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REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

The global consumption of flame retardant chemicals reached nearly 3.9 billion pounds and nearly 4.2 billion pounds in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Consumption is expected to reach a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.7%, increasing to a total of 5.7 billion pounds in 2019.

This report provides:

-An overview of the global market for flame-retardant chemicals, with coverage of plastics, textiles, wood/paper, coatings/paper, coatings/construction, and coatings/decorations market applications.
-Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2013 and 2014 and projections of CAGRs through 2019.
-Reviews of government regulations and their impact on the market, as they obligate manufacturers to add flame-retardant chemicals to a wide range of products used every day.
-Discussion of industry structure, including major suppliers.
-Evaluations of chemicals by retardant mechanism, by chemical type, and by end-use application.
-Analysis of the market's dynamics, specifically growth drivers, inhibitors, and opportunities.

SCOPE OF REPORT

This study is an in-depth evaluation of flame retardant chemicals by type and by end-use application. Because electronics are so widely used in the world today and they are housed most often in plastics, this application will be emphasized. Brief historical data along with current market data will be provided. This data will be interpreted and extrapolated against the expected future demand based upon impending regulations and projected demand of end-use products to estimate the five-year forecast. The forecast will cover worldwide demand and be broken down by chemical type and application.

Table Of Contents

Flame Retardant Chemicals: Technologies and Global Markets
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
METHODOLOGY 3
BCC RESEARCH 3
INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS,
2012-2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 7
CHAPTER 3 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 10
IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY 10
FLAME RETARDANCY BASICS 10
TERMINOLOGY 11
MECHANISMS OF BURNING 11
TABLE 1 ADDITIVES/MODIFIERS FOR CONTROLLING BURNING 12
FLAME RETARDANT CONCEPTS 12
PHYSICAL DILUTION 13
CHEMICAL INTERFERENCES 13
INERT GAS DILUTION 14
THERMAL QUENCHING 14
PROTECTIVE COATINGS 14
GENERALLY ACCEPTED MECHANISMS OF FLAME RETARDANT CONTROL 15
TABLE 2 FLAME RETARDANTS AND GENERALLY ACCEPTED MECHANISMS OF
CONTROL 15
TYPES OF FLAME RETARDANTS 15
ADDITIVE FLAME RETARDANTS 15
TABLE 3 ADDITIVES/MODIFIERS FOR CONTROL OF BURNING 16
REACTIVE FLAME RETARDANTS 16
SYNERGISTIC FLAME RETARDANTS 17
TABLE 4 REPRESENTATIVE SYNERGISTIC FLAME RETARDANT COMBINATIONS (%) 17
DIVERSITY OF FLAME-RETARDED PRODUCTS 17
TABLE 5 FLAME RETARDANTS AND PRODUCTS WHERE THEY ARE COMMONLY
USED 18
COMBINED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 19
TABLE 6 COMMON CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 19
TABLE 7 LEADING CAUSES OF U.S. RESIDENTIAL FIRES (%) 19
CHM014M - Flame Retardant Chemicals: Technologies and Global Markets
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TESTING 20
TESTING GOALS 20
TABLE 8 GOALS OF SIMULATED FIRE CONDITIONS TESTS 20
TYPES OF TESTING 21
Small-Scale Testing 21
Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) 21
TABLE 9 OXYGEN INDICES OF SOME COMMON MATERIALS 21
Cone Calorimeter 22
TABLE 10 CONE CALORIMETRY PARAMETERS AND VALUES 23
Medium-Scale Testing 23
Large-Scale Testing 23
UL-94 24
TABLE 11 UL-94 BURN TEST RATINGS 24
Additional Tests 24
INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT 25
THE NEGATIVE VIEW OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 26
U.S. REGULATIONS RESTRICTING USE OF CERTAIN FLAME RETARDANTS 27
EPA REGULATIONS 27
TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (TSCA) 28
U.S. LAWS 29
STATE LAWS 29
TABLE 12 PROPOSED FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS BEING LIMITED/PROHIBITED
FROM CHILDREN'S PRODUCTS 32
EUROPEAN RESTRICTIONS ON FLAME RETARDANTS 33
WEEE AND ROHS 33
REACH 34
SIGNIFICANT ORGANIZATIONS REGULATING FIRE CONTROL 34
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY (NIST) 34
INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL (ICC) AND THE INTERNATIONAL BUILDING
CODE (IBC) 35
U.S. FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS 35
UPHOLSTERY REGULATION 36
NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH)
AND OSHA 36
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION (OSHA) 37
OSHA Standards 37
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.132 37
OSHA CFR 29 1910.269- Protection from Flames and Electric Arcs 38
ROLE OF NON-FEDERAL AGENCIES 38
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 39
TABLE 13 NFPA GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS 39
TABLE 14 AGENCIES INVOLVED IN ESTABLISHING FLAME RETARDANT AND
PROTECTIVE STANDARDS 40
ASTM International 41
ASTM Standards 41
TABLE 15 ASTM STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO THE FLAME RETARDANT INDUSTRY 41
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 43
Underwriters Laboratories Inc. 44
CHM014M - Flame Retardant Chemicals: Technologies and Global Markets
OTHER ORGANIZATIONS OF INTEREST 44
American Chemistry Council 44
European Flame Retardants Association (EFRA) 44
Fire Safety Platform Secretariat 44
Groupement Technique Francais Contre L'Incendie 45
National Association of State Fire Marshals 45
INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS ON USE OF FLAME RETARDANTS 45
ASIAN REGULATIONS 45
The Japanese Chemical Substances Control Law (CSCL) 45
Chinese Flame Retardant Society 45
SPECIFIC EUROPEAN REGULATIONS 46
European Committee for Standardization 46
ISO TC61 Committee Standards 46
The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) 47
The British Standards Institution (BSI) 47
Voluntary Emissions Control Action Programme (VECAP) 47
STRATEGIES AND OPPORTUNITIES 48
DRIVING FORCES 49
TABLE 16 MARKET SHARE BY INDUSTRY, 2012 (%, BASED ON $) 50
FIGURE 1 MARKET SHARE BY INDUSTRY, 2012 (%, BASED ON $) 51
CHAPTER 4 FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 54
CHEMICALS THAT ARE FLAME RETARDANT 54
TABLE 17 CHEMICALS COMMONLY USED AS FLAME RETARDANTS 54
TABLE 18 SIGNIFICANT FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 55
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS BY CHEMICAL,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 56
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS, 2012-2019 ($
MILLIONS) 56
ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE 57
BAUXITE/ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE SOURCES 57
TABLE 20 BAUXITE/ALUMINUM RESOURCES WORLDWIDE (%) 58
TABLE 21 WORLD BAUXITE MINE PRODUCTION AND RESERVES, 2012-2014
(THOUSAND METRIC DRY TONS) 58
ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE GRADES 59
CONSUMPTION OF ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE AS A FLAME RETARDANT 59
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 60
PRICES OF ATH 60
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE FLAME RETARDANT
CHEMICALS BY END USE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 60
ANTIMONY OXIDE 61
FIGURE 3 REACTIONS OF ANTIMONY TRIOXIDE WITH HALOGENS 61
PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF ANTIMONY OXIDE 62
TABLE 24 WORLD ANTIMONY OXIDE MINE PRODUCTION AND RESERVES,
2012-2014 62
TABLE 25 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF ANTIMONY OXIDE, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION
POUNDS) 63
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIMONY OXIDE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 63
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TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIMONY OXIDE FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS
BY END USE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 64
BROMINE-BASED COMPOUNDS 64
TABLE 28 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF BROMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANTS IN
ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS, 2014 (%) 65
TYPES OF BROMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANTS 66
TABLE 29 TYPES OF AROMATIC BROMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANT COMPOUNDS 66
TABLE 30 SIGNIFICANT AROMATIC BROMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANT
COMPOUNDS 67
TABLE 31 SIGNIFICANT TYPES OF ALIPHATIC BROMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANT
COMPOUNDS 67
CONSUMPTION OF BROMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANTS 68
TABLE 33 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF BROMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANTS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 68
TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT BROMINE-BASED CHEMICALS
BY END USE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 69
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT BROMINE-BASED CHEMICALS
BY END USE, 2012-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 69
TABLE 35 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT BROMINE-BASED
CHEMICALS BY END USE, THROUGH 2019 (MILLIONS POUNDS) 70
CHLORINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANT COMPOUNDS 71
CHLORINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANT PROPERTIES 71
SOURCES OF CHLORINE 72
CHLORINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANT TYPES 72
DECHLORANE PLUS 73
CONSUMPTION OF CHLORINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANTS 73
TABLE 36 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF CHLORINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANTS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 74
MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE 74
MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE PROPERTIES 74
SOURCES OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE 74
MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE GRADES 75
CONSUMPTION OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE AS A FLAME RETARDANT 75
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE FLAME RETARDANT
CHEMICALS BY END USE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 75
MELAMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANTS 76
MELAMINE HOMOLOGUES 78
TABLE 38 COMMON MELAMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 78
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MELAMINE FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS BY
END USE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 78
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MELAMINE FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS BY END
USE, 2012-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 78
PHOSPHORUS-BASED FLAME RETARDANTS 79
PHOSPHATES 80
PHOSPHONATES AND PHOSPHINATES 80
RED PHOSPHORUS 80
AMMONIUM POLYPHOSPHATE 81
CONSUMPTION OF PHOSPHOROUS-BASED FLAME RETARDANTS 81
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHOSPHORUS-BASED FLAME RETARDANT
CHEMICALS BY END USE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 82
CHM014M - Flame Retardant Chemicals: Technologies and Global Markets
OTHER FLAME RETARDANTS 82
BORON-BASED FIRE RETARDANTS 83
Boron Sources 83
MOLYBDENUM-BASED FIRE RETARDANTS 83
Molybdenum Properties 84
Molybdate Smoke Suppression 84
Molybdenum Sources 84
NANOCOMPOSITE FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 84
Nanocomposites in Packaging 85
Nanocomposites in Foams 85
IN SITU POLYMERIZATION 86
GRAPHITE-BASED FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 86
DUST-FREE SUSTAINABLE POLYMERIC FLAME RETARDANT SYSTEMS 87
GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 87
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS BY END
USE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 88
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS BY END
USE, 2012-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 88
PRODUCTS THAT ARE SMOKE AND FLAME RETARDED 89
TABLE 42 MAJOR MARKETS USING FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 89
TABLE 43 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 89
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS BY APPLICATION,
2012-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 90
PLASTICS 90
TABLE 44 WORLDWIDE PLASTICS PRODUCTION ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2019
(MILLION POUNDS) 91
TABLE 45 FLAME RETARDANTS IN PLASTICS, 2019 (% OF TOTAL MILLION POUNDS) 92
FLAME RETARDANT METHODS USED FOR PLASTICS 92
TABLE 46 METHODS OF FLAME-RETARDING POLYMERS 93
TABLE 47 CRITERIA FOR SELECTING FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 93
TABLE 48 TYPES OF PLASTICS THAT USE FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 94
FORECAST FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS IN PLASTICS
CONSUMPTION 95
TABLE 49 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN PLASTICS
BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 95
AVAILABLE PLASTICS STATISTICS 96
TABLE 50 PLASTIC PRODUCTION BY MARKET SECTOR, 2014 AND 2019 (% OF
MILLION POUNDS) 97
ACRYLICS 97
EPOXY RESINS 98
NYLONS 99
Other Chemicals in Nylons 99
PHENOLICS 100
POLYCARBONATES 100
POLYESTERS 101
POLYETHYLENES/POLYPROPYLENES 102
POLYURETHANE 102
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) 103
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STYRENES 103
TEXTILES 104
TEXTILE CLASSIFICATIONS 104
Non-Durable 105
Semi-Durable 105
Durable 105
Nomex 105
TYPES OF TEXTILES 106
Natural Fibers 106
Synthetic Fabrics 107
Blended Fabrics 108
GLOBAL MARKET SIZE OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS IN TEXTILES 108
TABLE 51 TEXTILE-RELATED INDUSTRIES AND THEIR GROWTH RATES (%) 108
TABLE 52 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN TEXTILES
BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 109
TABLE 53 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANTS USED IN TEXTILES BY
TYPE OF CHEMICAL, 2019 (%) 110
WOOD/PAPER 110
GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS IN WOOD/PAPER 110
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN
WOOD/PAPER BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 111
TABLE 55 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN
WOOD/PAPER BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 112
COATINGS/PAINTS 112
GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS IN
COATINGS/PAINTS 112
TABLE 56 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN
PAINTS/COATINGS BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 113
COATINGS/CONSTRUCTION 113
GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS IN
COATINGS/CONSTRUCTION 113
TABLE 57 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN
COATINGS/CONSTRUCTION BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 114
TABLE 58 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN
COATINGS/CONSTRUCTION BY REGION, 2019 (%) 114
COATINGS/DECORATIONS 115
VALUE OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS IN COATINGS/DECORATIONS 115
TABLE 59 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN
COATINGS/DECORATIONS BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 115
TABLE 60 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN
COATINGS/DECORATIONS BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 116
TECHNOLOGY 116
DOW POLYFR 117
CHEMTURA 118
ALBEMARLE 118
ICL 118
FIRE-RETARDANT GELS 119
CARBON NANOTUBES (CNTS) 119
NANOCOATING COMPRISED OF POSITIVELY CHARGED CHITOSAN (CH) AND
ANIONIC POLY (VINYL SULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT) 120
CHM014M - Flame Retardant Chemicals: Technologies and Global Markets
CLAY, CRAB SHELLS AND DNA BASED "GREEN" FIRE RETARDANTS 121
BIO-INSPIRED COATINGS ON FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM 121
OCEAN BACTERIA PRODUCE FLAME RETARDANTS 121
INDIA GOVERNMENT ADDING FLAME RETARDANTS TO MILITARY
UNIFORMS 122
BASF NEW ULTRAMID A3U42G6 HALOGEN FREE FLAME RETARDANT 122
SONY LAUNCHES EXTERNAL SALES OF SORPLAS FLAME-RETARDANT
RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIAL 123
RESEARCHERS CREATE DAIRY-BASED FLAME RETARDANT 123
PATENT ACTIVITY 124
TABLE 61 LIST OF APPLICABLE PATENTS 124
CHAPTER 5 LEADING COMPANIES IN FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 131
ALBEMARLE CORP. 131
TABLE 62 ALBEMARLE'S MAJOR FLAME RETARDANT PRODUCT LINES 131
TABLE 63 ALBEMARLE CORP. KEY EXECUTIVES 132
CHEMTURA CORP. 132
GREAT LAKES SOLUTIONS (PART OF CHEMTURA) 132
TABLE 64 SELECT FLAME RETARDANT PRODUCT LINES FROM GREAT LAKES
SOLUTIONS (A CHEMTURA COMPANY) 133
ISRAEL CHEMICALS LTD. 134
ISRAEL CHEMICALS LTD. PERFORMANCE PRODUCTS LP 134
AKZO NOBEL N.V. 135
International Protective Coatings Corp. 135
ALMATIS GMBH (PART OF ALMATIS HOLDINGS GMBH) 135
AMCOL INTERNATIONAL CORP. 135
AMPACET CORP. 136
AMSPEC CHEMICAL CORP. 136
ARKEMA SA 136
Arkema USA (part of Arkema SA) 136
BARRICADE INTERNATIONAL INC. 136
BASF SE 136
BAYER AG 137
CIBA (PART OF BASF CORP.) 137
CLARIANT AG 137
Clariant Specialty Chemicals 137
DAIHACHI CHEMICAL INDUSTRY CO. LTD. 137
DOVER CHEMICAL CORP. 138
FREEPORT-MCMORAN COPPER AND GOLD INC. 138
Climax Molybdenum Co. (Part of Freeport McMoRan Copper and Gold) 138
ICC INDUSTRIES INC. 138
INTERPLASTIC CORP. 138
J.M. HUBER CORP. 138
Huber Engineered Materials (Part of J.M. Huber Corp.) 139
KYOWA CHEMICAL INDUSTRY CO. LTD. 139
LANXESS 139
LHOIST SA 139
Franklin Industrial Minerals (Part of Lhoist SA) 139
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MARTIN MARIETTA MATERIALS INC. 140
Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties Llc. (Part of Martin Marietta
Materials Inc.) 140
NYACOL NANO TECHNOLOGIES INC. 140
OCCIDENTAL CHEMICAL CORP. 140
RIO TINTO ALCAN CANADA LTD. 140
R.J. MARSHALL CO. 141
ROCKWOOD CLAY ADDITIVES LTD./SOUTHERN CLAY PRODUCTS 141
SHERWIN-WILLIAMS CO. 141
SOLVAY RHODIA 141
SUPRESTA LLC 141
TOR MINERALS INTERNATIONAL INC. 142
TOSOH CORP. 142
Tosoh USA Inc. (Part of Tosoh Corp.) 142
U.S. ANTIMONY SALES CORP. 142
U.S. BORAX INC. 142
VELSICOL CHEMICAL LLC 143
MISCELLANEOUS FLAME RETARDANT COMPANIES 143
APEXICAL INC. 143
CHINA NATIONAL CHEMICAL CONSTRUCTION 143
CYTEC INDUSTRIES INC. 143
DAIHACHI CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 144
DOW CHEMICAL CO. 144
DUPONT 144
ITALMATCH CHEMICALS SPA 144
NABALTEC 144
NIHON SEIKO LTD. 145
SAKAMOTO YAKUHIN KOGYO CO. LTD. 145
SPARTAN FLAME RETARDANTS 145
TATEHO CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES CO. LTD., A SUBSIDIARY OF AIR WATER
WORKS 145
OTHER ORGANIZATIONS 145
AZONETWORK UK LTD. 145
BUREAU OF ELECTRONIC AND APPLIANCE REPAIR, HOME FURNISHINGS
AND THERMAL INSULATION 146
CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION 146
FLAME RETARDANTS-ONLINE 146
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICES 146
JAPAN FIRE RETARDANT ASSOCIATION (JFRA) 146
CHAPTER 6 APPENDIX 148
TABLE 65 WORLDWIDE BAUXITE MINE PRODUCTION AND RESERVES (THOUSAND
METRIC DRY TONS) 148
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LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 7
TABLE 1 ADDITIVES/MODIFIERS FOR CONTROLLING BURNING 12
TABLE 2 FLAME RETARDANTS AND GENERALLY ACCEPTED MECHANISMS OF
CONTROL 15
TABLE 3 ADDITIVES/MODIFIERS FOR CONTROL OF BURNING 16
TABLE 4 REPRESENTATIVE SYNERGISTIC FLAME RETARDANT COMBINATIONS (%) 17
TABLE 5 FLAME RETARDANTS AND PRODUCTS WHERE THEY ARE COMMONLY USED 18
TABLE 6 COMMON CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 19
TABLE 7 LEADING CAUSES OF U.S. RESIDENTIAL FIRES (%) 19
TABLE 8 GOALS OF SIMULATED FIRE CONDITIONS TESTS 20
TABLE 9 OXYGEN INDICES OF SOME COMMON MATERIALS 21
TABLE 10 CONE CALORIMETRY PARAMETERS AND VALUES 23
TABLE 11 UL-94 BURN TEST RATINGS 24
TABLE 12 PROPOSED FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS BEING LIMITED/PROHIBITED
FROM CHILDREN'S PRODUCTS 32
TABLE 13 NFPA GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS 39
TABLE 14 AGENCIES INVOLVED IN ESTABLISHING FLAME RETARDANT AND
PROTECTIVE STANDARDS 40
TABLE 15 ASTM STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO THE FLAME RETARDANT INDUSTRY 41
TABLE 16 MARKET SHARE BY INDUSTRY, 2012 (%, BASED ON $) 50
TABLE 17 CHEMICALS COMMONLY USED AS FLAME RETARDANTS 54
TABLE 18 SIGNIFICANT FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 55
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS BY CHEMICAL,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 56
TABLE 20 BAUXITE/ALUMINUM RESOURCES WORLDWIDE (%) 58
TABLE 21 WORLD BAUXITE MINE PRODUCTION AND RESERVES, 2012-2014
(THOUSAND METRIC DRY TONS) 58
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 60
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE FLAME RETARDANT
CHEMICALS BY END USE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 60
TABLE 24 WORLD ANTIMONY OXIDE MINE PRODUCTION AND RESERVES, 2012-2014 62
TABLE 25 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF ANTIMONY OXIDE, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION
POUNDS) 63
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIMONY OXIDE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 63
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANTIMONY OXIDE FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS
BY END USE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 64
TABLE 28 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF BROMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANTS IN
ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS, 2014 (%) 65
TABLE 29 TYPES OF AROMATIC BROMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANT COMPOUNDS 66
TABLE 30 SIGNIFICANT AROMATIC BROMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANT
COMPOUNDS 67
TABLE 31 SIGNIFICANT TYPES OF ALIPHATIC BROMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANT
COMPOUNDS 67
TABLE 33 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF BROMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANTS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 68
TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT BROMINE-BASED CHEMICALS
BY END USE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 69
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TABLE HEADING PAGE NO.
TABLE 35 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT BROMINE-BASED
CHEMICALS BY END USE, THROUGH 2019 (MILLIONS POUNDS) 70
TABLE 36 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF CHLORINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANTS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 74
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE FLAME RETARDANT
CHEMICALS BY END USE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 38 COMMON MELAMINE-BASED FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 78
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MELAMINE FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS BY END
USE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 78
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHOSPHORUS-BASED FLAME RETARDANT
CHEMICALS BY END USE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 82
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS BY END USE,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 88
TABLE 42 MAJOR MARKETS USING FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 89
TABLE 43 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 89
TABLE 44 WORLDWIDE PLASTICS PRODUCTION ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION
POUNDS) 91
TABLE 45 FLAME RETARDANTS IN PLASTICS, 2019 (% OF TOTAL MILLION POUNDS) 92
TABLE 46 METHODS OF FLAME-RETARDING POLYMERS 93
TABLE 47 CRITERIA FOR SELECTING FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 93
TABLE 48 TYPES OF PLASTICS THAT USE FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 94
TABLE 49 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN PLASTICS
BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 95
TABLE 50 PLASTIC PRODUCTION BY MARKET SECTOR, 2014 AND 2019 (% OF
MILLION POUNDS) 97
TABLE 51 TEXTILE-RELATED INDUSTRIES AND THEIR GROWTH RATES (%) 108
TABLE 52 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN TEXTILES
BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 109
TABLE 53 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANTS USED IN TEXTILES BY
TYPE OF CHEMICAL, 2019 (%) 110
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN
WOOD/PAPER BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 111
TABLE 55 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN
WOOD/PAPER BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 112
TABLE 56 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN
PAINTS/COATINGS BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 113
TABLE 57 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN
COATINGS/CONSTRUCTION BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 114
TABLE 58 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN
COATINGS/CONSTRUCTION BY REGION, 2019 (%) 114
TABLE 59 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN
COATINGS/DECORATIONS BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 115
TABLE 60 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS USED IN
COATINGS/DECORATIONS BY CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 116
TABLE 61 LIST OF APPLICABLE PATENTS 124
TABLE 62 ALBEMARLE'S MAJOR FLAME RETARDANT PRODUCT LINES 131
TABLE 63 ALBEMARLE CORP. KEY EXECUTIVES 132
TABLE 64 SELECT FLAME RETARDANT PRODUCT LINES FROM GREAT LAKES
SOLUTIONS (A CHEMTURA COMPANY) 133
CHM014M - Flame Retardant Chemicals: Technologies and Global Markets
TABLE 65 WORLDWID

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