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Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs or ECs), also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors, as well as their sister product, asymmetrical electrochemical double-layer capacitors (AEDLCs), are already mature technologies with a growing range of applications in electric vehicles, mobile phones, energy harvesting, renewable energy and other products of the future.

Supercapacitors have properties intermediate between those of batteries and traditional capacitors, but they are being improved more rapidly than either. That includes improvement in cost, and the cost reductions result in their use to enhance batteries and even to replace batteries and capacitors in an increasing number of applications, from renewable energy to microscopic electronics. For example, today a smart mobile phone may have better sound and flash that works at ten times the distance because a supercapacitor has taken over these functions from conventional capacitors.

For many applications, the relatively high cost of ECs is currently the primary reason they are not the energy storage technology of choice. Despite their high level of performance, these capacitors are simply too expensive to compete against the other available approaches. For some applications, potential users find ECs of interest but conclude that their energy density is too low. Hence, increasing energy density and lowering cost are the primary challenges facing EC developers. This must be done without sacrificing the high cycle life and exceptional high-rate performance that sets ECs apart from batteries

Between 2009 and 2013, much research has been done on the use of graphene in electrodes to boost energy storage and increase voltage in supercapacitors. These priority research directions for supercapacitors, if followed, should lead to major performance improvements in energy storage and voltage, keeping price objectives on top priority.

Two major forces will shape market dynamics that are quite favorable for technology adoption in the supercapacitors business:

• rapidly advancing ultracapacitor technology, which will improve price/performance ratio; and
• quickly evolving “green energy” applications for which the ultracapacitors are becoming key enabling technology.

In a few more years, ultracapacitors are expected to become a mainstream technology, along with established electrochemical battery energy storage. The market for ultracapacitor products is growing rapidly and becoming more diverse as new applications are developed and commercialized.

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

This study focuses on key ultracapacitor products, the impact of new materials such as grapheme-based electrodes, carbide-derived carbon (CDC), ionic electrolytes, and new configurations such as lithium supercapacitors, nickel/carbon supercapacitors, asymetrical and hybrid supercapacitors. A major goal of the study is to provide the size and growth of the ultracapacitors markets, industry trends, company profiles, recent patents and review of new partnerships. Another goal of this report is to provide a detailed and comprehensive mult-client study of the markets in North America, Europe, Japan, China, Korea and the rest of the world (ROW) for ultracapacitors, as well as provide potential business opportunities in the future.

The objectives include thorough coverage of underlying economic issues driving the ultracapacitor business, as well as assessments of new, advanced ultracapacitors that nearly sixty companies are developing in 2013. Also covered are current legislative pressures for more safety and environmental protection, as well as users’ expectations for economical ultracapacitors. Another important objective is to provide realistic market data and forecasts for ultracapacitors through 2018.

Ultracapacitor users in developed markets must contend with twin pressures – to innovate and, at the same time, to reduce costs. Cost continues to be one of the main factors seriously restricting further propagation of supercapacitors. While being challenged by batteries and conventional capacitors, the product is slowly finding its way in various industries. In spite of the applicability of the supercapacitor from the technical standpoint, it will be always frowned on if the subsequent cost is high. Therefore the study also looks at the cost considerations of ultracapacitors in competition with other energy storage devices.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

New applications for ultracapacitors have been proposed in recent years. The popularity of these devices is due to their long cycle life and high power density relative to batteries. Ultracapacitors exhibit, in principle, unlimited cycle life and maintenance-free operation as an alternative to batteries in power circuits. New, promising applications for ultracapacitors are battery-less, low power, harvested wireless sensor networks, as well as pulse-power sources in fuel cell and hybrid vehicle applications and power tools. The pulse-power source provides peak power during acceleration and stores regenerative energy during braking in hybrid vehicles.

The ultracapacitor business is currently undergoing a major structural shift caused by several developments in nano-structured carbon, carbon nanotubes, low-cost graphitic carbon, barium titanate ceramic electrodes, nano-graphene platelet (NGP) electrodes, and research on new asymetricals (nickel hydroxides, ruthenium oxide) and new hybrid technologies (lithium-ion supercapacitors, or LICs, nickel carbon supercapacitors, and CDC-based electrodes, that challenge the status quo. These developments are targeted toward boosting the energy density and reducing cost to create preference for the products, with or without battery, among application engineers.

As prices of ultracapacitors drop, better commercial viability and growing dissatisfaction with existing energy storage solutions are expected to steer customers toward this emerging technology. Application in combination with large batteries, in stationary renewable energy power stations such as wind and solar, “green” mobile applications such as battery-less, short-range city buses running purely on supercaps, and in hybrid electric cars in combination with batteries, are a few strong areas of growth. This will be especially true as continuous product enhancements and value-added features such as on-line gaming and Wi-Fi accessibility in consumer electronics necessarily require more power. Multi-functionality is driving change in the energy storage landscape. The consumer electronics industry has changed drastically in the past few years. Portable devices are increasingly becoming multi-functional, not only in phones, which currently work for many purposes (e.g., making calls, sending SMS, internet navigation, email, video playing), but also in cameras and other devices as well. Supercapacitors fit well into the emerging energy storage landscape.

Demand from the industrial sector is also expected to increase. Heavy-lifting cranes and heavy usage in power tools are emerging applications of supercapacitors. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) and DC power systems are looking at incorporating ultracapacitors as the primary energy storage solution to boost power reliability. Small form factor supercapacitors are increasingly preferred for battery-less, ultra-low power wireless networks.

iRAP conducted a study on ultracapacitors in 2009. Since then, many new developments have taken place in technology, industry and markets, such as more new-generation electric and hybrid vehicles, new material technologies, and many new entrants to the market. Therefore, iRAP felt a need to conduct a detailed study in order to better understand both the technology and market dynamics. The report identifies and evaluates market potential in stationary, industrial, consumer and transport segments.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY

This study provides the most thorough and up-to-date assessment that can be found anywhere on the subject. The study also provides extensive quantification of the many important facets of market development taking place in ultracapacitors throughout the world. This, in turn, contributes to a determination of what kind of strategic response companies may adopt in order to compete in this dynamic market.

The study provides the most complete accounting of ultracapacitor market growth in North America, Europe, Japan, China, Korea and the rest of the world. The study also provides extensive quantification of the many important facets of market developments in emerging markets for stationary, industrial, consumer and transport energy storage. The study also covers new usage of ultracapacitors in automatic power metering, energy harvesting devices for wireless networking, and hard disc drives of notebooks. This quantification, in turn, contributes to the determination of what kinds of strategic responses suppliers may adopt in order to compete in these dynamic markets.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

The present survey focuses on four major markets – stationary energy storage, industrial energy storage, consumer electronics energy storage and transport energy storage. It also covers seven distinct technologies – activated carbon, hybrid/asymmetrical, pseudocapacitors, carbon aerogels, barium titanate, carbide derived carbon (CDC) and graphene/nanostructured carbon-based electrodes.

The market data contained in this report quantify opportunities for ultracapacitors. In addition to product types, this report also covers the many issues concerning the merits and future prospects of the ultracapacitor business, including corporate strategies, information technologies, and the means for providing these highly advanced product and service offerings.

The supply chain is of keen interest, including both carbon cloth and powder. The need for higher voltages per cell and automation are addressed. Lower raw materials prices are crucial to reaching price targets of $0.01 to $0.005 per farad by 2015.

This report also covers in detail the economic and technological issues regarded by many as critical to the industry’s current state of change. It provides a review of the ultracapacitor industry and its structure, and of the many companies involved in providing these products. The competitive positions of the main players in the market and the strategic options they face are also discussed, along with such competitive factors as marketing, distribution and operations.

TO WHOM THE STUDY CATERS

This study addresses the global market for electric double-layer carbon (EDLC) supercapacitors, which demonstrate the unique characteristic of having extremely high capacitance (in the farad range) in low voltage cells (1.2Vdc to 2.5Vdc in large quantities).

The study looks at this fledging market, the players, the technical challenges, and technical threats; the activated carbon supply chain; and the end markets in which these devices are consumed – stationary, industrial, consumer and transport energy storage. It further focuses on coin cells and large can supercapacitors and the rapid growth of large can designs in variable speed drives, and heavy trucks and buses.

Audiences for this study include marketing executives, business unit managers, and other decision makers in ultracapacitor companies, as well as in companies peripheral to this business.

The study will benefit existing manufacturers of capacitors who seek to expand revenues and market opportunities by moving to new technology such as ultracapacitors, which are positioned to become a preferred solution for many energy-storage and power-delivery applications. Also, this study will benefit users of ultracapacitors who deal with new power-hungry electronic products such as wireless communications devices, the increasing use of electric power in vehicles, and the growing demand for highly reliable, maintenance-free backup power. These demands are creating significant markets for new and improved energy-storage and power-delivery solutions. For example, sizing the primary power source to meet transient peak-power requirements, rather than average- power requirements, is costly and inefficient. Primary energy sources can be designed to be smaller, lighter and less costly if they are coupled with specialized power components, such as ultracapacitors, that can deliver or absorb brief bursts of high power on demand for periods of time ranging from fractions of a second to several minutes.

REPORT SUMMARY

Ultracapacitors, once a technological novelty, are now in mainstream and are showing significant sales volumes. The ultracapacitor industry is complex and fast-moving, with large variations in technology adopted, material composition and configuration. Around the world, consumers are demanding high power density as well as extremely long cycle life (although ultracapacitor energy density is small compared with that of batteries). Focusing on different market segments, manufacturers increasingly are adopting a truly global view of the market, attempting to achieve growth through company mergers and acquisitions and by implementing global strategies.

The ultracapacitor market is an attractive market characterized by very high production volumes of units that must be both extremely reliable and low in cost. At hundreds of millions of dollars, the market is still growing. This growth continues to be driven by increasing demands for these devices as energy storage in combination with battery in stationary renewable sources of energy like wind and solar power stations, transport vehicles such as green buses, heavy cranes, fuel cells, hybrid vehicles, industrial systems, power tools and consumer electronics. Existing products will continue to find new applications, and new products will emerge to improve functionality.

There are four major markets where ultracapacitors are needed, each having its own specific requirements. These are stationary, industrial, consumer and transport energy storage power management. A wide range of ultracapacitor applications, such as uninterruptible power supplies, clean energy, backup power and automobiles, will see market growth.

• The stationary energy storage market needs ultracapacitors for short duration applications of energy storage, which are characterized by the need for high power for short periods of time. These include power quality ride-through applications, power stabilization, adjustable speed drive support, temporary support of distributed resources during load steps, voltage flicker mitigation and many other applications. Most of these will involve anywhere from only a few seconds of energy storage up to 20 minutes or so. Other applications are: backup power (uninterruptible power supply) and power management systems used in distributed generation and wind and solar energy generating stations.

• The industrial market needs ultracapacitors for power quality, handling power surges and short-term power loss. Since electricity is transmitted at 60Hz or 120Hz, this market also needs high-frequency devices, based on aqueous electrodes, on a much larger scale.

• The consumer electronics and computer market needs small high-frequency devices in order to reduce battery size.

• Based on potential volumes, the transportation industry represents the largest market opportunity for ultracapacitors. The transport energy storage market wants to use ultracapacitors as load-leveling devices with batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles. Transportation applications include braking energy recuperation and torque augmentation systems for hybrid-electric buses, trucks and autos and electric rail vehicles, vehicle power network smoothing and stabilization, engine starting systems for internal combustion vehicles, and burst power for idle stop-start systems.

Emerging applications, including increasing use of electric power in vehicles, wireless communication systems and growing demand for highly reliable, maintenance-free, backup power for telecommunication information technology and industrial installations are creating significant opportunities for more efficient and reliable energy storage and power delivery products.

The ultracapacitor business is currently undergoing a major structural shift caused by several developments in nanostructured carbon, carbon nanotubes, low-cost graphitic carbon, barium titanate ceramic electrodes and nano-graphene platelets (NGP) electrodes. Research on new asymmetrical ultracapacitors (nickel hydroxides, ruthenium oxide) and new hybrid technologies – lithium-ion supercapacitors (LIC) and nickel carbon supercapacitors – challenges the status quo. The high capacitance associated with graphene appears to be an edge effect, and it is predicted that by 2018, cost-effective manufacturing of grapheme-based electrodes will be a reality.

The report has estimated the markets according to applications, form factors and regions. In terms of the industry structure, there are more than sixty companies involved in the development and manufacturing of ultracapacitors, and there is a surprising range of products available. The study also identified a dozen electrode material/finished electrode suppliers.

While in 2013, industrial applications such as large uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), OEM equipment, cranes, electric forklifts, power tools, AGVs, clean tech for commercial and other industrial uses constitute the largest application, by 2018 hybridized transportation energy storage application (autos, trains, transit vehicles, buses, trucks), power device net, HEVs and Evs will have the largest share.

In terms of size (form factor), large-sized rectangular or cylindrical jelly-rolled, more than ten farad up to 5000 farad, sold as single cells or in modules or in banks with varying voltage and farad requirements will have the largest share and will continue to hold on the share during the forecast period.

Major findings of this report are:

In 2013, the global market is estimated to reach US$625 million, and it is expected to grow to over US$1.4 billion by 2018. The compound annual average growth rate (CAGR) is estimated to be 17.5% from 2013 to 2018.

North America will continue to maintain its share in the next five years. North American market will be followed by Japan, China, Europe and Korea. China and Korea will see larger growth rates of above 20% annually.

From 2013 to 2018, transportation applications, which are mostly automotive applications, will show the highest growth rate, followed by stationary energy including sources storage for renewable energy power, consumer electronics and industrial applications.

Table Of Contents

Ultracapacitors for Stationary, Industrial, Consumer and Transportation Storage - An Industry, Technology and market Analysis.
INTRODUCTION XX
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES xxi
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY xxi
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY xxii
SCOPE AND FORMAT xxiii
METHODOLOGY xxiii
INFORMATION SOURCES xxiv
WHOM THE STUDY CATERS TO xxv
AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS xxvi
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY xxviii
SUMMARY TABLE - GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION, 2013 AND 2018 XXXI
SUMMARY FIGURE - ILLUSTRATION OF GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRACAPACITORS, BY APPLICATION, 2013 AND 2018 XXXII
INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 1
BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT OF ULTRACAPACITORS 4
TYPES AND APPLICATIONS 7
TABLE 1 - BROAD APPLICATION AREAS AND POSSIBLE ENERGY/POWER FUNCTIONS OF ULTRACAPACITORS 10
TABLE 2 - BROAD APPLICATION AREAS AND POPULARLY USED ULTRACAPACITORS 11
MARKET DOMAINS 12
TABLE 3 - APPLICATIONS OF ULTRACAPACITORS BY MARKET DOMAIN 12
STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE 13
Stationary Substation Battery Replacement 13
Substation Battery Replacement for Long Duration Outages 15
Mitigating Electric Service Voltage Fluctuations Produced by Pulsing Customer Loads 16
Distributed Generation 16
Wind Energy Storage 17
Solar Power 17
INDUSTRIAL ENERGY STORAGE 18
Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) 18
OEM Equipment 19
OEM Equipment Retrofits 19
Telecommunication 19
Electric Fork Trucks 20
TABLE 4 - BATTERY COST V/S ULTRACAPACITOR COST COMPARISON IN CLASS-1 LIFT TRUCKS 21
Rubber-Tire Gantry Cranes (RTGCs) 21
FIGURE 1 - TYPICAL LOAD CYCLE OF RUBBER-TIRED
GANTRY CRANE 22
Power Tools 23
CONSUMER ELECTRONICS ENERGY STORAGE 23
Computer Solid State Drives (SSDs) 25
Mobile Phone Camera Flash and Power Management 26
Automotive Meter Reading 27
Other Consumer Applications 28
Toys. 28
Home Appliances (Small UPS) 28
Office Equipment 29
Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Networking (WSN) 29
FIGURE 2 -APPLICATION OF ULTRACAPACITORS IN
VIBRATIONAL ENERGY HARVESTING WIRELESS SENSORS NETWORK MODULE 31
TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE 32
Distributed Power 32
Power Actuators 33
MARKET SEGMENTS 34
Storage of Regenerated Braking Energy in HEVs, PHEVs, EVs 34
Auto Engine Cranking Engines.........................................................69
Power Backup for Electromechanical Brakes of Hybrid Passenger Cars: 36
Capture of Regenerated Braking Energy in Heavy Duty Trucks, Transit Buses and Delivery Vans: 37
Capture of Regenerated Braking Energy in Electric Trains/Trams 38
Boardnet Stabilization, 42V Distributed Pwer Modules in High
End Cars 72
Integrated Starting Alternators 74
Integration With Fuel Cells 74
Integration with Battery-Hybrid Battery/Ultracapacitor Combination: 41
FIGURE 3 -FUNCTIONING OF AN ULTRACAPACITOR USED WITH A BATTERY 42
FIGURE 4 - FUNCTIONING OF AN ULTRACAPACITOR, BATTERY AND BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER IN REGENERATING BRAKING ENERGY IN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS 43
TABLE 5 - TARGET PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS OF ULTRACAPACITORS - DOE GUIDELINES 45
Hybrid Battery/Ultracap Combination with Electric Steering, Electromechanical Braking, and LED Front Lighting: 45
FIGURE 5 - ILLUSTRATION OF ULTRACAPACITORS USED IN A 42V SYSTEM TO MEET SPECIFICATIONS IN PASSENGER CARS 46
LITHIUM BATTERIES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO ULTRACAPACITORS - COST AND BUSINESS ISSUES 47
Cost Issues 47
COST OF MATERIALS 48
TABLE 6 - TYPICAL PRICE STRUCTURE OF LARGE-FORMAT ULTRACAPACITORS AND UNIT CELL 49
COST COMPARISON 50
CHALLENGE FROM LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES 51
TABLE 7-COMPARISON OF ULTRACAPACITORS AND LI-ION BATTERIES 51
CASE STUDY -TAVRIMA CANADA INC. 52
MARKET SIZE AND SHARE 53
TABLE 8 SUMMARY OF GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION, 2013 AND 2018 56
FIGURE 6- SUMMARY OF GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION, 2013 AND 2018 57
STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE 58
TABLE 9 -GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS, BY CATEGORY OF STATIONARY APPLICATIONS 58
INDUSTRIAL ENERGY STORAGE 59
TABLE 10 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY CATEGORY OF INDUSTRIAL ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS 60
CONSUMER ELECTRONICS ENERGY STORAGE 60
TABLE 11 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION IN CONSUMER ELECTRONICS 61
TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE 61
TABLE 12 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION IN TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE 62
KEY POINTS IN TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE 63
AREAS FOR POTENTIAL GROWTH IN TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE 63
Hybrid Transit Buses, Postal Vans, Urban Shuttles Delivery Vans and Heavy Hybrid Vehicles 63
Hybrid cars 65
Integrated Starting Alternators 65
MARKET SIZE BY REGION 65
TABLE 13 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY REGION, 2013 AND 2018 66
FIGURE 7 - REGIONAL PERCENTAGES OF MARKET SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS, 2013 AND 2018 67
MARKET SIZE BY ULTRACAPACITOR FORM FACTOR 67
TABLE 14 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY SIZE, 2013 AND 2018 68
FIGURE 8 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY SIZE, 2013 AND 2018 69
MARKET SIZE BY TECHNOLOGY 70
TABLE 15 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013 AND 2018 71
FIGURE 9 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013 AND 2018 72
ULTRACAPACITOR TECHNOLOGIES AND PRODUCTS 73
DEFINITIONS 73
BASIC ASPECTS OF ULTRACAPACITOR TECHNOLOGY 76
ULTRACAPACITORS VS. BATTERIES 77
Ultracapacitors vs. Lithium-Ion Batteries 79
ULTRACAPACITORS VS. CAPACITORS 80
TABLE 16 - COMPARISON OF ULTRACAPACITOR AND BATTERY CHARACTERISTICS 81
FIGURE 10 - RAGONE PLOTS FOR AN ARRAY OF ENERGY STORAGE AND ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES 81
ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF ULTRACAPACITORS 82
WORKING OF A TYPICAL SYMMETRIC EDLC (PURE EDLC USING AQUEOUS ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITOR) 82
CURRENT MATERIALS FOR ULTRACAPACITORS 83
TABLE 17 - CURRENT MATERIALS USED IN ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITORS (EDLCS) BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013 84
EMERGING MATERIALS: CARBON NANOTUBE ULTRACAPACITORS 90
FIGURE 11- EMERGING MATERIALS STRATEGIES AIMED
AT INCREASING CAPACITANCE AND VOLTAGE IN
ULTRACAPACITORS 91
TABLE 18 - EMERGING MATERIALS USED IN EDLCS 92
SIZING OF ULTRACAPACITORS 95
FIGURE 12 - INTERNAL CONSTRUCTION OF CYLINDRICAL ULTRACAPACITOR SINGLE CELLS 96
FIGURE 13 - ELECTRODE, SEPARATOR AND ELECTROLYTE INTERACTION IN A CYLINDRICAL ULTRACAPACITOR 97
SIZING ACCORDING TO POWER 97
Low Voltage (Less than 10V) 97
FIGURE 14 - DIFFERENT FORM FACTORS OF COMMERCIAL ULTRACAPACITORS 98
High Voltage (More than 10V) 98
Very Low Voltage2.7 volt 99
SIZING ACCORDING TO SHAPES 99
Compact Cells 99
TABLE 19 - TYPICAL SIZES OF COMPACT
ULTRACAPACITOR CELLS 99
Coin Type 100
TABLE 20 - TYPICAL SIZES OF COIN ULTRACAPACITOR CELLS 100
Large-Size Module 100
ULTRACAPACITORS IN SERIES 100
FIGURE 15 - ULTRACAPACITOR CELLS IN SERIES TO FORM
A MODULE 101
Modular Configurations 102
TABLE 21 - TYPICAL SIZES OF LARGE-SIZE MODULES OF ULTRACAPACITOR CELLS 103
QUALIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR ULTRACAPACITORS 104
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 106
TABLE 22 - ULTRACAPACITOR PRODUCT LINE REFERENCE, 2013 108
TABLE 23 - ULTRACAPACITORS-RELATED PARTS SUPPLIERS, MANUFACTURERS, SYSTEM INTEGRATORS PRODUCT LINE REFERENCE 109
RAW MATERIAL SUPPLIERS 111
MARKET DYNAMICS 112
MARKET DYNAMICS IN THE TRANSPORT SEGMENT 113
Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) 113
Suppliers 113
Small medium enterprises 114
COMPETITION AND MARKET TRENDS 115
ALLIANCES 116
TABLE 24 - ACQUISITIONS AND MERGERS OF COMPANIES MANUFACTURING ULTRACAPACITORS, 2009 TO JANUARY 2013 117
RANKING OF MARKET PLAYERS 119
TABLE 25 TOP MANUFACTURERS OF ULTRACAPACITORS FOR TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE IN 2013 119
PATENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS 120
LIST OF PATENTS 120
ELECTRODE FOR ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE WITH MICROPOROUS AND MESOPOROUS ACTIVATED CARBON PARTICLES 120
METHOD OF PROCESSING HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITORS 120
ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE 121
ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE HAVING A COLLECTOR PLATE 121
METHOD OF PRODUCING NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE AND INORGANIC PLATELETS AND THEIR NANOCOMPOSITES 122
SPACER-MODIFIED NANO GRAPHENE ELECTRODES FOR SUPERCAPACITORS 122
METHOD OF PRODUCING NANO-SCALED INORGANIC
PLATELETS 123
PRODUCTION OF CHEMICALLY FUNCTIONALIZED NANO GRAPHENE MATERIALS 123
MASS PRODUCTION OF PRISTINE NANO GRAPHENE MATERIALS 123
PROCESS FOR PRODUCING DISPERSIBLE AND CONDUCTIVE NANO GRAPHENE PLATELETS FROM NON-OXIDIZED GRAPHITIC MATERIALS 124
LOW-TEMPERATURE METHOD OF PRODUCING NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATELETS AND THEIR NANOCOMPOSITES 124
PROCESS FOR PRODUCING DISPERSIBLE NANO GRAPHENE PLATELETS FROM OXIDIZED GRAPHITE 125
METHOD OF CHARGING DOUBLE ELECTRIC LAYER ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS 125
MULTI ELECTRODE SERIES CONNECTED ARRANGEMENT SUPERCAPACITOR 126
CONDUCTIVE ELECTRODE USING CONDUCTING METAL OXIDE FILM WITH NETWORK STRUCTURE OF NANOGRAINS AND NANOPARTICLES, PREPARATION METHOD THEREOF AND SUPERCAPACITOR USING THE SAME 126
DRY PARTICLE BASED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE PRODUCT 126
METHOD OF MANUFACTURING AN ELECTRODE OR CAPACITOR PRODUCT 127
ELECTRICAL ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES WITH SEPARATOR BETWEEN ELECTRODES AND METHODS FOR FABRICATING THE DEVICES 127
METHOD OF MANUFACTURING AN ELECTRODE PRODUCT 128
CAPACITOR START-UP APPARATUS AND METHOD WITH FAIL-SAFE SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION 128
GRAPHITE-CARBON COMPOSITE ELECTRODE FOR SUPERCAPACITORS 128
METHOD OF PRODUCING NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE AND INORGANIC PLATELETS AND THEIR NANOCOMPOSITES 129
PROCESS FOR PRODUCING NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATELET NANOCOMPOSITE ELECTRODES FOR SUPERCAPACITORS 129
ELECTRODE FOR USE WITH DOUBLE ELECTRIC LAYER ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS HAVING HIGH SPECIFIC PARAMETERS 130
POWER SUPPLY THAT USES A SUPERCAPACITIVE DEVICE 130
ELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE 131
THERMAL INTERCONNECTS FOR COUPLING ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES 131
METHOD FOR FABRICATING SELF-ALIGNING ELECTRODE 131
MULTI ELECTRODE SERIES CONNECTED ARRANGEMENT SUPERCAPACITOR 132
METHOD OF PRODUCING EXFOLIATED GRAPHITE, FLEXIBLE GRAPHITE, AND NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATELETS 132
ACTIVE VOLTAGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE 132
ULTRACAPACITOR ELECTRODE WITH CONTROLLED SULFUR CONTENT 133
METHOD OF MANUFACTURING A CURRENT COLLECTOR FOR A DOUBLE ELECTRIC LAYER CAPACITOR 133
DRY PARTICLE BASED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE PRODUCT 134
PARTICLE BASED ELECTRODES AND METHODS OF MAKING
THE SAME 134
NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATELETS WITH A HIGH
LENGTH-TO-WIDTH ASPECT RATIO 134
TERMINAL CONNECTOR 135
MASS PRODUCTION OF NANO-SCALED PLATELETS AND
PRODUCTS 135
CONTINIOUS PRODUCTION OF EXFOLIATED GRAPHITE COMPOSITE COMPOSITIONS AND FLOW FIELD PLATES 135
NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATE-REINFORCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND METHOD OF PRODUCING THE SAME 136
NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATE NANOCOMPOSITES FOR SUPERCAPACITOR ELECTRODES 136
METHOD OF MAKING AND ARTICLE OF MANUFACTURE FOR AN ULTRACAPACITOR ELECTRODE APPARATUS 137
HIGHLY CONDUCTIVE NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATE NANOCOMPOSITES 137
ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE 138
ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE HAVING A SEPARATOR BLOCKING PARASITIC IONS 138
THERMAL INTERCONNECTION FOR CAPACITOR SYSTEMS 138
SELF ALIGNING ELECTRODE 139
COUPLING OF CELL TO HOUSING 139
WET ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR 139
POWER SUPPLY 140
ELECTRODE FOR ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR (EDLC), MANUFACTURING METHOD, EDKLC AND
CONDUCTIVE ADHESIVE. 140
CURRENT COLLECTOR FOR A DOUBLE ELECTRIC LAYER
CAPACITOR 141
ELECTRODE AND CURRENT COLLECTOR FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITOR 141
WET ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS 142
METHOD OF MAKING, APPARATUS, AND ARTICLE OF MANUFACTURING FOR AN ELECTRODE TERMINATION CONTACT INTERFACE 142
ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR, CONTROL METHOD THEREOF, AND ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM USING THE SAME 142
PROCESS OF PRODUCING ACTIVATED CARBON FOR ELECTRODE OF ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR 143
METHOD OF MAKING A MULTI-ELECTRODE DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR HAVING HERMETIC ELECTROLYTE SEAL 143
ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR UTILIZING A MULTI-LAYER ELECTRODE STRUCTURE AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING THE SAME 143
ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR AND ELECTROLYTIC SOLUTION THEREFOR 144
ULTRACAPACITOR MODULE ASSEMBLY DESIGN 144
ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM 144
DENSIFICATION OF COMPRESSIBLE LAYERS DURING ELECTRODE LAMINATION 145
CHARGE STORAGE DEVICE 145
COMPOSITION FOR POLYELECTROLYTES, POLYELECTROLYTES, EDLC AND NONAQUEOUS ELECTROLYTE SECONDARY CELLS 146
ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITOR 146
ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR 147
PRETREATED POROUS ELECTRODE 147
ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR 148
ELECTROLYTE FOR AN ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE 148
PATENT ANALYSIS 148
TABLE 26 - NUMBER OF US PATENTS GRANTED TO COMPANIES IN THE ULTRACAPACITOR (EDLC) DESIGN CATEGORY FROM 2008 THROUGH DECEMBER 2012 150
FIGURE 16 - NUMBER OF US PATENTS GRANTED TO TOP COMPANIES IN THE ULTRACAPACITOR (EDLC) DESIGN CATEGORY FROM 2008 THROUGH DECEMBER 2012 151
INTERNATIONAL OVERVIEW OF U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY
IN ULTRACAPACITORS 151
TABLE 27 - NUMBER OF US PATENTS GRANTED FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY ASSIGNED COUNTRY/REGION FROM JANUARY 2008 THROUGH DECEMBER 2012 152
METHOD FOR PRODUCING ELECTRODE PLATE GROUP UNIT FOR LITHIUM-ION CAPACITOR, AND LITHIUM-ION CAPACITOR 153
CONDUCTIVE GRAPHENE POLYMER BINDER FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL ELECTRODES 153
MASS PRODUCTION OF PRISTINE NANO GRAPHENE MATERIALS 153
MESOPOROUS METAL OXIDE GRAPHENE NANOCOMPOSITE 154
GRAPHENE/RU NANO-COMPOSITE MATERIAL FOR SUPERCAPACITOR AND PREPARATION METHOD THEREOF 154
ULTRACAPACITORS AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING 155
METHOD FOR PREPARING GRAPHENE-BASED FLEXIBLE SUPER CAPACITOR AND ELECTRODE MATERIAL THEREOF 155
ELECTRODE MATERIAL AND CAPACITOR 156
ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITOR 156
GRAPHENE/RU NANO-COMPOSITE MATERIAL FOR SUPERCAPACITOR AND PREPARATION METHOD THEREOF 156
COMPANY PROFILES 158
ADA TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 158
ADVANCED CAPACITOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (ACT JAPAN) 158
VINA TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD./VINATECH KOREA 183
------------------------------------
------------------------------------
WIMA 184
YUNASKO LTD. 184
START MATERIAL SUPPLIERS 185
ANGSTRON MATERIALS INC. 185
GRAPHENE ENERGY INC. 185
------------------------------------
------------------------------------

XG SCIENCES 188
Y-CARBON, INC. 189

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