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Biorefinery Technologies: Global Markets

  • July 2016
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 121 pages

This BCC Research report provides a critical evaluation of the current status of commercial biorefinery markets and the ways in which recent environmental legislation and breakthroughs in technology will make use of biobased products competitive with established petro-based platforms. Forecasts provided from 2016 to 2018.

Use this report to:

Analyze the biorefinery technologies market through four main platforms i.e. physicochemical, biological, thermochemical and hybrids.
Analyze the development of advanced biorefinery technologies and process developments.
Gain insight into macroeconomic aspects and energy perspective and geographical diversification of the major international trends.
Analyze the future of the regulation and legislation of the biorefinery industry

Highlights

The global market for biorefinery technologies will grow from $466.6 billion in 2016 to $714.6 billion by 2021, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.9% for the period of 2016-2021.
The biological market will grow from $245.3 billion in 2016 to $376.4 billion by 2021, rising at a CAGR of 8.9%.
The physicochemical market is expected to increase from $182.3 billion in 2016 to $274.7 billion by 2021 with a CAGR of 8.5%.

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations estimates that global food wastage is about 1.6 gigatonnes of “primary product equivalents,” while the total edible part of food wasted is 1.3 gigatonnes, with 54% of this waste occurring before processing.

This equates to a direct global economic cost of $750 billion per year. Total agricultural production globally (for both food and non-food uses) is about 6 gigatonnes. This means that nearly one-third of all global agricultural production is wasted. In industry, biorefineries employ technologies in which biomass is converted into useful intermediates for fuels, energy, chemicals and non-food herbal/botanical compounds by direct combustion as well as by thermal, chemical and biological processes.
Thermal processes involve heating the biomass material. Chemical processes involve breaking down or converting biomass feedstock through chemical reactions, membranes, metal catalysts and other physical separation technologies. Biological conversion technologies use microbiological and/or enzymatic action to convert the biomass material into usable fuel and other bioproducts.

The objectives of this BCC Research report are to:

Identify and communicate critical needs for building scientific and engineering capabilities for the conversion of biorenewables to fuels, chemicals and other value-added products such as polymers.
Assess the current state of chemical catalysts (i.e., heterogeneous and homogeneous) and biocatalyst science and technology applicable to biorenewables.
Identify research and workforce needs to prepare scientists and engineers for a biorenewable-based chemical, fuel and material industry.
Develop and prioritize goals and directions for the development of effective conversion technologies, including the integration of physicochemical, thermochemical and biochemical catalysis in future biorefinery.
Quantify the conversion technology market and identify global diversification of biorefinery feedstocks.
Provide a critical evaluation of the current status of the commercial biorefinery markets and the ways in which recent environmental legislation and breakthroughs in technology will make the use of bio-based products competitive with established petro-based platforms.
Assess the technological competencies of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) companies and plant owners who are global entities whose experience and technological improvements will not be restricted by national borders.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

An important change recorded in the energy market from 2014 to 2016 has been the unexpected sudden plunge in world crude oil prices and, to a lesser extent, coal and natural gas prices. After a relatively sustained period of high and stable prices, oil prices dropped to below $50 per barrel in early-2015 from over $100 per barrel in mid-2014. Oil prices plunged further to below $40 per barrel at the end of 2015 after OPEC failed to agree to a cut in production quotas in the face of slumping oil prices and a mounting global supply glut. By the end of the second week in Jan. 2016, the price of crude had dropped to below $30 per barrel, the lowest since Feb. 2004 amid increasing tensions between Iran and Saudi Arabia and the slowing Chinese economy. The decline in oil price is expected to affect the biorefinery sector, which is likely to experience mixed impacts. On a macroeconomic level, low oil prices are generally not good for biorefineries, especially if the low crude prices also coincide with low feedstock prices.
Natural gas prices have also declined, but the rate and extent depended on the prevailing gas pricing mechanisms and regional diversification factors: in the United States, natural gas prices fell to below $3 per million British thermal units (MBtu) in early-2015 from a high of $4 per MBtu in mid-2014; in Germany the price of imported natural gas moved from $8.5 per MBtu during the summer of 2014 to below $8 per MBtu in early 2015, while in Japan the average price of imported liquefied natural gas (LNG), which is a weighted average of the long-term contracts and spot trading, declined from $16 per MBtu in mid-2014 to around $15 per MBtu in early 2015. Coal prices of in northwest Europe declined to around $60 per metric ton at the start of 2015 from $73 per metric ton in mid-2014, mostly due to the ongoing overcapacity in the region.

Table Of Contents

Biorefinery Technologies: Global Markets
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 3
INTENDED AUDIENCE 5
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 6
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 6
METHODOLOGY 7
SCOPE OF THE REPORT 8
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 9
DISCLAIMER 9
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 11
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES BY TYPE OF
PLATFORM, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 12
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES BY TYPE OF
PLATFORM, 2013-2021 ($ BILLIONS) 12
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 14
INTRODUCTION 14
TABLE 1 GENERALIZED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY CONFIGURATIONS 15
INDUSTRY DEFINITION 15
TABLE 2 BIOREFINERY SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION USING CURRENT METHODS 16
TABLE 3 GENERALIZED BIOREFINERY OUTLINE USING CURRENT METHODS 17
GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY APPLICATIONS 17
TABLE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR APPLICATIONS OF BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES BY
PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 17
ENERGY PRODUCTS BY INDUSTRY APPLICATION 18
Global Petroleum Demand 18
Global Natural Gas Demand 18
Global Power/Heat Demand 18
Global Coal Demand 18
TABLE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES USED TO PROCESS
ENERGY PRODUCTS BY INDUSTRY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 19
NON-ENERGY PRODUCTS BY INDUSTRY APPLICATION 19
Global Chemical Demand 19
Global Plastics/Polymers Demand 19
Global Composite Materials Demand 19
Global Pharmaceutical Demand 20
TABLE 6 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES USED TO PROCESS
NON-ENERGY PRODUCTS BY INDUSTRY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 20
MARKET PENETRATION 20
TABLE 7 GLOBAL BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES MARKET PENETRATION, THROUGH
2021 ($ BILLIONS) 21
TABLE 8 MAJOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM ACTIVITIES AND
PRODUCTS 22
OVERVIEW OF THE BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY SUPPLY CHAIN 23
TABLE 9 ENERGETIC AND NON-ENERGETIC FOREST BIOREFINERY SUPPLY CHAIN 23
OVERVIEW OF THE BIOMASS VALUE CHAIN CONVERSION PROCESS 24
TABLE 10 OVERVIEW OF THE BIOMASS VALUE CHAIN CONVERSION PROCESS 25
TABLE 11 LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS VALUE CHAIN CONVERSION PROCESS 26
TABLE 12 PROCESSES USED AND PRODUCTS EXTRACTED FROM PLANTS 27
LARGE-VOLUME OILS 27
SMALL-VOLUME OILS 28
FIGURE 1 VALUE CHAIN OF THE NATURAL INGREDIENT INDUSTRY 28
OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRY AND MATERIAL USES 28
TABLE 13 OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL AND MATERIAL USE OF BIO-BASED RAW
MATERIALS 29
OVERVIEW OF BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY CONVERSION ROUTES 31
TABLE 14 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY CONVERSION ROUTES OF PLANT BIOMASS 32
BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY MARKET FEATURES AND RELATIVE SUBGROUPS 32
TABLE 15 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES APPROACHES: MARKET FEATURES AND
RELATIVE SUBGROUPS 33
IMPORTANCE OF BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 34
TABLE 16 PRIMARY BIOREFINERY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES TO CRUDE
PRODUCTS 35
SECONDARY AND TERTIARY BIOREFINERY TRANSFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCT 35
TABLE 17 SECONDARY AND TERTIARY BIOREFINERY TRANSFORMATION
TECHNOLOGIES TO PRODUCT 36
VALUE-ADDED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIES 37
TABLE 18 EFFECTIVE H/C RATIO IN RELATION TO THE BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY
PLATFORM AND ITS INTERMEDIATES 38
TABLE 19 HYDROGEN TO CARBON RATIO STAIRCASE FOR FOSSIL FUEL
FEEDSTOCKS 39
SELECTED JOBS IN ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 39
TABLE 20 SELECTED EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES AMONG ADVANCED
BIOREFINERY COMPANIES 40
PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, CAREERS AND WAGES IN BIOREFINERY
TECHNOLOGY 41
TABLE 21 STAFFING AND SALARY PROJECTIONS FOR A PROTOTYPE
10-MILLION-GALLON-PER-YEAR RURAL BIOREFINERY, THROUGH 2020 ($
THOUSANDS)
42
Science Professions: Occupations, Careers and Wages 42
TABLE 22 SELECTED SCIENCE OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES,
THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 43
Engineering and Mapping Professions: Occupations, Careers and
Wages 43
TABLE 23 SELECTED ENGINEERING AND MAPPING OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN
ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 44
Construction and Material-Moving Professions: Occupations, Careers
and Wages 44
TABLE 24 SELECTED CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL-MOVING OCCUPATIONS AND
MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 45
Industrial Microbiology Professions: Occupations, Careers and Wages 45
TABLE 25 SELECTED INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN
ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 47
Agriculture Professions: Occupations, Careers and Wages 47
TABLE 26 SELECTED AGRICULTURE OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES,
THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 48
Production Professions: Occupations, Careers and Wages 48
TABLE 27 SELECTED PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES,
THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 48
Sales Professions: Occupations, Careers and Wages 49
TABLE 28 SELECTED SALES OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES,
THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 49
Management and Business Specialist Professions: Occupations,
Careers and Wages 49
TABLE 29 SELECTED MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS SPECIALIST OCCUPATIONS AND
MEDIAN ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 50
Mechanics and Maintenance Professions: Occupations, Careers and
Wages 50
TABLE 30 SELECTED MECHANIC AND MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS AND MEDIAN
ANNUAL WAGES, THROUGH 2021 ($ THOUSANDS) 50
HISTORY OF BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES AND MATURITY STATUS 51
TABLE 31 RFS2 DATA, CONVENTIONAL BIOFUEL AND ADVANCED BIOFUEL (BILLION
GALLONS) 51
TABLE 32 BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY MATURITY STATUS 52
ANTICIPATED CHEMICAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT PATHWAY BY KEY
FEEDSTOCK 52
TABLE 33 ANTICIPATED CHEMICAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT PATHWAY BY
KEY FEEDSTOCK 53
U.S. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 53
TABLE 34 U.S. FEDERAL FUNDING FOR ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES,
2007-2014 ($ MILLIONS) 54
TABLE 35 U.S. FEDERAL AND PUBLIC FUNDING FOR ADVANCED BIOREFINERY
TECHNOLOGIES 2015-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 54
OVERVIEW OF IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 55
TABLE 36 IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 55
FUTURE OF BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 59
MACROECONOMIC OVERVIEW 59
TABLE 37 REAL GDP AND INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION GROWTH, THROUGH 2021 (%
CHANGE ON PREVIOUS YEAR) 60
OVERVIEW OF GLOBAL DEMAND FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 60
TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES BY TYPE OF
PLATFORM, THROUGH 2021 (%) 61
CHAPTER 4 DEMAND FOR THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PLATFORM 63
INTRODUCTION 63
TABLE 39 PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF BUILDING-BLOCK CHEMICALS,
THEIR DERIVATIVES AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS 63
FIGURE 2 BASIC OLEOCHEMICAL, DOWNSTREAM OLEOCHEMICAL AND DERIVATIVE
PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 65
FIGURE 3 TRANSESTERIFICATION AND EPOXIDATION, HYDROFORMYLATION AND
METATHESIS REACTIONS 65
FIGURE 4 BASIC OLEOCHEMICAL AND DOWNSTREAM OLEOCHEMICAL
PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 66
DEMAND FOR THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM BY PRODUCT
SEGMENT 67
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM
BY PRODUCT SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 67
SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICALS PRODUCTION BY PHYSICOHEMICAL
TRANSFORMATION 67
Biopesticides 68
Glycerol 68
Biosolvents 68
Biolubricants 68
Lignin and Specialty Cellulose 68
Antioxidants 69
Detergent Alcohols and Fatty Acids 69
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIO-DERIVED FINE CHEMICALS PRODUCED BY
PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 70
BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOPLASTICS PRODUCTION BY PHYSICOCHEMICAL
TECHNOLOGY 70
Caustic Oxidation Technology 70
Oleic Acid and Ozonolysis Technology 70
Oleic Acid and Dimerization Technology 70
Oxidation and Epoxidation Epoxy Ring Opening Technology 70
TABLE 42 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIPID CONVERSION BIOPOLYMER/ BIOPLASTIC
BUILDING-BLOCK TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 71
BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 71
TABLE 43 BIOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY VALUE ADDITION 72
Natural Fiber Process Techniques and Applications 72
TABLE 44 NATURAL FIBER PROCESS TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS 73
Biocomposite Structure 73
TABLE 45 BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCT STRUCTURE 74
Biocomposites by Processing Technology 74
TABLE 46 BIOCOMPOSITE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 74
Processing Techniques 74
Resin Transfer Molding and Vacuum Injection Technology 74
Sheet Molding Compound Technology 75
Vacuum Pressing Technology 75
Sandwich Technology 75
TABLE 47 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH
2021 ($ BILLIONS) 76
Biocomposites by Type of Production Technology 76
Thermoset 76
Thermoplastic 76
TABLE 48 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOCOMPOSITE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 77
VEGETABLE OIL FUEL TECHNOLOGY 77
TABLE 49 GLOBAL MARKET FOR VEGETABLE OIL FUEL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 77
Straight Vegetable Oil Technology 78
Single-Tank System Technology 78
Two-Tank System Technology 78
TABLE 50 GLOBAL MARKET FOR STRAIGHT VEGETABLE OIL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 78
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil Technology 79
TABLE 51 CURRENT GLOBAL ANNUAL PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF HVO DROP-IN
BIOFUELS 79
Diesel Technology 79
Jet Technology 79
TABLE 52 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL FUEL BY TYPE
OF ENGINE TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 80
BIODIESEL TECHNOLOGY 80
FIGURE 5 CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR METHYL OR ETHYL ESTER BIODIESEL
PRODUCTION AND PRODUCT YIELDS 81
TABLE 53 BIODIESEL BY ESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OIL PRODUCTION 82
Biodiesel Technology by Type of Feedstock 82
TABLE 54 FLOW CHART OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL 82
Alcohol and Catalyst Mixing Technology 83
Chemical Reaction Technology 83
Separation Technology 83
Alcohol Removal Technology 83
Glycerin Neutralization Technology 83
Methyl Ester Wash Technology 84
Product Quality Technology 84
TABLE 55 GLOBAL MARKET FOR VEGETABLE OIL IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY
TYPE OF FEEDSTOCK TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 (THOUSAND METRIC TONS) 84
Biodiesel Production by Type of Esterification Technology 85
TABLE 56 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIODIESEL BY TYPE OF ESTERIFICATION
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 85
Biodiesel Technology by Type of Catalyst 85
Base-Catalyzed Transesterification Technology 85
Acid-Catalyzed Transesterification Technology 86
Enzyme-Catalyzed Biodiesel Technology 86
Other Alternative Catalysts 86
Solid Heterogeneous Catalysts 86
Supercritical Methanol 87
TABLE 57 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHYSICOCHEMICAL CATALYSIS OF BIODIESEL BY
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 87
HERBS/BOTANICALS AND PHYTOCHEMICALS 87
TABLE 58 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 88
Drugs Derived from Plant Root Technology 88
Aconite 88
Colchicum 88
Gentian 89
Goldenseal 89
Ginseng 89
Ipecac 89
Jalap 89
Licorice 90
Podophyllum 90
Rhubarb 90
Squills 91
Senega 91
Valerian 91
Lonchocarpus 91
Derris 92
Rotenone 92
TABLE 59 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL
TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT ROOT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 92
Drugs Derived from the Bark of Plant Technology 93
Sangre de Grado 93
Cascara 93
Curare 93
Quinine 94
Slippery Elm 94
TABLE 60 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL
TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT BARK, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 95
Drugs Derived from Stem and Wood Technology 95
Ephedrine 95
Guiacum 95
Quassia 96
TABLE 61 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL
TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF STEM AND WOOD, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 96
Drugs Derived from Plant Leaf Technology 96
Aloe 96
Belladonna 97
Cocaine 97
Buchu 97
Digitalis 97
Eucalyptus 98
Hamamelis 98
Henbane 98
Hoarhound 98
Lobelia 99
Pennyroyal 99
Senna 99
Stramonium 99
Wormwood 99
TABLE 62 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL
TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT LEAF, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 100
Drugs Derived from Flower Technology 100
Pyrethrum 100
Chamomile 101
Hops 101
Santonin 101
Red Squill 102
TABLE 63 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL
TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT FLOWER, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 102
Drugs Derived from Fruit and Seed Technology 102
Chaulmoogra Oil 102
Colocynth 103
Cubebs 103
Croton Oil 103
Nux Vomica 103
Opium 103
Psyllium 104
Strophanthus 104
Wormseed 104
TABLE 64 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL
TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT FRUIT AND SEED, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 105
Drugs Derived from Rhizome Technology 105
Gingerroot 105
Galangal 106
Galangal Varieties 106
Turmeric 106
TABLE 65 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL
TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF PLANT RHIZOME, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 107
Drugs Derived from Lower Plant Technology 107
Antibiotics 107
Agar 107
Ergot 108
Kelp 108
Lycopodium 108
Male Fern 108
TABLE 66 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL
TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF LOWER PLANT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 109
HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY EXTRACTION
METHOD 109
Cold Pressing Technology 109
Water-Extraction Technology 110
Water Maceration 110
Water/Steam Distillation 110
Enfleurage Technology 111
Low-Boiling Solvent Extraction Technology 111
Drying 112
TABLE 67 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HERBAL/BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL
COMPOUNDS BY EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 112
CHAPTER 5 DEMAND FOR THE BIOLOGICAL PLATFORM 114
INTRODUCTION 114
TABLE 68 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THE BIOLOGICAL PLATFORM BY TYPE OF
TRANSFORMATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 114
TABLE 69 BIOTECHNOLOGY SEGMENTS 115
TABLE 70 BIOLOGICAL CONVERSION FOR CHEMICAL BUILDING BLOCKS, THEIR
DERIVATIVES AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS 116
FIGURE 6 BIOTECHNICAL SYNTHESIS OF END PRODUCTS AND INTERMEDIATES FOR
THE CHEMICAL, MATERIAL, FUEL, AND ENERGY INDUSTRIES 117
DEMAND FOR FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT SEGMENT 118
EGY054C - Biorefinery Technologies: Global Markets
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
TABLE 71 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FERMENTATIVE TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 119
BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY TECHNOLOGY 119
TABLE 72 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FEEDSTOCK IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION,
THROUGH 2021 (THOUSAND METRIC TONS) 120
Bioethanol Production by Type of Malting Technology 120
Wheat Malting Technology 120
Barley Malting Technology 120
TABLE 73 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MALTING
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 121
Bioethanol Production by Type of Corn Milling Technology 121
Corn Wet Milling Technology 121
Corn Dry Milling Technology 122
TABLE 74 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF CORN
MILLING TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 122
Bioethanol Production by Type of Sugar Feedstock Technology 122
Sugarcane 123
Sugar Beet 123
Sorghum 123
TABLE 75 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF SUGAR
FEEDSTOCK TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 124
Bioethanol by Type of Cellulosic Feedstock Technology 124
Agricultural Residue Technology 124
Organic Landfill Waste Technology 124
Algae Technology 125
Grass Technology 125
Wood Technology 125
TABLE 76 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF
CELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCK TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 125
Bioethanol Production by Type of Cellulosic Hydrolysis Technology 126
Biochemical Cellulosic Hydrolysis 126
Chemical Cellulosic Hydrolysis 126
TABLE 77 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF
CELLULOSIC HYDROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 126
Bioethanol by Type of Dehydration Technology 127
Azeotropic Distillation Technology 127
Molecular Sieve Technology 127
Membrane Technology 128
TABLE 78 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOETHANOL BY TYPE OF DEHYDRATION
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 128
FERMENTATIVE BIOGAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 128
TABLE 79 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FERMENTATIVE BIOGAS PRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF ENVIRONMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 128
TABLE 80 MICROBIAL GROUPS INVOLVED IN ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION 129
Anaerobic Digestion Technology 132
TABLE 81 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY 132
Manure Digestion Technology 133
Wastewater Treatment Technology 133
TABLE 82 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF
ENVIRONMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 134
Landfill Technology 134
Anaerobic Technology 134
Aerobic Technology 135
TABLE 83 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LANDFILL BIOGAS BY TYPE OF ENVIRONMENT,
THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 135
Biogas Recovery and Purification Technology 135
TABLE 84 SULFUR REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY 135
Amine Purification Technology 136
Adsorption Technology 136
Cryogenic Technology 137
Membrane Technology 137
Combined Process Technologies 137
TABLE 85 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOGAS BY TYPE OF RECOVERY AND
PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 138
FERMENTATION-DERIVED PRODUCTS (EXCLUDING BIOETHANOL) 138
Crude Antibiotic Technology 138
Amino Acid Technology 139
Biocatalytic Technology 139
Organic Acid Technology 139
TABLE 86 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC ACID FROM BIOMASS
FEEDSTOCKS 140
Xanthan Technology 141
Vitamin Technology 141
TABLE 87 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FERMENTATION-DERIVED SPECIALTY/FINE
CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 141
DEMAND FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY CATEGORY 142
TABLE 88 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT
CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS)* 142
BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY CHEMICAL TYPE 142
TABLE 89 VALUE-ADDED BIOCHEMICALS POTENTIALLY DERIVED FROM CELLULOSE,
HEMICELLULOSE AND LIGNIN (LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS) 143
Diacids 144
Levulinic Acid 144
2, 5-Furan Dicarboxylic Acid (FDCA) 144
Glucaric Acid 145
Aspartic Acid 145
Muconic Acid 145
Others 146
TABLE 90 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF
CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 147
BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF ACTIVE
PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT 147
TABLE 91 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF
ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 148
BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF DRUG 148
First-Generation Biodrug Technology 148
Second-Generation Biodrug Technology 149
TABLE 92 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF
DRUG, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 149
BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF SPECIALTY/FINE
CHEMICAL 149
Biosurfactants 149
Bioremediation 150
Biofertilizers 150
TABLE 93 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF
SPECIALTY/FINE CHEMICAL, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 151
BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF POLYMER 151
TABLE 94 BIOTRANSFORMATION OF POLYMERS 152
Polylactic Acid Production from Biomass 152
FIGURE 7 POLYLACTIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS 153
Production of 1, 3-Propanediol 154
FIGURE 8 BIO-BASED ROUTES TO 1, 3-PROPANEDIOL 154
Polyhydroxyalkanoates 154
Plastics Directly from Plants 155
Vinyl Polymers 155
TABLE 95 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION OF POLYMERS BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 155
Bio-based Polyethylene (PE) 155
Bio-based Polypropylene 156
Bio-based Polyvinyl Chloride 156
TABLE 96 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION OF VINYL POLYMER BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 157
BIOFUEL TECHNOLOGY 157
TABLE 97 BIOFUEL PRODUCTION VIA BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 158
Biodiesel Technology 159
Bioethanol Technology 159
Biogas Technology 159
Biobutanol Technology 160
TABLE 98 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF
BIOFUEL, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 160
BIOFUEL PRODUCTION BY TYPE OF MICROALGAE POND DESIGN 160
Open Ponds 160
Enclosed Ponds 161
Plate Reactor 161
TABLE 99 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF
MICROALGAE POND DESIGN, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 162
BIOFUEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF MICROALGAE MODE OF
OPERATION 162
Continuous Mode 162
Batch Mode 163
TABLE 100 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF
MICROALGAE BY MODE OF OPERATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 163
BIOFUEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF MICROALGAE
EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY 163
Solvent-Based Technology 163
Microwave-Assisted Extraction Technology 164
Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technology 164
Supercritical Extraction Technology 164
Autoclave Technology 164
Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Technology 164
Extraction-Assisted Mechanical Destruction Technology 165
TABLE 101 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF
MICROALGAE EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 165
CHAPTER 6 DEMAND FOR THE THERMOCHEMICAL PLATFORM 167
INTRODUCTION 167
TABLE 102 THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION FOR POWER, HEAT, CHEMICAL
FEEDSTOCKS AND FUEL 168
DEMAND FOR THE THERMOCHEMICAL PLATFORM BY TYPE OF CONVERSION 168
TABLE 103 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THERMOCHEMICAL PLATFORM BY TYPE OF
CONVERSION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 169
INDUSTRIAL DIRECT BIOMASS COMBUSTION REACTOR TECHNOLOGY 169
Fixed-Bed Combustion Technology 170
Fluidized-Bed Combustion Technology 170
Pulverized Bed Combustion Technology 170
Incineration Technology 170
TABLE 104 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOMASS INDUSTRIAL DIRECT COMBUSTION
TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF REACTOR, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 171
BIOMASS GASIFICATION REACTOR TECHNOLOGY 171
Fixed-Bed Gasification Technology 171
Fluidized-Bed Gasification Technology 171
TABLE 105 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOMASS GASIFICATION BY TYPE OF REACTOR
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 172
PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY 172
TABLE 106 COMMERCIAL AND PRE-COMMERCIAL (?50 TONS PER DAY) BIO-OIL
FACILITIES 172
Conventional Pyrolysis Technology 173
Fast Pyrolysis Technology 174
TABLE 107 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOMASS PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 174
HYDROTHERMAL LIQUEFACTION TECHNOLOGY 174
HTU Technology 175
High-Pressure (Hydrothermal) Liquefaction Technology 175
TABLE 108 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOMASS HYDROTHERMAL LIQUEFACTION
TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 175
DEMAND FOR THERMOCHEMICAL PLATFORM BY TYPE OF ENERGY RECOVERY
TECHNOLOGY 175
WASTE-TO-ENERGY 176
POWER GENERATION 176
TABLE 109 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM BY
TYPE OF ENERGY RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 177
CHAPTER 7 DEMAND FOR THE HYBRID PLATFORM 179
INTRODUCTION 179
TABLE 110 HYBRID BIOREFINERY PLATFORMS 179
DEMAND FOR HYBRID TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM BY COMBINATION 179
SYNGAS FERMENTATION 180
ZEACHEM PROCESS 180
AQUEOUS PHASE REFORMING AND THE VIRENT PROCESS 180
ALCOHOL-TO-JET PROCESS 181
TABLE 111 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HYBRID TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM BY TYPE OF
COMBINATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 181
CHAPTER 8 TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS 183
INTRODUCTION 183
TABLE 112 METHODS FOR CONVERTING DIFFERENT BIOMASS SOURCES INTO
BIOPRODUCTS 183
TABLE 113 CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO BIO-BASED PRODUCTS 184
ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 184
TABLE 114 DESCRIPTION OF AN ADVANCED BIOREFINERY PLANT 185
SIZE RANGE OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERY PLANT 185
TABLE 115 ADVANCED BIOREFINERY PLANTS BY PLANT SIZE RANGE SORTED BY
TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM (NUMBER OF PLANTS) 186
ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 186
TABLE 116 ADVANCED BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 186
BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY WITHIN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY 188
TABLE 117 BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS WITHIN THE ECONOMY 188
BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES DEVELOPMENT AND SIGNIFICANCE 189
TABLE 118 BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES DEVELOPMENT AND SIGNIFICANCE 189
BIOLOGICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS 203
TABLE 119 BIOLOGICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS (TONS PER YEAR) 203
CELLULOSIC TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 207
TABLE 120 INTEGRATED CELLULOSIC ETHANOL BIOREFINERY 207
BIOETHANOL FROM WOOD OR STRAW BY ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND
FERMENTATION PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 208
TABLE 121 BIOETHANOL FROM WOOD STRAW BY ACID HYDROLYSIS AND
FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 208
MOST PROMISING PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 208
Pretreatment 209
Hydrolysis 209
TABLE 122 MOST PROMISING PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES BY METHOD OF
PRETREATMENT 209
THERMOCHEMICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS 210
TABLE 123 THERMOCHEMICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS 211
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS 213
TABLE 124 PHYSICOCHEMICAL PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS (TONS PER YEAR) 214
HYBRID PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS 214
TABLE 125 HYBRID PLATFORM DEVELOPMENTS 215
PATENT EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS 215
CHAPTER 9 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT 218
INTRODUCTION 218
TABLE 126 MAJOR BIOMASS CONVERSION BY TECHNOLOGY 218
COMPARISON OF BIOREFINERIES TO PETRO-REFINERIES 220
EGY054C - Biorefinery Technologies: Global Markets
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
TABLE 127 PETROREFINERY SUPPLY CHAIN 220
TECHNOLOGY VALUE CHAIN 220
TABLE 128 NECESSARY VALUE CHAINS AND CAPITAL INVESTMENTS BY TYPE OF
BIOREFINERY 221
VALUE ADDITION OF BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS 221
TABLE 129 ADDED VALUE OF BIO-DERIVED PRODUCTS THROUGH PROCESSING
AND STANDARDIZATION 222
TABLE 130 VALUE ADDITION OF BIO-BASED PRODUCTS 223
COMMERCIALIZATION OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES 223
TABLE 131 GEOGRAPHICAL COMMERCIALIZATION OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES 224
EUROPEAN UNION HORIZON 2020 ENERGY EFFICIENCY CALL 2016-2017 224
TABLE 132 HORIZON 2020 ENERGY EFFICIENCY CALL 2015-2016 (€ MILLIONS) 224
TITLE IX OF THE AGRICULTURE ACT OF 2014 224
TABLE 133 TITLE IX OF THE AGRICULTURE ACT OF 2014, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 225
COMMERCIALIZATION STAGES OF VARIOUS BIOPRODUCTS AND
TECHNOLOGIES 225
TABLE 134 COMMERCIALIZATION STAGE OF BIOPRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGIES 226
PATH TO COMMERCIAL DEPLOYMENT OF BIOREFINERIES 227
TABLE 135 PATH TO COMMERCIAL DEPLOYMENT OF ADVANCED BIOREFINERIES BY
COMPANY, 2003-2021 228
BIOREFINERY PLANT SCALE OF OPERATION 236
TABLE 136 TYPICAL SCALE OF OPERATION FOR VARIOUS SECOND-GENERATION
BIOFUEL PLANTS USING ENERGY CROP-BASED LIGNOCELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCKS 237
TABLE 137 CAPITAL COSTS AND EFFICIENCIES OF PRINCIPAL BIOELECTRICITY AND
COMPETITIVE CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES 238
INTEGRATED BIOREFINERY DEMONSTRATION COFUNDED BY THE U.S.
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 238
TABLE 138 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COFUNDED INTEGRATED BIOREFINERIES 239
CHAPTER 10 INTERNATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 241
INTRODUCTION 241
TABLE 139 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF BIOREFINERY JOBS 241
GEOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGIES 242
TABLE 140 GEOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN BIOREFINERY TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS BY
COUNTRY 243
GLOBAL COMMODITY PRICES 245
CRUDE OIL 246
BIOFUELS FEEDSTOCK 246
NATURAL GAS 246
LNG 247
METALS AND MINERALS 247
TABLE 141 GLOBAL COMMODITY PRICES, THROUGH 2021 (NOMINAL $ U.S.) 248
GLOBAL POPULATION 249
UNITED STATES AND CANADA 250
SOUTH ASIA 250
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 250
OTHER 250
TABLE 142 GLOBAL POPULATION BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION PEOPLE) 250
GLOBAL GDP AND RandD SPENDING 251
TABLE 143 GLOBAL TRENDS IN RandD SPENDING, 2014-2016 ($ BILLIONS) 251
GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FEEDSTOCK 252
PETROLEUM 252
NATURAL GAS 252
COAL 252
NUCLEAR 253
HYDROELECTRIC 253
RENEWABLES 253
TABLE 144 GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FEEDSTOCK, THROUGH 2021
(MILLION METRIC TONNES OF OIL EQUIVALENT) 253
INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN VEGETABLE OILS BY COUNTRY 254
PRODUCTION 254
DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION 254
IMPORTS 254
EXPORTS 254
TABLE 145 GLOBAL SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR VEGETABLE OILS BY
TYPE OF OIL, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION METRIC TONS PER YEAR) 255
INTERNATIONAL CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATES 256
TABLE 146 YEARLY AVERAGE EXCHANGE RATES FOR CONVERTING FOREIGN
CURRENCIES INTO U.S. DOLLARS* 257
CHAPTER 11 REGULATIONS AND LEGISLATION 260
INTRODUCTION 260
TABLE 147 IMPORTANT UPCOMING ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS BY ACTIVITY 260
CHAPTER 12 COMPANY PROFILES 264
BIOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM COMPANIES 264
ABENGOA 264
ALFA AESAR (PART OF JOHNSON MATTHEY GROUP) 264
ALEXION PHARMACEUTICALS 264
ALKERMES 265
ALKOL BIOTECH 265
ALPHA CHEMIKA 265
AMGEN 266
AMYLIN PHARMACEUTICALS 266
AMYRIS 266
AMYRIS INC. 266
ANQING HEXING CHEMICAL CO. LTD. 267
ARCADIA BIOSCIENCES INC. 267
ARCHER DANIELS MIDLAND 267
ARIAD PHARMACEUTICALS 268
AVANTIUM 268
BASF SA 268
BAXTER INTERNATIONAL 269
BETA RENEWABLES 269
BIOAMBER INC. 270

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