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Global Markets for Agrochemicals

  • March 2017
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 321 pages

Use this report to:
- Define and identify key market segments and the market structure of the agrochemical market.
- Analyze emerging technologies and investments that are driving opportunities in agrochemicals.
- Identify key market dynamics and the factors impacting the global agrochemical market and its subsegments and the trends, gaps and opportunities in each of the micromarkets.
- Explore major stakeholders, product portfolios and recent developments, and describe the competitive landscape.

Highlights
- The global agrochemical market should reach $266.0 billion by 2021 from $213.2 billion in 2016 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.5%, from 2016 to 2021.
- The global market for fertilizers is expected to grow from $155.1 billion in 2016 to $188.3 billion in 2021 at a CAGR of 4.0% for the period 2016-2021.
- The global market for pesticides is expected to grow from $58.1 billion in 2016 to $77.7 billion in 2021 at a CAGR of 6.0% for the period 2016-2021.

INTRODUCTION

Agrochemicals include specialty chemicals and related products that are highly valuable for agricultural uses. Agrochemicals, also referred to as agricultural chemicals, refer to specifically engineered chemical products used in agriculture and include a broad range of pesticides and fertilizers. They play a crucial role in agriculture, as they improve crop performance, increase crop yields, and control pests and weeds that impede plant growth.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
- Define and identify key market segments and the market structure of the agrochemical market.
- Measure and estimate the global agrochemical market and its segments, including agrochemical types (i.e., fertilizers and pesticides) and geographic regions.
- Identify key market dynamics and the factors impacting the global agrochemical market and its subsegments.
- Identify the trends, gaps and opportunities in each of the micro markets.
- Focus exclusively on geographic segmentation. Analyze trends and opportunities in the major regions: North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and rest of world (ROW).
- Identify major stakeholders, product portfolios and recent developments, and describe the competitive landscape.
- Evaluate key patents and recent developments in agrochemical technologies that are expecting completion.
- Analyze emerging technologies and investments that are driving opportunities in agrochemicals.
- Analyze the trend toward bio-based products, or rather organic-based, agrochemicals such as biofertilizers, biopesticides, biofungicides, bioinsecticides, among others.

SCOPE OF THE REPORT
This research report presents an in-depth analysis of the global agrochemical market by product type and regional geographic markets. It covers the major categories of agrochemicals used for crop protection across the globe. The evolving trends and ongoing research and developments in the field of agrochemical developments have been studied in detail. The report analyses the active ingredients used in the market and not the formulations.

This study highlights the emergence of genetically modified crops, the importance of crop protection, and the pros and cons of pesticide use. Special importance has been given to key market developments such as collaborative activities, important acquisitions, new product launches and strategic agreements between top players. An analysis of the key drivers and factors either affecting or influencing the growth of this market is also included in this report. The analysis also includes the current and projected markets for agrochemicals across geographic regions while considering different parameters (e.g., government regulations, climatic conditions and crop production).

The global agrochemical market is mainly segmented into types and regions. Types of agrochemicals are principally categorized into pesticides and fertilizers. Pesticides primarily include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. Nitrogenous, phosphatic, potassic and biofertilizers are covered under the fertilizer category. In terms of geography, the market is categorized by North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and the rest of the world (ROW). ROW primarily consists of economies such as Brazil, Argentina, Egypt, South Africa, Chile, Colombia, Turkey, Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

METHODOLOGY
Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this study. The report provides estimated values both in kilotons (SI System) and the United States Dollar (USD). Estimates of current market demand are made for 2015 and are projected over the next five years from 2016 through 2021. Projections are made in terms of constant U.S. dollars (2015), unadjusted for inflation. Growth is presented in terms of the compound annual growth rate (CAGR). Where precise information was not available, a projection was made using reasonable assumptions and estimates based on historical data. Market data are based on manufacturers’ total revenues.

The global agrochemicals market was assessed and calculated via a bottom-up approach that involved identifying the market revenues of the micro markets that make up the macro markets. The following process was designed to ensure quality and consistency of estimates:
- In-depth primary and secondary research was conducted.
- Primary research entailed gathering intelligence from key market players. The interview participants included CEOs, key opinion leaders, product heads and directors.
- Secondary research included the collation of data from freely available sources as well as from paid subscriptions to specialized industry magazines and websites.
- The derived values were validated through primary research to assure triangulation of market estimates.
- Key factors considered during market estimations were price volumes productions and consumptions trends in various applications.
- Regional segmentation was assessed through various parameters, including the number of players in a particular region, the extent of research activity occurring in that geographic area, and the future potential.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

The intended audience includes:
- Healthcare service providers and private research institutes.
- Government authorities and public service boards.
- Research institutes, associations and academicians.
- Biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies.

INFORMATION SOURCES

Additional information was obtained through the:
- U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).
- U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings.
- World Health Organization (WHO).
- ETC Group.
- Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
- International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA), Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI)
- U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA-ERS).
- International Biocontrol Manufacturers Association (IBMA).
- Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FIBL).
- USDA National Organic Program (NOP).

European and Japanese agricultural organizations were also used to compile EMRA and Asian information.

Table Of Contents

Global Markets for Agrochemicals
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
SCOPE OF THE REPORT 2
METHODOLOGY 3
INTENDED AUDIENCE 4
INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5

CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 8

CHAPTER 3 AGROCHEMICAL MARKET OVERVIEW 11
INTRODUCTION 11
AGROCHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION 12
FERTILIZERS 12
Fertilizer Classification 13
FIGURE 1 CLASSIFICATION OF FERTILIZERS 13
Advantages of Fertilizers 14
Synthetic Fertilizers 14
Organic Fertilizers 14
Disadvantages of Fertilizers 15
Synthetic Fertilizers 15
Organic Fertilizers 15
Environmental Impact of Fertilizers 15
Method of Application of Fertilizers 16
Application of Fertilizers in Solid Form 16
Broadcasting 16
Placement 16
Localized Placement 17
Contact Placement/Drill Placement 17
Band Placement 17
Pellet Application 18
Side Dressing 18
Application of Liquid Fertilizers 18
Starter Solutions 18
Foliar Application 18
Application through Irrigation Water 18
Injection into Soil 18
Aerial Application 18
PESTICIDES 19
Pesticide Classification 20
TABLE 1 CLASSIFICATION OF PESTICIDES BASED ON TARGET PESTS 20
Chemical Classification 20
Synthetic Pesticides 20
TABLE 2 MAJOR CLASSES OF PESTICIDES 20
Organophosphates 21
Carbamates 21
Organochlorines 21
Pyrethroids 21
Triazines 21
Phenoxy 21
Sulfonylurea Herbicides 21
Biopesticides 22
Microbial Pesticides 22
Plant Incorporated Protectants (PIPs) 22
Biochemical Pesticides 22
Other Types of Pesticides 22
Classification According to the Target Organism 22
Advantages and Disadvantages of Pesticides 23
Advantages of Pesticides 23
Disadvantages of Pesticides 24
Environmental Impact of Pesticides 25
Method of Application of Pesticides 26
TABLE 3 AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PESTS INVOLVED 26
TABLE 4 AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PESTICIDE USED 26
TABLE 5 AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FORMULATION OF THE PESTICIDE 27
TABLE 6 AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT USED FOR PESTICIDE APPLICATION 27
Objectives of Pesticide Application 27
TABLE 7 METHODS OF PESTICIDE APPLICATION 27
Detrimental Environmental Impact of Pesticides 29
Soil Contamination 29
Air Pollution 29
Water Pollution 29
Effect on Plants 29
Effect on Animals 29
Effect on Aquatic Life 29
Effect on Amphibians 30
IMPACT OF AGROCHEMICALS ON HUMAN HEALTH 30
EFFECTS OF AGROCHEMICALS ON ANIMALS, PLANTS AND OTHER ORGANISMS 31
BIRDS 31
BEES 31
BUTTERFLIES 31
SOIL MICROORGANISMS 32
FISH AND WILDLIFE 32
PLANTS AND PHOTOTOXICITY 32
TABLE 8 AGROCHEMICALS' TOXIC EFFECT ON BIRDS, FISH AND BEES 33
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF AGROCHEMICALS 33
ADVANTAGES 33
Increased Crop Yields 34
Environmental Benefits 34
Cost-Effectiveness 34
Health Advantages 34
DISADVANTAGES 34
Health Conditions 35
Toxicity and Regulation 35
Environmental Conditions 35
Unsustainable Soil Conditions 35
Spray Drift 35
GOVERNMENT REGULATION AND LEGISLATION 35
GLOBAL FERTILIZER REGULATION 35
Government Regulation and Legislation in the North American Region 36
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 36
Association of American Plant Food Control Officials (AAPFCO) 36
State Regulations for Fertilizers 37
Government Regulation and Legislation in the European Region 38
European Union Legislation 38
EC Regulation 2003/2003 38
EC Fertilizers 38
EU Regulation 463/2013 38
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 400/2014 38
Government Regulation and Legislation in the Asia-Pacific Region 39
Regulatory Framework in India 39
Fertilizer Control Order (FCO) 39
"Food and Fertilizer Technology Center (FFTC) Management 39
GLOBAL PESTICIDE REGULATIONS 40
United States 40
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 40
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 40
Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) 40
International Pesticide Regulation 41
MARKET DYNAMICS 41
DRIVERS 41
Increasing Population and Rising Demand for Food 42
Soil Degradation 42
Consumer or End User Awareness Regarding the Benefits of Agrochemicals 42
RESTRAINTS 43
OPPORTUNITIES 43

CHAPTER 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR AGROCHEMICALS BY TYPE 45
TABLE 9 GLOBAL PRODUCTION VOLUMES OF AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 45
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 45
TABLE 11 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF FERTILIZERS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 46
TABLE 12 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FERTILIZERS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 46
FERTILIZERS 46
TABLE 13 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF FERTILIZERS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 47
TABLE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FERTILIZERS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 47
TABLE 15 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF SYNTHETIC FERTILIZERS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 47
TABLE 16 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC FERTILIZERS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 48
SYNTHETIC FERTILIZERS 48
Nitrogenous 48
TABLE 17 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 49
TABLE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 49
TABLE 19 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 50
TABLE 20 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 50
Urea 50
Manufacturing Process 51
Chemical Properties of Urea 51
FIGURE 2 STEPS INVOLVED IN PRODUCING UREA 51
Application of Urea 52
Advantages of Urea fertilizers 53
Disadvantages of Urea Fertilizers 53
Ammonium Nitrate 53
Manufacturing Process 53
Chemical Properties of Ammonium Nitrate 54
Production of Ammonium Nitrate 54
Application of Ammonium Nitrate 54
Advantages of Ammonium Nitrate as Fertilizers 54
Disadvantages of Ammonium Nitrate as Fertilizers 54
Ammonium Sulfate 55
Manufacturing Process 55
Chemical Properties of Ammonium Sulfate 55
FIGURE 3 STEPS INVOLVED IN THE PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM SULFATE 55
Application of Ammonium Sulfate 56
Advantages of Ammonium Sulfate as Fertilizers 57
Disadvantages of Ammonium Sulfate as Fertilizers 57
Ammonia 57
Manufacturing Process 57
Chemical Properties of Ammonia 58
Application of Ammonia 58
Advantages of Ammonia as Fertilizers 58
Disadvantages of Ammonia as Fertilizers 59
Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) 59
Manufacturing Process 59
Chemical Properties of Calcium Ammonium Nitrate 60
Application of Calcium Ammonium Nitrate 60
Advantages of Calcium Ammonium Nitrate as Fertilizers 60
Disadvantages of Calcium Ammonium Nitrate as Fertilizers 60
Other Nitrogenous Fertilizers 61
Urea-Ammonium Nitrate (UAN) 61
Nitrosol-Ca 61
Phosphatic Fertilizers 61
TABLE 21 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZERS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 62
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZERS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 62
Manufacturing Process 62
FIGURE 4 MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZERS 62
Water-Soluble Phosphatic Fertilizers 63
TABLE 23 TYPES OF PHOSPHATE-BASED FERTILIZERS 63
Citric Acid Soluble Phosphatic Fertilizers 64
TABLE 24 CITRIC ACID-SOLUBLE PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZERS 64
Citrate Acid and Water-Insoluble Phosphatic Fertilizers 64
TABLE 25 WATER-INSOLUBLE PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZERS 64
TABLE 26 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZERS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 65
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZERS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 65
Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) 65
Manufacturing Process 66
Chemical Properties of Diammonium Phosphate 66
Application of Diammonium Phosphate 66
Advantages of Diammonium Phosphate 66
Disadvantages of Diammonium Phosphate 67
Monoammonium Phosphate (MAP) 67
Manufacturing Process 67
Chemical Properties of Monoammonium Phosphate 67
Application of Monoammonium Phosphate 68
Advantages of Monoammonium Phosphate 68
Disadvantages of Monoammonium Phosphate 68
Triple Superphosphate (TSP) 68
Manufacturing Process 69
Chemical Properties 69
Application of Triple Superphosphate 69
Advantages of Triple Superphosphate 70
Disadvantages of Triple Superphosphate 70
Other Phosphatic Fertilizers 70
Single Superphosphate (SSP) 70
Double Superphosphate (DSP) 71
Ammonium Polyphosphate 71
Potassic Fertilizers 71
TABLE 28 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF POTASSIC FERTILIZER, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 72
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR POTASSIC FERTILIZER, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 72
TABLE 30 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF POTASSIC FERTILIZER, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 73
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR POTASSIC FERTILIZER, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 73
Potassium Chloride 73
Chemical Properties 74
Agricultural Use 74
Potassium Sulfate 74
Chemical Properties 74
Agricultural Use 74
Potassium Magnesium Sulfate 75
Chemical Properties 75
Agricultural Use 75
BIOFERTILIZERS 75
TABLE 32 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF BIOFERTILIZERS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 76
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOFERTILIZERS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 76
TABLE 34 SELECT TYPES OF BIOFERTILIZERS BASED ON FUNCTION AND TYPE 77
Nitrogen Fixing Biofertilizers 77
Rhizobium 78
Azotobacter 78
Azospirillum 78
Cyanobacteria 79
Phosphorus Solubilizing Biofertilizers 79
Plant Growth Promoting Biofertilizers 79
Increase in the Supply of Nutrients 80
Phytohormones 80
Ethylene Levels 80
Nitrogen Fixation 80
PESTICIDES 81
TABLE 35 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF PESTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 81
TABLE 36 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PESTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 37 CLASSIFICATION OF PESTICIDES BASED ON THE TYPE OF PEST THEY CONTROL 82
TABLE 38 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF PESTICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 83
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PESTICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 83
SYNTHETIC PESTICIDES 83
TABLE 40 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF SYNTHETIC PESTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 83
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC PESTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 84
Organophosphates 84
Acephate 84
Acephate Chemical Profile 84
Physical and Chemical Properties 85
Uses 85
Mode of Action 85
TABLE 42 SYNTHETIC PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR USE 85
Efficacy 86
Chlorpyrifos 86
Chlorpyrifos Chemical Profile 87
Physical and Chemical Properties 87
Uses 87
Mode of Action 87
TABLE 43 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE USE OF CHLORPYRIFOS-BASED PESTICIDES (%) 88
Toxicological Effects 88
Acute Toxicity 88
Chronic Toxicity 88
TABLE 44 CHRONIC TOXICITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS 89
Ecological Effects 89
Environmental Fate 89
Breakdown of Chemical in Groundwater and Soil 89
Diazinon 90
Diazinon Chemical Profile 90
Physical and Chemical Properties 90
Uses 90
TABLE 45 COMMON USES OF DIAZINON IN AGRICULTURE 91
Toxicological Effects 91
Acute Toxicity 91
Chronic Toxicity 91
TABLE 46 CHRONIC TOXICITY OF DIAZINON 91
Ecological Effects 92
Environmental Fate 92
Dimethoate 92
Dimethoate Chemical Profile 93
Physical and Chemical Properties 93
Mode of Action 93
Uses 93
Toxicological Effects 93
Acute Toxicity 93
Chronic Toxicity 94
TABLE 47 CHRONIC TOXICITY OF DIMETHOATE 94
Ecological Effects 94
Environmental Fate 95
Glyphosate 95
Glyphosate Chemical Profile 96
Physical and Chemical Properties 96
Mode of Action 96
Uses 96
TABLE 48 RECOMMENDED DOSAGES FOR GLYPHOSATE 97
Toxicological Effects 97
Acute Toxicity 97
Chronic Toxicity 97
TABLE 49 CHRONIC TOXICITY OF GLYPHOSATE 97
Ecological Effects 98
Environmental Fate 98
Malathion 98
Malathion Chemical Profile 99
Physical and Chemical Properties 99
Mode of Action 99
Uses 99
Toxicological Effects 99
Acute Toxicity 99
Chronic Toxicity 100
TABLE 50 CHRONIC TOXICITY OF MALATHION 100
Ecological Effects 100
Environmental Fate 100
Methamidophos 101
Methamidophos Chemical Profile 101
Physical and Chemical Properties 101
Mode of Action 101
Uses 101
Risk Statement and Classification 101
Toxicological Effects 102
Acute Toxicity 102
Chronic Toxicity 102
TABLE 51 CHRONIC TOXICITY OF METHAMIDOPHOS 102
Ecological Effects 102
Environmental Fate 102
Other Organophosphate Pesticides 103
Azinphos-methyl 103
Carbofuran 103
Ethion 103
Pyrethroids 103
Bifenthrin 104
Bifenthrin Chemical Profile 104
Physical and Chemical Properties 104
Mode of Action 105
Uses 105
Toxicological Effects 105
Acute Toxicity 105
Chronic Toxicity 105
TABLE 52 CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BIFENTHRIN 105
Ecological Effects 106
Environmental Fate 106
Market Trends 106
Cypermethrin 106
Cypermethrin Chemical Profile 106
Physical and Chemical Properties 107
Mode of Action 107
Uses 107
Toxicological Effects 107
Acute Toxicity 107
Chronic Toxicity 108
TABLE 53 CHRONIC TOXICITY OF CYPERMETHRIN 108
Ecological Effects 108
Environmental Fate 108
Lambda-Cyhalothrin 109
Lambda-Cyhalothrin Chemical Profile 109
Physical and Chemical Properties 109
Mode of Action 109
Uses 109
Toxicological Effects 110
Acute Toxicity 110
Chronic Toxicity 110
TABLE 54 CHRONIC TOXICITY OF CYHALOTHRIN 110
Ecological Effects 111
Environmental Fate 111
TABLE 55 TOXICITY LEVELS OF LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN 111
Deltamethrin 111
Deltamethrin Chemical Profile 112
Physical and Chemical Properties 112
Mode of Action 112
Uses 112
Toxicological Effects 113
Acute Toxicity 113
Chronic Toxicity 113
TABLE 56 CHRONIC TOXICITY OF DELTAMETHRIN 113
Ecological Effects 113
Environmental Fate 114
Permethrin 114
Permethrin Chemical Profile 114
Physical and Chemical Properties 114
Mode of Action 114
Uses 115
Toxicological Effects 115
Acute Toxicity 115
Chronic Toxicity 115
TABLE 57 CHRONIC TOXICITY OF PYRETHROIDS 115
Ecological Effects 116
Environmental Fate 116
Other Pyrethroid Pesticides 116
Fenvalerate 116
Resmethrin 117
Classification of Synthetic Pesticides 117
Classification of Pesticides by Type 117
TABLE 58 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF SYNTHETIC PESTICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 117
TABLE 59 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC PESTICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 117
Classification by Type of Pest Controlled 118
TABLE 60 CLASSIFICATION OF PESTICIDES ACCORDING TO THE PEST THEY CONTROL 118
Chemical Classification 118
TABLE 61 SYNTHETIC PESTICIDES BASED ON CHEMICAL CLASS 118
BIOPESTICIDES 119
Microbial Pesticides 119
Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt) 120
Bacillus Subtilis (Bs) 120
Bacillus Firmus (Bf) 121
Pseudomonas Fluorescens 121
Heliothis NPV 121
Trichoderma 121
Beauveria Bassiana 122
Trichogramma Parasitoid 122
Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora 123
Plant Incorporated Protectants (PIPs) 123
Genetically Modified Microbial Pesticides 124
TABLE 62 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF BIOPESTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 124
TABLE 63 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOPESTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 124
Biochemical Pesticides 124
Other Types of Biopesticides 125
Advantages of Biopesticides 125
OTHER PESTICIDES 126
TABLE 64 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF OTHER PESTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 126
TABLE 65 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER PESTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 126
Miticides 126
Rodenticides 126
Nematicides 127
Repellents 127
TABLE 66 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF OTHER PESTICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 127
TABLE 67 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER PESTICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 128
TABLE 68 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF OTHER SYNTHETIC PESTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 128
TABLE 69 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER SYNTHETIC PESTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 128
TABLE 70 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF OTHER BIOPESTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 129
TABLE 71 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER BIOPESTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 129
CLASSIFICATION OF PESTICIDES ACCORDING TO TARGET ORGANISM 130
Herbicides 130
TABLE 72 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF HERBICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 131
TABLE 73 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 131
TABLE 74 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF HERBICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 132
TABLE 75 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 132
TABLE 76 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF SYNTHETIC HERBICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 133
TABLE 77 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC HERBICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 134
TABLE 78 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF SYNTHETIC HERBICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 134
TABLE 79 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC HERBICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 134
Glyphosate 135
TABLE 80 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF GLYPHOSATES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 135
TABLE 81 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GLYPHOSATES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 135
Atrazine 136
TABLE 82 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF ATRAZINE, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 137
TABLE 83 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ATRAZINE, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 137
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) 137
TABLE 84 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF 2,4-D, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 138
TABLE 85 GLOBAL MARKET FOR 2,4-D, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 138
Acetochlor 139
TABLE 86 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF ACETOCHLOR, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 139
TABLE 87 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ACETOCHLOR, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 139
Paraquat 140
TABLE 88 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF PARAQUAT BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 140
TABLE 89 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PARAQUAT, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 141
Other Herbicides 141
TABLE 90 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF OTHER HERBICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 141
TABLE 91 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER HERBICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 142
Butachlor 142
Dicamba 142
Diquat 143
Imazapyr 143
Bioherbicides 143
TABLE 92 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF BIOHERBICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 143
TABLE 93 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOHERBICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 143
TABLE 94 EXAMPLES OF REGISTERED BIOHERBICIDES AND THEIR STATUS 144
Limitations of Bioherbicides 146
Insecticides 146
TABLE 95 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF INSECTICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 147
TABLE 96 GLOBAL MARKET FOR INSECTICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 147
TABLE 97 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF INSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 147
TABLE 98 GLOBAL MARKET FOR INSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 148
Synthetic Insecticides 148
TABLE 99 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF SYNTHETIC INSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 148
TABLE 100 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC INSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 149
TABLE 101 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF SYNTHETIC INSECTICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 149
TABLE 102 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC INSECTICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 150
Organophosphates 150
TABLE 103 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 151
TABLE 104 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 151
Pyrethroids 151
FIGURE 5 ADVANTAGES OF PYRETHROIDS 152
TABLE 105 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 153
TABLE 106 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 153
Methyl Carbamate 153
TABLE 107 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF METHYL CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 154
TABLE 108 GLOBAL MARKET FOR METHYL CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 154
Neonicotinoids 154
TABLE 109 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 155
TABLE 110 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 155
Other Insecticides 155
TABLE 111 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF OTHER INSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 156
TABLE 112 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER INSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 156
Formamidines 156
Dinitrophenols 156
Botanicals 157
Bioinsecticides 157
TABLE 113 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF BIOINSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 158
TABLE 114 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOINSECTICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 158
Microbial Insecticides 158
FIGURE 6 MODE OF ACTION OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS 159
TABLE 115 COMMERCIAL FORMULATIONS OF BT INSECTICIDES 160
Advantages of Microbial Bioinsecticides 160
Limitations of Microbial Bioinsecticides 160
Viral Bioinsecticides 160
FIGURE 7 MODE OF ACTION OF VIRAL BIOINSECTICIDES 160
Advantages of Viral Bioinsecticides 161
Fungal Bioinsecticides 161
FIGURE 8 MODE OF ACTION OF FUNGAL BIOINSECTICIDES 162
Advantages of Fungal Bioinsecticides 162
Fungicides 162
TABLE 116 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF FUNGICIDES, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 163
TABLE 117 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FUNGICIDES, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 163
TABLE 118 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF FUNGICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 164
TABLE 119 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FUNGICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 164
Synthetic Fungicides 164
TABLE 120 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF SYNTHETIC FUNGICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 164
TABLE 121 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC FUNGICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 165
TABLE 122 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF SYNTHETIC FUNGICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 165
TABLE 123 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC FUNGICIDES, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 166
Dithiocarbamates 166
TABLE 124 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF DITHIOCARBAMATES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 167
TABLE 125 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DITHIOCARBAMATES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 167
Benzimidazoles 167
TABLE 126 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF BENZIMIDAZOLES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 168
TABLE 127 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BENZIMIDAZOLES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 168
Chloronitriles 169
TABLE 128 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF CHLORONITRILES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 169
TABLE 129 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CHLORONITRILES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 170
Triazoles 170
TABLE 130 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF TRIAZOLES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 171
TABLE 131 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TRIAZOLES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 171
Phenylamides 171
TABLE 132 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF PHENYLAMIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 172
TABLE 133 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHENYLAMIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 172
Strobilurins 173
TABLE 134 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF STROBILURINS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 173
TABLE 135 GLOBAL MARKET FOR STROBILURINS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 174
Other Fungicides 174
Dicarboximides 174
TABLE 136 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF OTHER FUNGICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 174
TABLE 137 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER FUNGICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 175
Biofungicides 175
TABLE 138 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF BIOFUNGICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 175
TABLE 139 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOFUNGICIDES, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 176
TABLE 140 BIOFUNGICIDES USED FOR CONTROLLING CROP DISEASES IN VEGETABLES LISTED BY THE OMRI* 176

CHAPTER 5 AGROCHEMICAL MARKET BY GEOGRAPHICAL REGION 179
TABLE 141 GLOBAL VOLUMES OF AGROCHEMICALS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 180
TABLE 142 GLOBAL MARKET FOR AGROCHEMICALS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 180
NORTH AMERICA 180
TABLE 143 NORTH AMERICAN VOLUMES OF AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 181
TABLE 144 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 182
EUROPE 182
TABLE 145 EUROPEAN VOLUMES OF AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 183
TABLE 146 EUROPEAN MARKET FOR AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 183
ASIA-PACIFIC 183
CHINA 183
INDIA 184
TABLE 147 ASIA-PACIFIC VOLUMES OF AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 185
TABLE 148 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 185
ROW 185
TABLE 149 ROW VOLUMES OF AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 (KILOTONS) 186
TABLE 150 ROW MARKET FOR AGROCHEMICALS, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 187

CHAPTER 6 COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE 189
INTRODUCTION 189
FIGURE 9 KEY COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES, 2012-2016 (%) 190
AGREEMENT STRATEGIES 191
FIGURE 10 DISTRIBUTION OF AGREEMENT STRATEGIES, BY COMPANY, 2013-2016 (%) 191
TABLE 151 COMPANY AGREEMENTS, 2013-2016 193
COLLABORATION, PARTNERSHIP AND JOINT VENTURE 197
FIGURE 11 DISTRIBUTION OF COLLABORATION/PARTNERSHIP/JOINT VENTURE STRATEGIES, BY COMPANY, 2012-2016 (%) 198
TABLE 152 COMPANY COLLABORATIONS/PARTNERSHIPS/JOINT VENTURES, 2012-2016 199
MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS 202
FIGURE 12 DISTRIBUTION OF MERGER and ACQUISITION STRATEGIES, BY COMPANY, 2013-2016 (%) 203
TABLE 153 COMPANY ACQUISITIONS, 2013-2016 204
EXPANSION 207
FIGURE 13 DISTRIBUTION OF EXPANSION STRATEGIES, BY COMPANY, 2013-2016 (%) 208
TABLE 154 COMPANY EXPANSION, 2013-2016 209
PRODUCT LAUNCHES 211
FIGURE 14 DISTRIBUTION OF PRODUCT LAUNCH STRATEGIES, BY COMPANY, 2013-2016 (%) 211
TABLE 155 COMPANY PRODUCT LAUNCHES, 2013-2016 213
OTHERS 214
FIGURE 15 DISTRIBUTION OF OTHER STRATEGIES, BY COMPANY, 2012-2016 (%) 215
TABLE 156 OTHER COMPANY STRATEGIES, 2012-2016 216

CHAPTER 7 PATENT ANALYSIS 218
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL SHARES OF AGROCHEMICAL PATENTS, BY REGION, 2012-2016 (%) 218
PATENTS BY REGION 219
UNITED STATES 219
FIGURE 17 U.S. AGROCHEMICAL PATENT SHARES, BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2012-2016 (%) 219
FIGURE 18 SHARES OF U.S. PATENTS ON FERTILIZERS, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 220
U.S. Patents on Pesticides by Market Participant 221
FIGURE 19 SHARES OF U.S. PATENTS ON PESTICIDES, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 221
FIGURE 20 SHARES OF U.S. PATENTS ON PESTICIDES, BY TYPE, 2012-2016 (%) 222
U.S. Patents on Herbicides by Market Participant 223
FIGURE 21 SHARES OF U.S. PATENTS ON HERBICIDES, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 224
U.S. Patents on Insecticides by Market Participants 225
FIGURE 22 SHARES OF U.S. PATENTS ON INSECTICIDES, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 225
U.S. Patents on Fungicides by Market Participant 226
FIGURE 23 SHARES OF U.S. PATENTS ON FUNGICIDES, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 226
EUROPE 227
FIGURE 24 EUROPEAN AGROCHEMICAL PATENT SHARES, BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2012-2016 (%) 228
European Patents on Fertilizers by Market Participant 228
FIGURE 25 SHARES OF EUROPEAN PATENTS ON FERTILIZERS, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 228
European Patents on Pesticides by Market Participant 229
FIGURE 26 SHARES OF EUROPEAN PATENTS ON PESTICIDES, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 230
FIGURE 27 SHARES OF EUROPEAN PATENTS ON PESTICIDES, BY TYPE, 2012-2016 (%) 230
European Patents on Herbicides by Market Participant 231
FIGURE 28 SHARES OF EUROPEAN PATENTS ON HERBICIDES, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 231
European Patents on Insecticides by Market Participant 232
FIGURE 29 SHARES OF EUROPEAN PATENTS ON INSECTICIDES, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 233
European Patents on Fungicides by Market Participant 233
FIGURE 30 SHARES OF EUROPEAN PATENTS ON FUNGICIDES, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 234
JAPAN 234
FIGURE 31 SHARES OF JAPANESE PATENTS ON AGROCHEMICALS, BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2012-2016 (%) 235
Japanese Patents on Fertilizers by Market Participant 235
FIGURE 32 SHARES OF JAPANESE PATENTS ON FERTILIZERS, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 235
Japanese Patents on Pesticides by Market Participant 236
FIGURE 33 SHARES OF JAPANESE PATENTS ON PESTICIDES, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 237
FIGURE 34 SHARES OF JAPANESE PATENTS ON PESTICIDES, BY TYPE, 2012-2016 (%) 237
Japanese Herbicide Patents by Market Participant 238
FIGURE 35 SHARES OF JAPANESE PATENTS ON HERBICIDES, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 238
Japanese Patents on Insecticides by Market Participant 239
FIGURE 36 SHARES OF JAPANESE PATENTS ON INSECTICIDES, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 239
Japanese Patents on Fungicides by Market Participant 240
FIGURE 37 SHARES OF JAPANESE PATENTS ON FUNGICIDES, BY MARKET PARTICIPANT, 2012-2016 (%) 241

CHAPTER 8 COMPANY PROFILES 243
ADAMA AGRICULTURAL SOLUTIONS LTD. 243
TABLE 157 ADAMA FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 243
TABLE 158 ADAMA'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 243
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 244
AGRIUM INC. 244
TABLE 159 AGRIUM INC. FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 245
TABLE 160 AGRIUM'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 245
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 246
AMERICAN VANGUARD CORPORATION. 246
TABLE 161 AMVAC'S FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 246
TABLE 162 AMVAC'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 247
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 247
BASF SE 248
TABLE 163 BASF SE FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 248
TABLE 164 BASF'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 249
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 250
BAYER AG 250
TABLE 165 BAYER AG FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 251
TABLE 166 BAYER AG RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 251
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 252
DOW AGROSCIENCES LLC (THE DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY) 252
TABLE 167 DOW AGROSCIENCES LLC FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 252
TABLE 168 DOW AGROSCIENCES' RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 252
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 254
E. I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS AND COMPANY 254
TABLE 169 DUPONT AGRICULTURE SEGMENT FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 255
TABLE 170 E. I. DUPONT DE NEMOURS AND COMPANY'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 255
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 256
FMC CORP. 256
TABLE 171 FMC CORP. FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 257
TABLE 172 FMC CORP.'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 257
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 258
INDIAN FARMERS FERTILIZER COOPERATIVE LTD. (IFFCO) 258
TABLE 173 IFFCO FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 259
TABLE 174 IFFCO'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 259
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 259
ISRAEL CHEMICALS LTD. 260
TABLE 175 ISRAEL CHEMICALS LTD. FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 260
TABLE 176 ISRAEL CHEMICALS' RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 260
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 261
K+S AG 262
TABLE 177 K+S AG FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 262
TABLE 178 K+S AG'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 263
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 263
MONSANTO COMPANY 263
TABLE 179 MONSANTO COMPANY FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 264
TABLE 180 MONSANTO COMPANY'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 264
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 265
MOSAIC CO. (THE) 266
TABLE 181 THE MOSAIC CO. FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 266
TABLE 182 THE MOSAIC CO.'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 266
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 266
NUFARM LTD. 267
TABLE 183 NUFARM LTD. FINANCIALS, 2014-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 267
TABLE 184 NUFARM'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 268
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 268
POTASHCORP SAS INC. 269
TABLE 185 POTASHCORP FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 269
TABLE 186 POTASHCORP'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 269
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 270
SOCIEDAD QUIMICA Y MINERA DE CHILE S.A. (SQM) 270
TABLE 187 SQM FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 271
TABLE 188 SQM'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 271
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 271
SUMITOMO CHEMICAL CO. 272
TABLE 189 SUMITOMO FINANCIALS, 2014-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 272
TABLE 190 SUMITOMO CHEMICAL'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 272
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 273
SYNGENTA AG 273
TABLE 191 SYNGENTA AG FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 274
TABLE 192 SYNGENTA AG'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 274
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 275
URALKALI 275
TABLE 193 URALKALI FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 276
TABLE 194 URALKALI'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 276
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 276
YARA INTERNATIONAL ASA 277
TABLE 195 YARA INTERNATIONAL ASA FINANCIALS, 2013-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 277
TABLE 196 YARA INTERNATIONAL ASA'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 278
AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 279

CHAPTER 9 APPENDIX 281
U.S. PATENTS 281
TABLE 197 U.S. PATENTS ON FERTILIZERS 281
TABLE 198 U.S. PATENTS ON FUNGICIDES 285
TABLE 199 U.S. PATENTS ON HERBICIDES 288
TABLE 200 U.S. PATENTS ON INSECTICIDES 292
EUROPEAN PATENTS 296
TABLE 201 EUROPEAN PATENTS ON FERTILIZERS 296
TABLE 202 EUROPEAN PATENTS ON FUNGICIDES 296
TABLE 203 EUROPEAN PATENTS ON HERBICIDES 304
TABLE 204 EUROPEAN PATENTS ON INSECTICIDES 317
JAPANESE PATENTS 322

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