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  4. > The Engineered T-Cell Receptor in Fusion Proteins, Antibodies & Cells: Emerging Opportunities for the Biopharmaceutical Industry

A comparative analysis and assessment of TCR technologies, pipelines and companies from an industry perspective

Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have become an increasingly successful treatment modality with sales of US$ 65 bln in the year 2012 and with an average (continuous) annual growth rate from 2006 to 2012 of 18.9%. While antibody technologies are steadily evolving, the spectrum of druggable targets for monoclonal antibodies has remained limited to extracellular antigens, albeit including proteins, carbohydrates and glycolipids.
Access to druggable, IP-protected and validated new targets is a major bottleneck in the biopharmaceutical industry. Technologies which can deliver both new targets and the corresponding treatment modality, can expect significant financial acknowledgement.

The T-cell receptor (TCR) has recently emerged as a means to target peptide antigens derived from intracellular proteins, however, in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted manner.  The first companies have overcome significant technical hurdles in putting together a library of viable new TCR-targeted antigens and establish the corresponding standardized protein- and cell-based therapeutic frameworks.

This report entitled The Engineered T-Cell Receptor in Fusion Proteins, Antibodies & Cells: Emerging Opportunities for the Biopharmaceutical Industry published in Ocotber 2013 describes chances and pitfals in exploiting the opportunities which offers the engineered T-cell receptor as integral part of fusion proteins, antibodies and cellular products. The key success factors are highlighted, the technical challenges described and solutions presented.

Benefits from the report:

• Identify players in the field, from industry and academia;
• Find out which TCR technologies are valued by Big Pharma and Biotech;
• Understand the value of intracellular antigens targeted by the TCR;
• Recognize the challenges of TCR-based therapeutics and their solutions;
• Learn which TCR-based therapeutics are attractive for partnering;
• Find out which TCR therapeutic approaches are not yet tapped.

Table Of Contents

The Engineered T-Cell Receptor in Fusion Proteins, Antibodies and Cells: Emerging Opportunities for the Biopharmaceutical Industry
The Engineered T-Cell Receptor in Fusion Proteins, Antibodies and Cells:
Emerging Opportunities for the Biopharmaceutical Industry

Table of Contents

0.         List of Abbreviations

1.         Executive Summary

2.         Introduction

3.         The T-Cell Receptor

4.         TCR Fusion Proteins
4.1 Altor Bioscience
4.1.1 Overview
4.1.2 Financing history
4.1.3 IP protection
4.1.4 Partnering
4.1.5 STAR technology
4.1.6 Binding affinity of scTCRs
4.1.7 Manufacturing of STAR molecules
4.1.8 Targets for scTCRs
4.1.9 Generation of scTCRs
4.1.10 Other applications of STAR molecules
4.1.11 STAR pipeline
4.1.12 ALT-801
4.1.12.1 Preclinical characterization of ALT-801
4.1.12.2 Clinical results of studies with ALT-801
4.1.12.3 Ongoing clinical studies with ALT-801
4.1.12.4 Safety of ALT-801 in clinical studies
4.1.12.5 Clinical immunogenicity of ALT-801
4.1.12.6 Clinical pharmacokinetics of ALT-801
4.1.13 ALT-802
4.1.14 Assessment
4.2 Immunocore
4.2.1 Corporate development of Immunocore
4.2.2 Stability and solubility of TCRs
4.2.3 Affinity of monoclonal TCRs (mTCR)
4.2.4 Effector function for mTCR
4.2.5 Target discovery for mTCRs
4.2.6 Preclinical experience with mTCRs
4.2.7 ImmTAC clinical lead program
4.2.8 Partnering
4.2.9 Assessment

5.         TCR-Like (TCRL) Antibodies
5.1 Eureka Therapeutics and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
5.1.1 Target of TCRL antibody
5.1.2 Generation of TCRL antibody
5.1.3 Preclinical characterization of TCRL antibody
5.1.4 Intellectual property
5.1.5 Corporate background
5.1.6 Assessment
5.2 Applied Immune Technologies
5.2.1 Corporate background
5.2.2 Financial history
5.2.3 Cancer target
5.2.4 Technologies
5.2.5 Viral targets
5.2.6 Generation of TCRL antibodies
5.2.7 Assessment

6.         TCR-Transfected T-Cells
6.1 Adaptimmune
6.1.1 Corporate Background
6.1.2 Overview of manufacturing
6.1.3 The TCR engineering process
6.1.4 TCR-transfected T-cells versus CAR-transfected T-clls
6.1.5 Clinical RandD in cancer
6.1.5 Clinical HIV study with TCR T-cells
6.1.6 Assessment
6.2       Academic Studies with TCR-Transfected T-Cells

7.         Artificial TCR T-Cells: Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cells
7.1 CAR-modified T-cells for cancer
7.1.1 Background
7.1.2 Clinical experience with CAR-modified T-cells
7.1.3 The three generations of CAR-Modified T-cells
7.1.4 Assessment
7.2 Autologous CAR-Modified T-Cells
7.2.1 Novartis and The University of Pennsylvania
7.2.2 Celgene and bluebird bio and Baylor College of Medicine
7.2.3 Kite Pharma
7.3 Allogeneic CAR-Modified T-Cells
7.3.1 Cellectis
7.4 CAR-Modified Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

8.         Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs)
8.1 Lion Biotechnologies

9.         Opportunity Analysis for TCR-based Products and Technologies

10.       References

11.       Corporate RandD Pipelines
11.1 Adaptimmune
11.2 Altor Bioscience
11.3 Immunocore
11.4 Lion Biotechnologies



Tables in the Text

Table 1     Financing history of Altor Bioscience
Table 2     Financing history of Immunocore
Table 3     Affinity enhancement of TCRs by Immuncore technology
Table 4     Comparison of TCR T-Cells with CAR T-Cells
Table 5     Investigator sponsored clinical studies with TCR

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