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Biodegradable Polymers, BCC Research

  • October 2013
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 181 pages

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The objective of this study is to provide an analysis of the global biodegradable polymer market. According to most sources this market has not yet realized its potential due to several critical yet unresolved issues.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Although biodegradable polymers have been commercial for several decades, this niche market is beset with a variety of roadblocks led by high prices and lack of an industrial infrastructure along with varying standards in several global areas.
New biodegradable polymers are being introduced, accompanied by a continuing withdrawal of other products. In addition, key companies are entering and leaving this market, which is often characteristic of new products/markets.
The industry has been characterized by new technologies, tightening environmental restraints and unstable oil prices among other issues. This combination of factors necessitates a realistic appraisal of the impact of these polymers over the next five years.

SCOPE OF REPORT

Although the term biodegradable polymers is well known, there are only a few truly universal standards in place; moreover, the fate of these materials in composting mediums is unclear in many instances. In addition, major drivers for global growth stem from mandated legislation. Though some mandates are in place, many have not been promulgated.
The controversy within the industry as to which materials should be considered biodegradable continues unabated. These resins currently include polyolefin-based compositions containing starch and polymers containing aromatic groups that microorganisms have difficulty utilizing in their metabolism.
Furthermore, there are additives said to convert petroleum-based resins to biodegradable versions. These resultant resins are said to be oxo-biodegradable.
Part of the current debate revolves around defining an acceptable period of time for biodegradation to be completed. Almost all carbon-based materials are biodegradable, if given an acceptable period of time.
This report includes polymers that producers market as fully biodegradable. Most define a fully biodegradable polymer as a polymer that is completely converted by microorganisms to carbon dioxide, water and humus.
In the case of anaerobic biodegradation, carbon dioxide, methane and humus are the degradation products. However, many within the industry insist on a time period for degradation such that the terms biodegradability and composting are not synonymous. The issues concerning biodegradable versus compostable resins is a very important issue that is discussed in detail.
Polymers derived from renewable resources (non-petroleum-based) are not covered unless they are considered biodegradable since many polymers derived from renewable resources are not biodegradable. These materials are often termed as bio-based. Some polymers are both bio-based and biodegradable.
This report covers the chemical types of biodegradable polymers along with their properties, production, producers and applications. The companies involved will be detailed in terms of their products including trade names and their impact on the market. Definitions and standards, market drivers, biodegradation testing, environmental issues, composting and relevant technologies will also be discussed.
An examination of global consumption is provided along with considerable information regarding North American, European and Asian products, technologies, markets and companies.

SOURCES

Following a detailed analysis of available information that included trade literature, articles and technical/marketing presentations and papers and company literature, interviews were conducted in order to realistically assess market size, growth rates, company involvement and other important factors impacting the market.

ANALYST’S CREDENTIALS

Research analyst Mel Schlechter has more than 40 years of experience in the chemical industry and specializes in plastics market research. He has been with BCC Research for more than a decade and holds a B.S. in chemistry, an M.S. in organic chemistry, and an M.B.A. in marketing.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

This report provides:
• An overview of the global market for biodegradable polymers, defined as polymers that are completely converted by microorganisms to carbon dioxide, water, and humus.
• Analyses of global market trends, with data estimates for 2013 and 2014, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2019.
• A discussion of how this niche market is beset with a variety of roadblocks, led by high prices, lack of industrial infrastructure in the United States, and a strong global legislative mandate to increase the usage of these materials.
• Characterization of the industry by new technologies, stringent environmental restraints, and very unstable oil prices, among other issues.

Table Of Contents

Biodegradable Polymers, BCC Research
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 2
SOURCES 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC REPORTS 3
BCC ONLINE SERVICES 4
DISCLAIMER 4

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION LBS.) 6
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY APPLICATION,
2013-2019 (MILLION LBS.) 7

CHAPTER 3 TERMINOLOGY 9

BACKGROUND 9
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 9
BIO-BASED 10
DEGRADABLE AND BIODEGRADABLE 10
"COMPOSTABLE" AND "BIODEGRADABLE" ARE NOT INTERCHANGEABLE 11
CONCLUSIONS 11
AS AN ADDENDUM 11

CHAPTER 4 BACKGROUND/HISTORICAL 14

OVERVIEW 14
THE BIOPOLYMER-SYNTHETIC POLYMER GAP 14
NICHE MARKETS 14
A NEW EMPHASIS 14
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS PERSIST 15
INTEGRATION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS WITH DISPOSAL
INFRASTRUCTURE 15
EARLY STARCH-BASED MATERIALS 15
INTRODUCTION OF COMPOSTABLE BAGS 15
CONTINUED RandD 16
EARLY ENTRANTS 16
THE IMPORTANCE OF LOOSE-FILL 16
OTHER FACTORS 17
BIOPOLYMERS, CONVENTIONAL PLASTICS AND BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS 17
NATURAL OR SYNTHETIC 17
THE MOVE TO RENEWABLE SOURCES 18
EXTENDING THE RECYCLING LOOP 18
PROCESSING 19
PROPERTIES 19
DEFINING BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 19
PUBLIC ATTITUDES 20
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 20
COMPOSTING 21

CHAPTER 5 BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS BY CHEMICAL TYPE 23

OVERVIEW 23
BACKGROUND 23
POLYLACTIC ACID 23
THE PROCESS 23
BACKGROUND 24
TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 25
GRADES 25
PROPERTIES 25
PRODUCTION 26
PRODUCERS 27
MODIFICATIONS 27
SOME PROBLEM AREAS 28
USE OF BLENDS 28
APPLICATIONS 28
BIODEGRADABILITY 29
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 29
Toray Introduced PLA Films 29
DuPont's Biomax Upgrades PLA Performance in Thermoformed Trays 29
NatureWorks Provides Comments on a New Plant, Recycling Issues
and Pricing 30
Glass-Reinforced PLA Compounds 30
Recycling PLA 30
ECORENE PLA Powders 30
New Higher-Performance Materials Partly or Wholly Based on PLA 30
NatureWorks Adds to Its Ingeo Injection Molded Grades 31
PLA Nanocomposites 31
NatureWorks Increases Lactide Capacity 31
More NatureWorks Future Planning 31
Details on NatureWorks' Choice of Thailand for Its Asian Plant 31
Purac Completes Lactide Plant in Thailand 32
Additives Increase PLA Melt Strength 32
Compounder Introduces New PLA Grades for Durables 32
PLA Blends for Mulch Films 32
PLA for High-Heat Applications 33
Ingeo PLA Might Compete With Polycarbonate Alloys 33
POLYESTERS 33
POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES (PHAS) 33
Overview 33
Background 34
Chemistry 34
Technology Details 34
Applications 35
Processes 36
Properties 36
Biodegradability 36
Compostability 37
Recycling 37
Concept of Metabolic Engineering 37
Certification and Testing 37
Another Important PHA-PHBV 38
Producers 38
Concluding Remarks 39
Recent Developments 39
Novel Production Route to PHB 39
Metabolix Has a New Partner for PHA Production 40
PHAs as PVC Modifiers 40
Meredian Builds Largest PHA Plant 40
More PHA Producers and Technologies 40
Compostable PHA Films 41
Biobased Alloys 41
OTHER BIODEGRADABLE POLYESTERS 41
Ecoflex 41
Ecovio 42
Biomax 42
Bionelle 42
OTHER IMPORTANT BIODEGRADABLE POLYESTERS 43
Overview 43
Polycaprolactone (PCL) 43
Background 43
Properties 43
Applications 44
Overview 44
Biomedical Applications 44
Suppliers 44
PBS-Type Polyesters 44
Background 44
Chemistry 45
Water-Soluble Polymers 45
Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVOH) 45
Overview 45
Polyvinyl Alcohol-Based Materials 45
Overview 45
Applications 46
Properties 46
Specific PVOH Properties 46
Suppliers 46
Biodegradable Applications 47
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER BLENDS 47
OVERVIEW 47
PLA BLENDS 47
FKUR ACTIVITIES 48
BASF PRODUCTS 48
RTP AND POLYONE PLA BLENDS 48
RECENT NATUREWORK LLC DEVELOPMENTS 48
STARCH-BASED BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS 49
AGRO-POLYMERS 49
SUSTAINABLE/BIODEGRADABLE CORN STARCH PRODUCTS 49
BACKGROUND 49
TECHNICAL DETAILS 50
THERMOPLASTIC STARCH 50
MIXTURES OF STARCH AND BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 51
Background 51
Producers 51
Novamont 51
TABLE 1 TYPES OF PRODUCTS MADE WITH MATER-BI 52
Cereplast 53
Earthshell 53
Applications of Thermoplastic Starch Polymers 53
Environmental Issues 53
Starch-Filled Polymer Composites 54
OTHER TYPES OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 54
PROTEIN-BASED PLASTICS 54
Background 54
Benefits 54
Applications 55
Consumer 55
Agricultural 55
Horticulture 55
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS FROM SOYBEANS 55
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF OTHER BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 56
Kureha Corporation's PGA 56
Clear Biodegradable Cellulosic Plastics 56
GENETICALLY MODIFIED (GM) BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 56
OVERVIEW 56
PHAS 57
CURRENT SCENARIO 57
OXO-BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS 57
BACKGROUND 57
APPLICATIONS 58
WHAT IS AN OXO-BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC ACCORDING TO PROPONENTS? 58
INPUT FROM THE CEN (EUROPEAN STANDARDS ORGANIZATION) 58
TECHNOLOGIES 58
CONTINUING CONTROVERSY OVER OXO-BIODEGRADABLES 59
Overview 59
Some Specific Objections 59
Other Conflicting Issues 60
A Conundrum 60
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 61
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER ADDITIVES 61

CHAPTER 6 GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER PRODUCERS 64

TABLE 2 KEY GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER PRODUCERS 64
TABLE 3 KEY GLOBAL POLYLACTIC ACID PRODUCERS 66
TABLE 4 KEY GLOBAL POLYESTER BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER PRODUCERS 66
TABLE 5 KEY GLOBAL STARCH-BASED BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER PRODUCERS 67

CHAPTER 7 MARKET ESTIMATES AND FORECASTS 69

BACKGROUND 69
FACTORS IMPACTING GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET 69
ANALYSIS OVERVIEW 71
TABLE 6 GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION
POUNDS) 71
GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY APPLICATION 72
TABLE 7 GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 72
GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY REGION 73
OVERVIEW 73
TABLE 8 GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY REGION THROUGH 2019
(MILLION POUNDS) 73
NORTH AMERICA 73
EUROPE 74
ASIA 74
GLOBAL DEMAND AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF INDIVIDUAL
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 75
PLA 75
TABLE 9 GLOBAL DEMANDS FOR POLYLACTIC ACID, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 75
TABLE 10 PLA MARKET BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 76
STARCH-BASED BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 76
TABLE 11 GLOBAL STARCH-BASED PLASTICS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019
(MILLION POUNDS) 76
TABLE 12 STARCH-BASED PLASTICS MARKET BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2019
(MILLION POUNDS) 77
POLYESTERS 77
TABLE 13 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PHA AND OTHER BIODEGRADABLE POLYESTERS,
BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 77
TABLE 14 PHA BIODEGRADABLE POLYESTERS, BY GLOBAL REGION THROUGH 2019
(MILLION POUNDS) 78

CHAPTER 8 APPLICATIONS 80

OVERVIEW 80
PACKAGING 80
BACKGROUND 80
SOME STANDARDS AND COMMENTS REGARDING BIODEGRADABLE
PACKAGING 80
CHOICE OF RESIN IS THE FIRST STEP IN SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING 81
OBSTACLES 82
TARGETED APPLICATIONS 83
SHEET EXTRUSION APPLICATIONS 83
CLEAR RIGID PACKAGING 84
STRETCH BLOW MOLDING PACKAGING 84
FOOD PACKAGING 84
Overview 84
A Prominent Example 85
Single-Serve Market 85
THERMOFORMED PACKAGING 85
CUPS AND UTENSILS 86
NEW BOTTLE DEVELOPMENTS IN BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER PACKAGING 86
IMPACT OF FOODSERVICE INDUSTRY 87
FOAM PACKAGING 87
Overview 87
Biodegradable Polyethylene Foams 88
Biodegradable Engineered Foams 88
Biodegradable Air Cushions 88
LOOSE-FILL PACKAGING 89
Overview 89
The Process 89
Storopack 90
FP International 90
Pro-Pac Packaging 90
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIODEGRADABLE PACKAGING 90
Environmental Regulations Concern Packagers 90
PepsiCo Begins to Market Recyclable and Compostable Foodservice
Cups 91
United Arab Emirates (UAE) Bans Disposable Plastics 91
New Modular Single-Serve Food Packaging 91
Compostable Coffee Pack Introduced 92
Pakistan Bans Non-Degradable Plastic Bags 92
Italy Upset as the U.K. Blocks Ban on Plastic Bags 92
Symphony Supports the U.K. Over Italian Plastic Bag Plan 92
Examples of Company Biodegradable Polymers Packaging Products 92
Genpak 92
Enso Bottles 93
Other Claims As the "World's First Biodegradable Water Bottle" 93
MEDICAL 93
OVERVIEW 93
BACKGROUND 94
PROPERTIES REQUIRED 95
BREADTH OF APPLICATIONS 95
CRITERIA FOR POLYMER SELECTION 96
ORTHOPEDIC FIXATION DEVICES 96
DETAILS ON THE TYPES OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS USED IN THE
MEDICAL FIELD 97
Background 97
Polyglycolides 97
Polylactides 97
Polycaprolactone 98
Polydioxanone 98
Polyanhydrides 98
PACKAGING AND STERILIZATION IMPLICATIONS 98
Background 98
Sterilization 99
DEGRADATION OF MEDICAL PLASTICS 99
COMMERCIAL BIODEGRADABLE MEDICAL DEVICES 99
Background 99
Sutures 99
Dental Devices 100
Orthopedic Fixation Devices 100
Drug Delivery 100
Hydrogels 101
Microspheres 102
Tissue Engineering 102
Bone Replacement 103
Stents 103
An Example of an Interesting Product 104
Recent Medical Device Meetings 104
OTHER APPLICATIONS 105
BACKGROUND 105
FIBERS 105
Overview 105
Hygiene-Related Fiber Disposable Products 105
Nonwovens 106
Biodegradable Drug-Loaded Fibers 106
PAPER COATINGS 106
Overview 106
Examples of Biodegradable Commercial Products for Paper-Coating
Applications 107
Biodegradable Polymer Coated Paper and Paperboard 107
PAPER CUPS 108
AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS 108
Background 108
Positive Aspects Cited by Proponents of Biodegradable Film Usage in
Agriculture 109
A Recent Update on Biodegradable Mulches for Agricultural
Applications 109
Production of Biodegradable Plastic Mulches 109
TABLEWARE 109
AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS 110
Overview 110
TABLE 15 HISTORICAL, CURRENT AND PROJECTED U.S. AUTOMOTIVE SALES,
1997-2017 (MILLION UNITS) 110
TABLE 16 ESTIMATED HYBRID SALES FOR THE U.S., 2008-2016 (THOUSAND UNITS) 110
CAFE Issues 111
Background of Auto Applications 113
Toyota 113
Ford Activities 113
An Observation 113
PLA Properties and Products 114
Some New Developments 115
Biodegradable PLA/Polycarbonate (PC) Copolymers Used in
Automotive Applications 115
Biodegradable Polymer Cars 115
ELECTRONICS 115
Overview 115
Biodegradable Electronics Research 116
Biodegradable Polymer Company Activities in Traditional Electronic
Devices 116
Fujitsu Activities 117
NEC and Unitika 117
Sony 117
Samsung Cheil Industry Activities 118
Telecom's Phone 118
Panasonic Products 118
New Developments in Biodegradable Electronic Products 118
Biodegradable Electronics Dissolve after Usage 118
Biodegradable PVOH Films for Electronic Applications 118
Interesting New Patent Application on Biodegradable Electronic
Devices 118
NEC Biodegradable Computer Case Now Commercially Available 119
Fujitsu Continues Its Biodegradable Technology 119
SUMMARY OF GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY APPLICATION 119
TABLE 17 GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 120

CHAPTER 9 DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS 122

OVERVIEW 122
CONFUSION IN DEFINITIONS 122
SOME TECHNICAL ASPECTS 123
BACKGROUND 123
THE TERM "BIO-BASED" OFTEN IS CONFUSING TO CONSUMERS 123
DEGRADABLE TESTS ARE NOT UNIFORM 123
Overview 123
Oxo-Bio Standards 124
Hydro-Bio Standards 124
ASTM D6400 125
Conclusions 125
SUMMARY OF STANDARDS 125
TABLE 18 KEY ASTM STANDARDS RELATED TO BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 125
OVERVIEW OF ASTM TESTS AND SPECIFICATIONS BASED ON TYPE OF
ENVIRONMENT 126
TABLE 19 ASTM TESTS AND SPECIFICATIONS BY TYPE OF ENVIRONMENT 126
EARLY FTC STANDARDS 126
STANDARDS OUTSIDE NORTH AMERICA 127
BACKGROUND 127
EN 13432, ASTM D6400, ISO 17088 127
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN STANDARDS 128
MIREL RECEIVES COMPOSTABLE CERTIFICATION 128
AUSTRALIAN BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS REGULATIONS 128
USDA DEVELOPS PROGRAM TO LABEL "BIOPLASTICS" 128
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 129
BACKGROUND 129
SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL 129
BACKGROUND 129
FEDERAL LEGISLATION 130
ECONOMIC DRIVING FORCES 130
OTHER LEGISLATIVE ISSUES 130
IMPACT OF LANDFILLS 131
RECYCLING 131
Background 131
Other Opinions 132
New Developments 132
Chemical Recycling for Cradle-to-Cradle PLA 132
Other PLA Recycling Operations 133
Proposed Laws Would Require "Not Recyclable" Labels 133
CONSUMERS' PERCEPTIONS ABOUT BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 133
BACKGROUND 133
U.S. ASPECTS 134
Overview 134
Negative Views of Biodegradable Plastics 134
Compost Toxicity 134
Increased Aquatic BOD 134
Risk to Marine Species 134
Litter 135
EUROPEAN ASPECTS 135
JAPANESE ASPECTS 135
AN OVERVIEW OF THE ISSUE OF PLASTIC WASTE IN THE ENVIRONMENT IN
VIEW OF INCREASED USE OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 136
NEW ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENTS 136

CHAPTER 10 TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THE DEGRADABILITY OF RESINS 139

POLYOLEFINS 139
POLYSTYRENE 139
PVC 139
OTHER THERMOPLASTICS AND THERMOSETS 139
MODES OF DEGRADATION OF SELECTED BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 140
TABLE 20 TIME LAG FOR VISUAL CHANGE DURING DEGRADATION FOR SELECTED
MATERIALS (WEEKS) 140
TABLE 21 TIME LAG FOR DEGRADATION PROCESS OF SELECTED MATERIALS
(MONTHS) 141
EFFECT OF POLYMER STRUCTURE ON BIODEGRADATION 141
BACKGROUND 141
MORPHOLOGY 141
EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL/EXPOSURE CONDITIONS ON
BIODEGRADATION 142
Background 142
Early Regulations 142
Significance of Moisture, Temperature and/or Oxygen 142
Role of Microorganisms 142
Presence of Methane 143
Increasing Decomposition in Landfills 143
Function of Compost Operations 143
Other Factors 143
Conclusions 144
MORE DETAILS ON THE CONCEPT OF COMPOSTING 144
OVERVIEW 144
TABLE 22 ESTIMATED COMPOSTING TIMES 144
BACKGROUND 145
KEY PROPERTIES FOR COMPOSTABLE PLASTICS 146
MATERIALS THAT MEET SPECIFICATIONS 146
COMPOST STREAM AND INFRASTRUCTURE 146
COMPOSTABLE PLASTICS 146
BIODEGRADABILITY AND COMPOSTABILITY 147
COMPOSTABLE PRODUCTS 147
RESTRICTIONS ON COMPOSTABLE CLAIMS 147
STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS 147
BENEFITS OF COMPOST TO SOIL 148
WHAT ARE THE CHALLENGES OF USING COMPOSTABLE PLASTICS? 148
U.S. ACTIVITIES 149
EUROPEAN ACTIVITIES 149
JAPANESE ACTIVITIES 150
MUTUAL INTERESTS OF THE GREEN PLASTICS INDUSTRY AND
COMPOSTING 150
PLA PROBLEMS IN COMPOSTING FACILITIES 151
AN INTERESTING/BAFFLING SET OF DEFINITIONS 151
A RECENT DEVELOPMENT 152

CHAPTER 11 RECENT GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER ACTIVITIES 154

OVERVIEW 154
UNITED STATES 154
CEREPLAST OPENS ITALIAN PRODUCTION SITE 154
PTT HAS 50% STAKE IN NATUREWORKS 154
DOW-MITSUI JOINT VENTURE 155
DISSOLUTION OF METABOLIX-ADM JOINT VENTURE-TELLES 155
SUGGESTED REASONS FOR FAILURE OF TELLES 155
MGP BIOPLASTICS INTRODUCES A HIGH-HEAT BIODEGRADABLE RESIN 156
CEREPLAST'S ACTIVITIES 156
NATUREWORK'S MOST RECENT ALLIANCES 156
METABOLIX FINDS A NEW PARTNER 156
PHA FINDS USE IN FLEXIBLE PVC 157
NEW BIODEGRADABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PHILIPPINE MARKET 157
RHEIN CHEMIE ADVANCES 157
EUROPE 157
BASF EXPANDS ECOVIO GRADES 157
PURAC DEVELOPS UPGRADED PLA 158
BASF PROMOTING ITS BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS FOR FOOD
COMPOSTING IN CHINA 158
ITALY PASSES PLASTIC BAN DESPITE OPPOSITION FROM THE U.K. 158
NOVAMONT AND ENI BUILDING A BIOREFINERY IN ITALY 158
SYMPHONY ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES (SET) IS PLANNING TO
IMPACT CHINA'S ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS 158
ASIA 159
TEIJIN MARKETING FILM AND SHEET HEAT-RESISTANT BIODEGRADABLE
POLYMER 159
TAIWAN AND THAILAND COMPANIES FORM BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER
JOINT VENTURE 159
AUSTRALIA'S CORN STARCH RESINS MOVING TOWARD TO THE U.S. 159
MULTIBAX (THAILAND) INCREASES PRODUCTION 160
THAILAND PLANS TO BECOME A GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS
POWER 160
TAIWAN HELPS ITS PLA PROCESSORS 160

CHAPTER 12 RECENT PATENTS RELATED TO BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 162

BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS FOR USE WITH IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICES 162
ADVANCED CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS, INC. (SANTA CLARA, CALIF.) - NO.
7,875,283 (JANUARY 25, 2011) 162
BIAXIALLY ORIENTED POLYLACTIC ACID FILM WITH HIGH BARRIER 162
TORAY PLASTICS (AMERICA) (NORTH KINGSTON, R.I.) - NO, 7,951,438
(MAY 31, 2011) 162
USE OF SELECTION PRESSURES TO ENABLE MICROBIAL BIOSYNTHESIS OF
POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES FROM ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION PRODUCTS 162
LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY (PALO ALTO, CALIF.) - NO.
8,030,021 (OCTOBER 4, 2011) 162
POLYLACTIC ACID COMPOSITION 163
TEIJIN LIMITED (OSAKA, JAPAN) - NO. 8,030,382 (OCTOBER, 4, 2011) 163
ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY POLYLACTIC ACID RESIN COMPOSITION 163
CHEIL INDUSTRIES, INC. (GUM-SI, KOREA) - NO. 8,232,343 (JULY 31, 2012) 163
MEDICAL ARTICLES CONTAINING BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS AND
ACID-NEUTRALIZING CATIONIC SPECIES 163
BOSTON SCIENTIFIC SCIMED, INC. (MAPLE GROVE, MINN.) - NO. 8,263,103
(SEPTEMBER 11, 2012) 163
POLYLACTIC SHRINK FILMS AND METHODS OF CASTING SAME 163
PLASTICS SUPPLIERS, INC. (COLUMBUS, OHIO) - NO. 8,263,197
(SEPTEMBER 11, 2012) 163
POLYLACTIC ACID FIBER 164
KIMBERLY CLARK WORLDWIDE, INC. (NEENAH, WIS.) - 8,268,738
(SEPTEMBER 18, 2012) 164
METHOD OF MANUFACTURE OF POLYLACTIC ACID FOAMS 164
BIOPOLYMER NETWORK LTD. (CANTERBURY, NEW ZEALAND) - NO.
8,283,389 (OCTOBER 9, 2012) 164
POLYLACTIC ACID RESIN COMPOSITION 164
ADEKA CORPORATION (TOKYO, JAPAN) - NO. 8,293,824 (OCTOBER 23,
2012) 164
POLYLACTIC ACID AND MANUFACTURING PROCESS THEREOF 164
TEIJIN LIMITED (OSAKA, JAPAN) - NO. 8,304490 (NOVEMBER 6, 2012) 164
PROCESS FOR THE MODIFICATION OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 165
AKZO NOBEL N.V. (ARNHEM, THE NETHERLANDS) - NO. 8,334,348
(DECEMBER 12, 2012) 165
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER AND COMPOUNDS 165
TECHNOFILM S.P.A. (SANT'ELPIDIO A MARE, ITALY) - NO. 8,349,914
(JANUARY 8, 2013) 165
PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING AND RECOVERING POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES
(PHAS) FROM CELLULAR BIOMASS 165
PHB INDUSTRIAL (SERRANA-SP, BRAZIL) - NO. 8,357,508 (JANUARY 22,
2013) 165
COMPATABILIZED POLYPROPYLENE AND PLA BLENDS AND METHODS OF
MAKING AND USING SAME 165
FINA TECHNOLOGY, INC. (HOUSTON, TEX.) - NO. 8,362,145 (JANUARY 29,
2013) 165
POLYLACTIC ACID COMPOSITION AND MOLDING COMPRISING THE
COMPOSITION 166
TOHCELLO CO., LTD (TOKYO, JAPAN) - NO. 8,362,157 (JANUARY 29, 2013) 166
MANUFACTURING METHOD OF POLYLACTIC ACID COMPOSITE COMPOSITION 166
HYUNDAI MOTOR COMPANY (SEOUL, KOREA) - NO. 8,378,027 (FEBRUARY
19, 2013) 166
LAMINATE SHEET OF PLA-BASED RESIN AND THERMOFORMED PLASTIC
THEREOF 166
TORAY INDUSTRIES, INC. (JAPAN) - NO. 8,431,212 (APRIL 30, 2013) 166

CHAPTER 13 COMPANY PROFILES 168

BASF 168
BIOLOGISCHE NATURVERPACKUNGEN GMGH and CO. KG (BIOTEC) 169
BIOMATERA 169
BIOME BIOPLASTICS LIMITED 169
BIOMER 170
BIOPOLYMER TECHNOLOGIES AG (BIOP) 171
CEREPLAST 171
CERESTECH INC. 172
DANIMER SCIENTIFIC 172
EARTHSHELL CORPORATION 173
FKUR PLASTICS CORPORATION 174
FUTERRO 174
GALACTIC SA 174
HUHTAMAKI, INC. 175
MEREDIAN, INC. 175
METABOLIX 176
MITSUI CHEMICALS 177
NATUREWORKS LLC 178
NOVAMONT 178
PLANTIC TECHNOLOGIES LTD 179
PLAXICA 180
PSM NORTH AMERICA 180
PURAC AMERICA 181
RODENBURG BIOPOLYMERS B.V. 181
SYNBRA TECHNOLOGY 182
TEIJIN, LIMITED 182
TEKNOR-APEX 183
TIANAN BIOLOGIC MATERIAL COMPANY, LTD 184
TIANJIN GREEN BIO-SCIENCE CO., LTD. 184
TORAY 185
TOYOBO COMPANY, LTD 185
UHDE INVENTA-FISCHER GMBH 185
ZHEJIANG HISUN BIOMATERIALS CO. 186

CHAPTER 14 APPENDIX I: 188

SELECTED ACRONYMS USED IN REPORT 188

CHAPTER 15 APPENDIX II 191

SELECTED GLOSSARY OF TERMS 191

CHAPTER 16 APPENDIX III 195

BIODEGRADABLE PRODUCTS INSTITUTE (BPI) 195
TABLE 23 BPI MEMBER COMPANIES 195

CHAPTER 17 APPENDIX IV 198

PRICING 198
TABLE 24 U.S. LIST PRICES FOR SELECTED BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS, 2013
(DOLLARS/POUND) 198



LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION LBS.) 6
TABLE 1 TYPES OF PRODUCTS MADE WITH MATER-BI 52
TABLE 2 KEY GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER PRODUCERS 64
TABLE 3 KEY GLOBAL POLYLACTIC ACID PRODUCERS 66
TABLE 4 KEY GLOBAL POLYESTER BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER PRODUCERS 66
TABLE 5 KEY GLOBAL STARCH-BASED BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER PRODUCERS 67
TABLE 6 GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION
POUNDS) 71
TABLE 7 GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 72
TABLE 8 GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY REGION THROUGH 2019
(MILLION POUNDS) 73
TABLE 9 GLOBAL DEMANDS FOR POLYLACTIC ACID, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 75
TABLE 10 PLA MARKET BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 76
TABLE 11 GLOBAL STARCH-BASED PLASTICS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019
(MILLION POUNDS) 76
TABLE 12 STARCH-BASED PLASTICS MARKET BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2019
(MILLION POUNDS) 77
TABLE 13 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PHA AND OTHER BIODEGRADABLE POLYESTERS,
BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 77
TABLE 14 PHA BIODEGRADABLE POLYESTERS, BY GLOBAL REGION THROUGH 2019
(MILLION POUNDS) 78
TABLE 15 HISTORICAL, CURRENT AND PROJECTED U.S. AUTOMOTIVE SALES,
1997-2017 (MILLION UNITS) 110
TABLE 16 ESTIMATED HYBRID SALES FOR THE U.S., 2008-2016 (THOUSAND UNITS) 110
TABLE 17 GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 120
TABLE 18 KEY ASTM STANDARDS RELATED TO BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 125
TABLE 19 ASTM TESTS AND SPECIFICATIONS BY TYPE OF ENVIRONMENT 126
TABLE 20 TIME LAG FOR VISUAL CHANGE DURING DEGRADATION FOR SELECTED
MATERIALS (WEEKS) 140
TABLE 21 TIME LAG FOR DEGRADATION PROCESS OF SELECTED MATERIALS
(MONTHS) 141
TABLE 22 ESTIMATED COMPOSTING TIMES 144
TABLE 23 BPI MEMBER COMPANIES 195
TABLE 24 U.S. LIST PRICES FOR SELECTED BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS, 2013
(DOLLARS/POUND) 198



LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY APPLICATION,
2013-2019 (MILLION LBS.) 7

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