Table of Contents
Solar fuels, artificial photosynthesis, hydrogen, fuel cells and the future of clean energy : Technologies, markets, competitors and opportunities - 2013 - 2023 analysis and forecasts
The sun delivers more energy to the earth in one hour than civilization currently uses from fossil fuels, nuclear power and all renewable energy sources combined in a year. This solar energy can be captured and stored directly in the chemical bonds of a material, or fuel, and then used when needed. These chemical fuels, in which energy from the sun has deliberately been stored, are called solar fuels.
For more than 50 years, scientists have pursued the possibility of producing solar fuels in the laboratory. There are three approaches:
• Artificial photosynthesis in which systems made by human beings mimic the natural process;
• Natural photosynthesis; and
• Thermochemical approaches.
Significant progress has been made in producing two very important types of fuels:
• Hydrogen, which can be used as a transport fuel, and is an important feedstock for industry. Hydrogen can be produced by splitting water using sunlight.
• Carbon-based fuels such as methane or carbon monoxide (used with hydrogen as synthesis gas). These are key feedstocks for making a wide range of industrial products including fertilizers,
This report is focuses on hydrogen produced by solar fuels. It provides an in-depth look at:
• Solar fuel technologies including photovoltaic artificial photosynthesis, photoelectrochemical, photobiological and concentrated solar thermal.
• Hydrogen as a fuel and energy carrier and its production by steam reforming and renewable technologies.
• Hydrogen, the future of clean energy, and the need for huge amounts of power in the 21st century.
• Fuel cell technologies, which use hydrogen to electrochemically convert chemical energy into electrical energy.
• Current and forecasted demand for hydrogen and fuel cells.
• Market drivers, applications and economics.
• Key strategic issues.
• Major opportunities.
• Competitive landscape.
• Leading industry players and researchers.
Additionally, profiles of 10 major hydrogen and fuel cell companies in addition to 20 leading research organization are given. The report also includes 74 figures and 40 tables.
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