Investment in Wind Capacity 124
5.8 Norway, Transmission and Distribution Market, Regulations and Initiatives 126
5.8.1 Regulatory Structure Overview 126
5.8.2 Regulatory Framework 127
5.8.3 Power Market Major Policies 128
5.8.4 Unbundling 129
5.8.5 Network Tariffs for Connection and Access 129
5.8.6 Clean Energy for the Future Program, 2013-2022 130
5.8.7 Energi21 - RandD Strategy for the Energy Sector 131
6 Transmission and Distribution Market, Key Markets, Ireland 133
6.1 Ireland, Country Overview 133
6.2 Ireland, Power Supply Structure 134
6.3 Ireland, Transmission Infrastructure 135
6.4 Ireland, Interconnections 145
6.5 Ireland, Import and Export Scenario 148
6.6 Ireland, Status of Major Transmission Projects 150
6.7 Ireland, Distribution Infrastructure 154
6.8 Ireland, Smart Grid 159
6.9 Ireland, Transmission and Distribution Market, Planned Investments 160
6.10 Ireland, Transmission and Distribution Market, Drivers 163
6.10.1 Enhanced Security of Electricity Supply through Interconnections 163
6.10.2 Incorporation of New Power Generation Assets into the Power Grid 164
6.10.3 Renewable Power Export to UK 165
6.10.4 Smart Grid Deployment 165
6.11 Ireland, Transmission and Distribution Market, Restraints 166
6.11.1 Electrification Ratio Limiting the Scope for the Growth of TandD Lines 166
6.11.2 Financial Crisis 166
6.12 Ireland, Transmission and Distribution Market, Regulations and Initiatives 167
6.12.1 Regulatory Structure Overview 167
6.12.2 Market Liberalization 168
6.12.3 Electricity Supply Regulations - Voltage and Frequency 168
6.12.4 Unbundling 169
6.12.5 Network Charges 170
6.12.6 Renewable Energy Policy 170
7 Transmission and Distribution Market, Key Markets, France 171
7.1 France, Country Overview 171
7.1.1 France, Power Supply Structure 172
7.2 France, Transmission Infrastructure 174
7.2.1 France, Transmission Infrastructure, Interconnections 182
7.2.2 France, Transmission Infrastructure, Import and Export Scenario 187
7.2.3 France, Transmission Infrastructure, Status of Major Transmission Projects 189
7.3 France, Distribution Infrastructure 191
7.4 France, Smart Grid 194
7.5 France, Transmission and Distribution Market, Planned Investments 196
7.6 France, Transmission and Distribution Market, Drivers 200
7.6.1 Enhanced Security of Electricity Supply through Interconnections 200
7.6.2 Incorporation of New Power Generation Assets into the Power Grid 200
7.6.3 Replacement of the Aging Infrastructure 202
7.6.4 Smart Grid Deployment 204
7.7 France, Transmission and Distribution Market, Restraints 205
7.7.1 Electrification Ratio Limiting the Scope for the Growth of TandD Lines 205
7.7.2 Complicated Approval Process 205
7.7.3 Financial Crisis 205
7.8 France, Transmission and Distribution Market, Regulations and Initiatives 206
7.8.1 Regulatory Structure Overview 206
7.8.2 Deregulation of Electricity Sector 206
7.8.3 Network Tariffs 208
7.8.4 Time-of-Use Pricing 209
7.8.5 Renewable Energy Policies 209
8 Transmission and Distribution Market, Key Markets, Russia 213
8.1 Russia, Country Overview 213
8.2 Russia, Power Supply Structure 214
8.3 Russia, Transmission Infrastructure 216
8.4 Russia, Interconnections 226
8.5 Russia, Imports and Exports 228
8.6 Russia, Status of Major Transmission Projects 232
8.7 Russia, Distribution Infrastructure 234
8.8 Russia, Smart Grid 245
8.9 Russia, Transmission and Distribution Market, Investment 246
8.10 Russia, Transmission and Distribution Market, Drivers 250
8.10.1 Growing Electricity Demand 250
8.10.2 Grid Upgrade and Expansion 250
8.10.3 Integration of Regional Systems and Interconnections with other Countries 251
8.10.4 Integration of New Power Generation Sources in to the Grid 253
8.11 Russia, Transmission and Distribution Market, Restraints 254
8.11.1 Regulatory Framework 254
8.11.2 Financing 254
8.12 Russia, Transmission and Distribution Market, Regulations and Initiatives 255
8.12.1 Regulatory Structure Overview 255
8.12.2 Power Sector Restructuring 255
9 Transmission and Distribution Market, Key Markets, Germany 260
9.1 Germany, Country Overview 260
9.1.1 Germany, Power Supply Structure 261
9.2 Germany, Transmission Infrastructure 263
9.2.1 Germany, Transmission Infrastructure, Interconnections 270
9.2.2 Germany, Transmission Infrastructure, Imports and Exports 273
9.2.3 Germany, Transmission Infrastructure, Status of Major Transmission Projects 276
9.3 Germany, Distribution Infrastructure 281
9.4 Germany, Smart Grid 285
9.4.1 E-Energy Model Projects 285
9.4.2 Roadmap for Implementing Smart Grids in Germany by 2022 288
9.5 Germany, Transmission and Distribution Market, Investments 289
9.6 Germany, Transmission and Distribution Market, Drivers 292
9.6.1 Interconnections with Other Countries 292
9.6.2 Integration of Offshore Wind Power Generation Assets to the Grid 292
9.6.3 Integration of Other Power Generation Sources into the Grid 293
9.6.4 Smart Grid 293
9.7 Germany, Transmission and Distribution Market, Restraints 293
9.7.1 Regulatory Process 293
9.7.2 Electricity Prices 294
9.8 Germany, Transmission and Distribution Market, Regulations and Initiatives 295
9.8.1 Regulatory Structure Overview 295
9.8.2 Regulatory Scenario, Major Policies 295
9.8.3 Amendment of the German Energy Act 297
9.8.4 Authorisation and Rates for Electricity Transmission 298
9.8.5 Grid Expansion Acceleration Act 298
9.8.6 Target Grid 2050 299
9.8.7 Renewable Energy Sources Act 299
9.8.8 Support for Offshore Development 301
10 Transmission and Distribution Market, Key Markets, Italy 302
10.1 Italy, Country Overview 302
10.1.1 Italy, Power Supply Structure 303
10.2 Italy, Transmission Infrastructure 305
10.2.1 Italy, Transmission Infrastructure, Interconnections 315
10.2.2 Italy, Transmission Infrastructure, Imports and Exports 317
10.2.3 Italy, Transmission Infrastructure, Status of Major Transmission Projects 319
10.3 Italy, Distribution Infrastructure 324
10.4 Italy, Smart Grid 332
10.5 Italy, Transmission and Distribution Market, Investments 333
10.6 Italy, Transmission and Distribution Market, Drivers 334
10.6.1 Interconnections with other Countries 334
10.6.2 Integration of new power generation assets including renewable energy to the grid 334
10.6.3 Rising power consumption 334
10.7 Italy, Transmission and Distribution Market, Restraints 335
10.7.1 Slow Authorization Process 335
10.7.2 Debt Crisis 335
10.8 Italy, Transmission and Distribution Market, Regulations and Initiatives 336
10.8.1 Regulatory Structure Overview 336
10.8.2 Power Market Reforms 336
10.8.3 Authorisation and Rates for Electricity Transmission 337
10.8.4 Authorisation and Rates for Electricity Distribution 337
10.8.5 Renewable Energy Development 338
11 Transmission and Distribution Market, Europe, Snapshot of Present Status of Transmission and Distribution in Key Countries 340
12 Appendix 344
12.1 Market Definitions 344
12.1.1 Power 344
12.1.2 Installed Capacity 344
12.1.3 Electricity Generation 344
12.1.4 Electricity Consumption 344
12.1.5 Renewable Energy Resources 344
12.1.6 Power TandD 344
12.1.7 High Voltage Direct Current Cables 345
12.1.8 Smart Meters 345
12.1.9 Distributed Energy Generation Systems 345
12.1.10 Exchange Rates and Unit Conversions 345
12.2 Abbreviations 346
12.3 Bibliography 350
12.4 Methodology 363
12.4.1 Coverage 363
12.4.2 Primary Research 364
12.4.3 Secondary Research 364
12.5 Disclaimer 365

List of Tables


Table 1: Transmission and Distribution Market, Europe, Key Countries, Renewable Capacity Additions (MW), 2013-2020 24
Table 2: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Electricity Transmission System Performance, 2011-2012 34
Table 3: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Offshore Transmission Systems, Tendering Details, 2013 36
Table 4: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 41
Table 5: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 43
Table 6: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (GWh), 2000-2012 49
Table 7: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, GB, Status of Major Transmission Projects, March, 2013 50
Table 8: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, Distribution Network Areas, 2013 57
Table 9: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, Northern Ireland, Line Length (Ckm), 2011 66
Table 10: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 68
Table 11: Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, Northern Ireland, NIE, Renewable Integration Investment Breakdown ($m), 2012-2017 73
Table 12: Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, Northern Ireland, BAU Scenario Investment Breakdown ($m), 2012-2017 74
Table 13: Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, Northern Ireland, NIE Investment Break-up Over the Years ($m), 2012-2017 75
Table 14: Transmission and Distribution Market, GB, RIIO, Change in Consumer Bills ($), 2013 83
Table 15: Transmission and Distribution Market, Northern Ireland, RP5, Customer Cost Increase ($), 2013 84
Table 16: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 96
Table 17: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 98
Table 18: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Interconnections, Operational, Skagerrak 1-3, Technical Details, 2012 100
Table 19: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Interconnections, Operational, 2012 102
Table 20: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Interconnections, Under Construction/Planned/Proposed, 2012 105
Table 21: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (TWh), 2000-2012 107
Table 22: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Annual Power Imports and Exports (TWh), By Countries, 2010-2011 107
Table 23: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Status of Major Transmission Projects, Under Construction, 2013 108
Table 24: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Status of Other Key Transmission Projects, Planned, 2013 109
Table 25: Distribution Infrastructure, Norway, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 113
Table 26: Distribution Infrastructure, Norway, Distribution Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 115
Table 27: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 139
Table 28: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 141
Table 29: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 144
Table 30: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (GWh), 2000-2012 149
Table 31: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Major Transmission Projects, New Projects, 2013 150
Table 32: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Major Planned Transmission Projects, Upgrade, Commissioned in 2013 152
Table 33: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Major Planned Transmission Projects, Upgrade, Commissioned in 2014 153
Table 34: Distribution Infrastructure, Ireland, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 156
Table 35: Distribution Infrastructure, Ireland, Distribution Capacity (MVA) at 38kV, 2000-2020 158
Table 36: Ireland, Transmission and Distribution Market, Permissible Voltage Limits, 2012 169
Table 37: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 177
Table 38: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 179
Table 39: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 181
Table 40: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Interconnections, Annual Net Total Capacity, 2013 185
Table 41: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (TWh), 2000-2012 188
Table 42: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Major Transmission Line Projects, New Projects, 2013 189
Table 43: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Major Planned Transmission Line Projects, Upgrade, 2013 190
Table 44: Distribution Infrastructure, France, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 193
Table 45: Transmission and Distribution Market, France, Transmission Investment, RTE ($m), 2004-2013 197
Table 46: Transmission and Distribution Market, France, Transmission Investment, ERDF ($m), 2007-2011 199
Table 47: Transmission and Distribution Market, France, Power Plants, Wind, Under Construction, 2013 201
Table 48: Transmission and Distribution Market, France, Spending on Physical Reinforcement ($m), 2002-2010 203
Table 49: Transmission and Distribution Market, France, Opening of the Electricity Market, 2012 207
Table 50: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 218
Table 51: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Pricing zones, 2012 220
Table 52: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 222
Table 53: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 225
Table 54: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Key Interconnectors, Operational 226
Table 55: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Total Annual Power Exports (GWh) by Country, 2010, 2011 and 2012 229
Table 56: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Total Annual Power Imports (GWh) by Country, 2010, 2011 and 2012 229
Table 57: Power Market, Russian, Annual Electricity Import and Export (GWh), 2000-2012 231
Table 58: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Key Investment Projects, 2013-2017 233
Table 59: Distribution Infrastructure, Russia, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 236
Table 60: Distribution Infrastructure, Russia, Distribution Capacity (MVA) at 35kV, 2000-2020 241
Table 61: Distribution Infrastructure, Russia, Distribution Substation, 2000-2020 244
Table 62: Transmission and Distribution Market, Russia, FGC, Planned Investment in Transmission, 2013-2017 246
Table 63: Transmission and Distribution Market, Russia, FGC, Transmission Line and Capacity Commissioning Plan, 2013-2017 247
Table 64: Transmission and Distribution Market, Russia, FGC, Breakdown of the Transmission Investment Plan, 2013-2017 248
Table 65: Transmission and Distribution Market, Russia, Breakdown of the Distribution Investment Plan, 2013-2017 250
Table 66: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 265
Table 67: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, TSOs Particulars, 2012 266
Table 68: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 268
Table 69: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Interconnections, Net Transfer Capacity, 2011 271
Table 70: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (TWh), 2000-2012 275
Table 71: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Major Transmission Line Projects, New Projects, 2013 276
Table 72: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Major Transmission Line Projects, Upgrade Projects, 2013 278
Table 73: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 283
Table 74: Transmission and Distribution Market, Germany, Investments, Capacity Addition under Two Scenarios (GW), 2012 290
Table 75: Transmission and Distribution Market, Germany, Investments, Infrastructure Expansion and Modernization under Two Scenarios (km), 2012 291
Table 76: Transmission and Distribution Market, Germany, Investments, Investment Amount under Two Scenarios (€m, $m), 2012 291
Table 77: Renewable Power Market, Germany, Targeted Contribution from Renewable Energy (%), 2020-2050 300
Table 78: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 308
Table 79: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 312
Table 80: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 314
Table 81: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Interconnections, Net Transfer Capacity, 2012 315
Table 82: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (GWh), 2000-2012 318
Table 83: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Major Transmission Line Projects, Terna, 2013 319
Table 84: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Major Transmission Substation Projects, Terna, 2013 320
Table 85: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 327
Table 86: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Distribution Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 329
Table 87: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Distribution Substations (Units), 2000-2020 331
Table 88: Transmission and Distribution Market, Europe, Key Countries, Snapshot, 2012 341
Table 89: Transmission and Distribution Market, Europe, Key Countries, Smart Grid Status, Snapshot, 2012 342
Table 90: TandD, Europe, Currency Exchange Rates 345
Table 91: Abbreviations 346

List of Figures

Figure 1: Transmission and Distribution Market, Europe, Key Countries, Renewable Capacity Additions (MW), 2013-2020 24
Figure 2: Power Supply Structure, the UK, 2012 28
Figure 3: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, NETS Electricity Transmission System, 2012 30
Figure 4: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, NGET Electricity Transmission System, 2012 31
Figure 5: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, SPTL Electricity Transmission System, 2012 32
Figure 6: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, SHETL Electricity Transmission System, 2012 33
Figure 7: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Current and Potential Offshore Wind Farm Projects, 2012 35
Figure 8: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, NIE Electricity Transmission System, 2011 38
Figure 9: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 40
Figure 10: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 42
Figure 11: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (GWh), 2000-2012 48
Figure 12: Transmission Infrastructure, the UK, Northern Ireland, Wind Cluster Program, Status, March, 2013 53
Figure 13: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, Regions Covered by Six Distribution Companies 56
Figure 14: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, UK Power Networks Electricity 59
Figure 15: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, SP Energy Networks 60
Figure 16: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, SEPD 62
Figure 17: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, SHEPD 63
Figure 18: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, Electricity North West 64
Figure 19: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, GB, Western Power Distribution 65
Figure 20: Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 67
Figure 21: Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, Northern Ireland, NIE, Renewable Integration Investment Breakdown ($m), 2012-2017 73
Figure 22: Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure, the UK, Northern Ireland, NIE Investment Breakdown ($m), 2012-2017 75
Figure 23: Norway, Power Supply Structure, 2012 91
Figure 24: Norway, Power TandD Structure, Monopoly Actors and Market Players, 2012 92
Figure 25: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Electricity Transmission System, 2013 94
Figure 26: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 95
Figure 27: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 97
Figure 28: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (TWh), 2000-2012 106
Figure 29: Distribution Infrastructure, Norway, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 112
Figure 30: Distribution Infrastructure, Norway, Distribution Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 114
Figure 31: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Planned Investments, Statnett, 2011-2016 118
Figure 32: Transmission Infrastructure, Norway, Annual Investments, Statnett (NOKm), 1975-2022 120
Figure 33: Ireland, Power Supply Structure 135
Figure 34: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Electricity Transmission System, 2013 136
Figure 35: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 138
Figure 36: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 140
Figure 37: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Single Electricity Market, Overview, 2013 142
Figure 38: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 143
Figure 39: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Interconnections with Northern Ireland, 2012 146
Figure 40: Transmission Infrastructure, Ireland, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (GWh), 2000-2012 148
Figure 41: Distribution Infrastructure, Ireland, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 155
Figure 42: Distribution Infrastructure, Ireland, Distribution Capacity (MVA) at 38kV, 2000-2020 157
Figure 43: Transmission and Distribution Market, Ireland, Planned Investment, Network Regions 161
Table 44: Transmission and Distribution Market, Ireland, Planned Investment, Grid25 162
Figure 45: France, Power Supply Structure 173
Figure 46: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Electricity Transmission System Map, 400kV lines, 2013 175
Figure 47: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 176
Figure 48: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 178
Figure 49: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 180
Figure 50: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Interconnections, 2013 184
Figure 51: Transmission Infrastructure, France, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (TWh), 2002-2012 187
Figure 52: Distribution Infrastructure, France, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 192
Figure 53: Transmission and Distribution Market, France, Transmission Investment, RTE ($m), 2004-2013 196
Figure 54: Transmission and Distribution Market, France, Transmission Investment, ERDF ($m), 2007-2011 199
Figure 55: Transmission and Distribution Market, France, Spending on Physical Reinforcement ($m), 2002-2010 202
Figure 56: Russia, Power Supply Structure, 2012 215
Figure 57: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 217
Figure 58: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Pricing Zones, 2012 219
Figure 59: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 221
Figure 60: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Transmission Substations, 2000-2020 224
Figure 61: Power Market, Russia, Annual Electricity Import and Export (GWh), 2000-2012 230
Figure 62: Transmission Infrastructure, Russia, Key Investment Projects, 2013-2017 232
Figure 63: Russia, Regional Presence of Russian Electricity Distribution Companies, 2012 234
Figure 64: Distribution Infrastructure, Russia, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 235
Figure 65: Russia, Depreciation Rates for Distribution Companies, 2010 238
Figure 66: Russia, Comparison of Power Loss Ratio of MRSKs and Foreign Peers, 2010 239
Figure 67: Distribution Infrastructure, Russia, Distribution Capacity (MVA) at 35kV, 2000-2020 240
Figure 68: Russia, Depreciation Ratios Under RAB and Cost Plus 242
Figure 69: Distribution Infrastructure, Russia, Distribution Substation, 2000-2020 243
Figure 70: Transmission and Distribution Market, Russia, FGC, Breakdown of the Transmission Investment Plan, 2013-2017 248
Figure 71: Transmission and Distribution Market, Russia, FGC and IDGC, Transmission Investment Plan, 2011-2017 249
Figure 72: Russia, Prospects of Power Trade of Russia with its Neighbors, 2012 252
Figure 73: Germany, Power Supply Structure 262
Figure 74: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 264
Figure 75: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 267
Figure 76: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Electricity Transmission, 2012 269
Figure 77: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (TWh), 2000-2012 274
Figure 78: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 282
Figure 79: Transmission Infrastructure, Germany, Electricity Distribution Layers*, 2012 284
Figure 80: Italy, Power Supply Structure, 2012 304
Figure 81: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Transmission Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 307
Figure 82: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Electricity Transmission at 220kV, 2011 309
Figure 83: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Electricity Transmission at 380kV, 2012 310
Figure 84: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Transmission Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 311
Figure 85: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Transmission Substations (Units), 2000-2020 313
Figure 86: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Total Annual Power Imports and Exports (GWh), 2000-2012 317
Figure 87: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Distribution Line Length (Ckm), 2000-2020 326
Figure 88: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Distribution Capacity (MVA), 2000-2020 328
Figure 89: Transmission Infrastructure, Italy, Distribution Substations (Units), 2000-2020 330

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