Electrical Supply Industry Guidebook

  • February 2013
  • -
  • NRG Expert
  • -
  • 580 pages

Market Intelligence

Today, the electrical supply industry is structured with four separate functions: generation, transmission, distribution and supply (the last consisting of the marketing and sale of energy). In many countries, competition has been introduced to generation and supply, while transmission and distribution are natural monopolies since electricity must be delivered via common lines. Prevalence of privatization must also be added. The result is a mix of systems throughout the world, ranging from traditional single vertically integrated utilities to electricity supply industries with different functions operated separately and in competition.

This NRG Expert guidebook outlines the electrical supply industry of 196 countries individually. Compiled from many sources over 11 years, this guidebook provides detailed information on this industry.

Country Sections

Where applicable, country sections include the following subsections:

• Structure of the ESI
• Generation
• Transmission
• Distribution
• Market Structure

Structure of the ESI (Electrical Supply Industry) describes points such as the type of market, government involvement and the types of companies involved.

Generation subsections detail the number and capacity of generating companies and, where applicable, recent developments or future plans.

Transmission includes intelligence on the key players in the transmission of electricity and, where applicable, recent developments and future plans.

Distribution reports on distribution voltage and the companies involved where applicable.

Market Structure describes major producers and consumers and the rules governing them.

In some cases, additional subsections are included to provide additional insight into particularly large or intricate national markets.

Where applicable, the following tables are also included:

• ESI Characteristics
• Access to Electricity
• Past Installed Capacity MW

Table Of Contents

Contents

1. Introduction 38

2. Sources 39

3. Europe 40

Albania 40
Structure of the ESI 40
Generation 40
Transmission 40
Distribution 41
Austria 44
Structure of the ESI 44
Generation 44
Transmission 44
Distribution 45
Market Structure 45
Belgium 48
Structure of the ESI 48
Generation 48
Transmission 48
Distribution 49
Market Structure 49
Bosnia Herzogovina 52
Structure of the ESI 52
Generation 53
Transmission 53
Distribution 53
Market Structure 53
Bulgaria 57
Structure of the ESI 57
Generation 57
Transmission 57
Distribution 58
Market Structure 58
Croatia 61
Structure of the ESI 61
Generation 61
Transmission 62
Distribution 62
Market Structure 62
Cyprus 65
Structure of the ESI 65
Generation 65
Transmission 65
Distribution 65
Market Structure 66
EAC Development Plan 66
Czech Republic 68
Structure of the ESI 68
Generation 68
Transmission 68
Distribution 69
Market Structure 69
Denmark 73
Structure of the ESI 73
Generation 73
Transmission 74
Distribution 74
Market Structure 74
Estonia 77
Structure of the ESI 77
Generation 77
Transmission 78
Distribution 78
Market Structure 78
Finland 81
Structure of the ESI 81
Generation 81
Transmission 82
Distribution 82
Market Structure 82
France 85
Generation 85
Transmission 86
Distribution 86
Market Structure 87
Germany 89
Structure of the ESI 89
Generation 90
Transmission 90
Distribution 91
Market Structure 91
Greece 94
Structure of the ESI 94
Generation 95
Transmission 95
Distribution 96
Market Structure 96
Hungary 99
Structure of the ESI 99
Generation 99
Transmission 100
Distribution 100
Market Structure 100
Iceland 103
Structure of the ESI 103
Generation 103
Transmission 103
Distribution 104
Market Structure 104
Ireland 106
Structure of the ESI 106
Generation 106
Transmission 107
Distribution 107
Italy 109
Structure of the ESI 109
Generation 109
Transmission 109
Distribution 110
Market Structure 110
Latvia 113
Structure of the ESI 113
Generation 113
Transmission 113
Distribution 114
Market Structure 114
Lithuania 117
Structure of the ESI 117
Generation 117
Transmission 118
Distribution 118
Market Structure 118
Luxembourg 121
Structure of the ESI 121
Generation 121
Transmission 121
Distribution 121
Market Structure 122
Macedonia 124
Structure of the ESI 124
Generation 124
Transmission 124
Distribution 124
Market Structure 125
Malta 128
Structure of the ESI 128
Generation 128
Transmission 128
Distribution 128
Market Structure 128
Netherlands 130
Structure of the ESI 130
Generation 130
Transmission 131
Distribution 131
Market Structure 131
Norway 134
Structure of the ESI 134
Generation 134
Transmission 134
Distribution 135
Market Structure 135
Poland 138
Structure of the ESI 138
Generation 138
Transmission 138
Distribution 139
Market Structure 139
Portugal 142
Structure of the ESI 142
Generation 142
Transmission 143
Distribution 143
Market Structure 143
Romania 146
Structure of the ESI 146
Generation 146
Transmission 146
Distribution 146
Market Structure 147
Serbia 150
Structure of the ESI 150
Generation 150
Transmission 151
Distribution 151
Market Structure 151
Slovakia 154
Structure of the ESI 154
Generation 154
Transmission 154
Distribution 155
Market Structure 155
Slovenia 158
Structure of the ESI 158
Generation 158
Transmission 158
Distribution 158
Market Structure 159
Spain 162
Structure of the ESI 162
Generation 162
Transmission 162
Market Structure 163
Sweden 167
Structure of the ESI 167
Generation 167
Transmission 167
Distribution 168
Market Structure 168
Switzerland 171
Structure of the ESI 171
Generation 171
Transmission 172
Distribution 172
Market Structure 172
Possible Developments 173
Liberalisation 173
Turkey 176
Structure of the ESI 176
Generation 176
Transmission 177
Distribution 177
Market Structure 177
United Kingdom 180
Structure of the ESI 180
Generation 181
Transmission 182
Distribution 182
Market Structure 183

4. CIS 187

Armenia 187
Structure of the ESI 187
Generation 187
Transmission 188
Distribution 188
Market Structure 188
Azerbaijan 191
Structure of the ESI 191
Generation 191
Transmission 191
Distribution 192
Market Structure 192
Belarus 194
Structure of the ESI 194
Transmission 194
Distribution 194
Market Structure 194
Georgia 196
Structure of the ESI 196
Generation 196
Transmission 196
Distribution 197
Market Structure 197
Kazakhstan 200
Structure of the ESI 200
Generation 200
Transmission 200
Distribution 201
Market Structure 201
Kyrgyzstan 203
Structure of the ESI 203
Generation 203
Transmission 203
Distribution 204
Market Structure 204
Moldova 206
Structure of the ESI 206
Generation 206
Transmission 206
Distribution 207
Market Structure 207
Russia 209
Structure of the ESI 209
Reform of the Russian ESI in Preparation for Privatisation 209
Structure 210
Generation 210
Transmission 210
Distribution 210
Retail 211
Timetable 211
Market Liberalisation 211
Regulator 211
Price Regulation 212
Retail Market Opening 212
Tajikistan 215
Structure of the ESI 215
Generation 215
Transmission 215
Distribution 215
Market Structure 216
Turkmenistan 217
Generation 217
Transmission 217
Market Structure 217
Ukraine 219
Structure of the ESI 219
Generation 219
Transmission 220
Distribution 220
Market Structure 221
Uzbekistan 224
Structure of the ESI 224
Generation 224
Transmission 224
Distribution 225
Market Structure 225

5. Mahgreb - North Africa 227

Algeria 227
Structure of the ESI 227
Generation 227
Transmission 228
Distribution 228
Market Structure 228
Egypt 230
Structure of the ESI 230
Generation 230
Transmission 231
Distribution 231
Market Structure 232
Libya 234
Structure of the ESI 234
Generation 234
Transmission 234
Distribution 235
Market Structure 235
Mauritania 236
Structure of the ESI 236
Generation 236
Transmission and Distribution 236
Market Structure 236
Morocco 238
Structure of the ESI 238
Generation 238
Transmission 239
Distribution 239
Market Structure 239
Sudan 242
Structure of the ESI 242
Generation 242
Transmission and Distribution 243
Market Structure 243
Tunisia 244
Structure of the ESI 244
Generation 244
Transmission 244
Distribution 244
Market Structure 244

6. Sub-Saharan Africa 246

Angola 246
Structure of the ESI 246
Generation 246
Transmission and Distribution 247
Market Structure 247
Benin 248
Structure of the ESI 248
Generation 248
Transmission 248
Distribution 248
Market Structure 248
Botswana 250
Structure of the ESI 250
Generation 250
Transmission 250
Distribution 250
Market Structure 250
Burkina Faso 252
Structure of the ESI 252
Generation 252
Transmission 252
Distribution 252
Market Structure 252
Burundi 253
Structure of the ESI 253
Generation 253
Transmission 253
Distribution 253
Market Structure 253
Cameroon 255
Structure of the ESI 255
Generation 255
Transmission 255
Distribution 255
Market Structure 256
Cape Verde 257
Structure of the ESI 257
Generation 257
Transmission 257
Distribution 257
Market Structure 257
Central African Republic 258
Structure of the ESI 258
Transmission and Distribution 258
Market Structure 258
Chad 259
Structure of the ESI 259
Generation 259
Transmission 259
Distribution 259
Market Structure 259
Comoros 260
Structure of the ESI 260
Distribution 260
Congo, Democratic Republic of 261
Structure of the ESI 261
Generation 261
Transmission and Distribution 261
Market Structure 262
Congo, Republic of 263
Structure of the ESI 263
Generation 263
Transmission 263
Distribution 263
Market Structure 263
Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) 265
Structure of the ESI 265
Generation 265
Transmission 265
Distribution 265
Market Structure 265
Dijbouti 267
Ethiopia 268
Structure of the ESI 268
Generation 268
Transmission 268
Distribution 269
Market Structure 269
Gabon 270
Structure of the ESI 270
Generation 270
Transmission 271
Distribution 271
Market Structure 271
Gambia 272
Structure of the ESI 272
Transmission 272
Distribution 272
Ghana 273
Structure of the ESI 273
Generation 273
Transmission 274
Distribution 274
Market Structure 274
Prices 274
Guinea 276
Structure of the ESI 276
Generation 276
Transmission 276
Distribution 276
Market Structure 276
Guinea Bissau 278
Structure of the ESI 278
Transmission 278
Distribution 278
Market Structure 278
Kenya 279
Structure of the ESI 279
Generation 279
Transmission 280
Distribution 280
Market Structure 281
Lesotho 282
Structure of the ESI 282
Generation 282
Transmission 282
Distribution 282
Liberia 284
Structure of the ESI 284
Generation 284
Transmission 284
Distribution 284
Market Structure 284
Madagascar 286
Structure of the ESI 286
Generation 286
Transmission 286
Distribution 286
Market Structure 286
Malawi 287
Structure of the ESI 287
Generation 287
Transmission 287
Distribution 287
Market Structure 287
Mali 289
Structure of the ESI 289
Generation 289
Transmission and Distribution 289
Market Structure 289
Mauritius 290
Structure of the ESI 290
Generation 290
Transmission 290
Distribution 290
Market Structure 290
Mozambique 291
Structure of the ESI 291
Generation 291
Transmission 291
Distribution 292
Market Structure 292
Namibia 292
Structure of the ESI 292
Generation 292
Transmission 293
Distribution 293
Market Structure 293
Niger 294
Structure of the ESI 294
Generation 294
Transmission 294
Distribution 294
Market Structure 294
Nigeria 296
Structure of the ESI 296
Generation 296
Transmission 297
Distribution 297
Market Structure 297
Regulator 297
Rwanda 298
Structure of the ESI 298
Generation 298
Transmission 298
Distribution 298
Market Structure 298
Sao Tome and Principe 300
Structure of the ESI 300
Senegal 301
Structure of the ESI 301
Generation 301
Transmission 301
Distribution 301
Market Structure 301
Seychelles 303
Structure of the ESI 303
Transmission 303
Distribution 303
Sierra Leone 304
Structure of the ESI 304
Generation 304
Transmission 304
Distribution 304
Market Structure 304
Somalia 305
Structure of the ESI 305
Generation 305
Transmission 305
Distribution 305
Market Structure 305
South Africa 306
Structure of the ESI 306
Generation 306
Power Crisis 307
Transmission 308
Distribution 308
Regulator 309
Swaziland 312
Structure of the ESI 312
Generation 312
Transmission 312
Distribution 312
Market Structure 312
Tanzania 313
Structure of the ESI 313
Generation 313
Transmission and Distribution 314
Market Structure 314
Togo 315
Structure of the ESI 315
Generation 315
Transmission and Distribution 315
Market Structure 315
Uganda 316
Structure of the ESI 316
Generation 316
Transmission 316
Distribution 316
Market Structure 317
Zambia 318
Structure of the ESI 318
Generation 318
Transmission 318
Distribution 318
National Control Centre 319
Market Structure 319
Zimbabwe 320
Structure of the ESI 320
Generation 320
Transmission and Distribution 321
Market Structure 321

7. Middle East 322

Bahrain 322
Structure of the ESI 322
Generation 322
Transmission 323
Distribution 323
Market Structure 323
Iran 324
Structure of the ESI 324
Generation 324
Transmission 325
Distribution 325
Market Structure 325
Iraq 327
Structure of the ESI 327
Generation 327
Transmission 328
Distribution 328
Market Structure 329
Israel 330
Structure of the ESI 330
Generation 330
Transmission 331
Distribution 331
Market Structure 331
Jordan 332
Structure of the ESI 332
Generation 332
Transmission 333
Distribution 333
Market Structure 333
Kuwait 334
Structure of the ESI 334
Generation 334
Transmission 334
Distribution 334
Market Structure 334
Lebanon 336
Structure of the ESI 336
Generation 336
Transmission 336
Distribution 337
Market Structure 337
Oman 338
Structure of the ESI 338
Generation 338
Transmission 338
Distribution 338
Market Structure 338
Qatar 340
Structure of the ESI 340
Generation 340
Transmission 340
Distribution 341
Market Structure 341
Saudi Arabia 342
Structure of the ESI 342
Generation 343
Transmission 343
Distribution 343
Market Structure 343
Syria 345
Structure of the ESI 345
Generation 345
Transmission and Distribution 346
Market Structure 346
United Arab Emirates (UAE) 348
Structure of the ESI 348
Generation 348
Transmission 349
Distribution 349
Market Structure 349
Yemen 350
Structure of the ESI 350
Generation 350
Transmission 350
Distribution 350
Market Structure 350

8. Asia 352

Afghanistan 352
Structure of the ESI 352
Generation 352
Transmission 352
Distribution 352
Bangladesh 354
Structure of the ESI 354
Generation 354
Transmission 354
Distribution 355
Market Structure 355
Bhutan 356
Structure of the ESI 356
Generation 356
Transmission 356
Distribution 356
Market Structure 357
Brunei 358
Structure of the ESI 358
Generation 358
Transmission and Distribution 358
Market Structure 358
Cambodia 359
Structure of the ESI 359
Generation 359
Transmission 359
Distribution 359
Market Structure 359
China 361
Structure of the ESI after Reforms 362
Generation 362
Transmission Networks 364
China Southern Power Grid Corporation Ltd. (CSG) 364
Regional Grids 365
Regional Interconnections 365
International Interconnections 366
Distribution 366
Rural Electrification 367
Market Structure 367
Hong Kong 370
Structure of the ESI 370
Generation 370
Transmission and Distribution 371
Market Structure 371
India 372
Structure of the ESI 372
Generation 372
Transmission 377
REC 377
Powergrid 377
Distribution 378
State-owned unbundled distribution companies 379
Private distribution companies 380
Market Structure 381
Indonesia 384
Structure of the ESI 384
Generation 384
Transmission and Distribution 385
Market Structure 385
Market Opening 385
Regulator 386
Price Regulation 386
Japan 388
Structure of the ESI 388
Generation 388
Transmission 389
Transmission Interconnections 389
Distribution 390
Market Structure 390
Market Opening 390
Wholesale Market 390
Regulator 391
Korea, North 393
Structure of the ESI 393
Transmission and Distribution 393
Korea, South 395
Structure of the ESI 395
Generation 395
Transmission 396
Distribution 396
Market Structure 396
Laos 399
Structure of the ESI 399
Generation 399
Transmission 400
Distribution 400
Interconnections 401
Market Structure 401
Macau 402
Structure of the ESI 402
Generation 402
Transmission 402
Distribution 402
Market Structure 402
Malaysia 404
Structure of the ESI 404
Generation 404
Transmission 404
Peninsular Malaysia 405
Sarawak 405
Sabah 405
Interconnections 405
Distribution 405
Market Structure 405
Maldives 408
Structure of the ESI 408
Mongolia 409
Structure of the ESI 409
Generation 409
Transmission 409
Market Structure 410
Myanmar 412
Structure of the ESI 412
Generation 412
Transmission 413
Distribution 413
Nepal 414
Structure of the ESI 414
Generation 414
Transmission 414
Interconnections 415
Distribution 415
Market Structure 415
Pakistan 416
Structure of the ESI 416
Generation 416
Transmission 417
Distribution 417
Market Structure 417
Philippines 420
Structure of the ESI 420
Generation 420
Transmission 421
Distribution 421
Market Structure 422
Singapore 425
Structure of the ESI 425
Generation 425
Transmission and Distribution 426
Interconnections 426
Market Structure 426
Sri Lanka 428
Structure of the ESI 428
Generation 428
Transmission 428
Distribution 428
Market Structure 429
Taiwan 430
Structure of the ESI 430
Generation 430
Transmission 431
Distribution 431
Market Structure 431
Thailand 434
Structure of the ESI 434
Generation 434
Current privatisation 436
Transmission 436
Distribution 436
Market Structure 436
Vietnam 439
Structure of the ESI 439
Generation 439

9. Pacific 443

Australia 443
Structure of the ESI 443
Generation 445
Transmission 446
Distribution 447
Market Structure 447
Regulators 448
Fiji 451
Structure of the ESI 451
Generation 451
Transmission 451
Distribution 451
New Zealand 452
Structure of the ESI 452
Generation 452
Transmission 453
Distribution 453
Market Structure 454
Papua New Guinea (PNG) 456
Structure of the ESI 456
Generation 456
Transmission and Distribution 456
Soloman Islands 457
Structure of the ESI 457
Generation 457
Transmission and Distribution 457
Tonga 458
Structure of the ESI 458
Generation 458
Distribution 458
Western Samoa 459

10. South America 460

Argentina 460
Structure of the ESI 460
Generation 460
Transmission 461
Interconnections 461
Distribution 461
Market Structure 462
Bolivia 465
Structure of the ESI 465
Generation 465
Transmission 465
Distribution 466
Market Structure 466
Brazil 469
Structure of the ESI 469
Generation 470
Transmission 471
Distribution 471
Market Structure 472
Market Mechanism 473
Tariffs 473
Chile 476
Structure of the ESI 476
Generation 476
Transmission 477
Distribution 477
Market Structure 478
Colombia 480
Structure of the ESI 480
Generation 480
Transmission 480
Distribution 481
Market Structure 481
Ecuador 483
Structure of the ESI 483
Generation 483
Transmission 485
Distribution 485
Market Structure 485
Guyana 488
Structure of the ESI 488
Generation 488
Transmission and Distribution 488
Market Structure 488
Paraguay 490
Structure of the ESI 490
Generation 490
Transmission 491
Distribution 491
Interconnection 491
Market Structure 491
Peru 492
Structure of the ESI 492
Generation 493
Transmission 493
Interconnection 494
Distribution 494
Market Structure 495
Price Regulation 495
Spot Market 495
Surinam 498
Structure of the ESI 498
Generation 498
Transmission and Distribution 498
Uruguay 499
Structure of the ESI 499
Generation 499
Interconnections 500
Transmission 500
Distribution 500
Market Structure 500
Venezuela 502
Structure of the ESI 502
Generation 502
Transmission 503
Distribution 503
Market Structure 503

11. Central America and Caribbean 505

Anguilla 505
Structure of the ESI 505
Generation 505
Transmission and Distribution 505
Antigua and Barbuda 505
Structure of the ESI 505
Bahamas 505
Structure of the ESI 506
Generation 506
Transmission and Distribution 506
Market Structure 506
Barbados 507
Structure of the ESI 507
Generation 507
Transmission 507
Distribution 507
Market Structure 507
Belize 508
Structure of the ESI 508
Generation 508
Transmission and Distribution 508
Bermuda 509
Structure of the ESI 509
Generation 509
Transmission and Distribution 509
Market Structure 509
British Virgin Islands 510
Structure of the ESI 510
Generation 510
Distribution 510
Cayman Islands 511
Structure of the ESI 511
Transmission 511
Costa Rica 512
Structure of the ESI 512
Generation 512
Transmission 512
Distribution 512
Market Structure 513
Cuba 514
Structure of the ESI 514
Generation 514
Transmission and Distribution 514
Dominica 516
Structure of the ESI 516
Dominican Republic 517
Structure of the ESI 517
Generation 517
Transmission 518
Distribution 518
Market Structure 518
El Salvador 520
Structure of the ESI 520
Generation 520
Transmission 521
Distribution 521
Market Structure 521
Grenada 523
Structure of the ESI 523
Guadeloupe 524
Structure of the ESI 524
Guatemala 525
Structure of the ESI 525
Generation 525
Transmission 526
Distribution 526
Market Structure 526
Haiti 528
Structure of the ESI 528
Honduras 529
Structure of the ESI 529
Generation 529
Interconnections 530
Transmission 530
Distribution 530
Market Structure 530
Jamaica 532
Structure of the ESI 532
Generation 532
Transmission and Distribution 532
Market Structure 532
Mexico 534
Structure of the ESI 534
Generation 534
Interconnections 536
Transmission and Distribution 536
Market Structure 536
Montserrat 539
Structure of the ESI 539
Netherlands Antilles 540
Nevis 541
Structure of the ESI 541
Nicaragua 542
Structure of the ESI 542
Generation 542
Transmission 543
Distribution 543
Market Structure 543
Panama 545
Structure of the ESI 545
Generation 545
Transmission 545
Distribution 545
Market Structure 546
Puerto Rico 548
Structure of the ESI 548
Generation 548
Transmission and Distribution 548
Market Structure 548
St Lucia 549
Structure of the ESI 549
Generation 549
Transmission 549
Distribution 549
St Vincent and the Grenadines 550
Structure of the ESI 550
Generation 550
Distribution 550
Trinidad and Tobago 551
Structure of the ESI 551
Generation 551
Transmission 551
Distribution 551
Market Structure 551
Turks and Caicos Islands 552
Structure of the ESI 552
Generation 552
Transmission 552
US Virgin Islands 553
Structure of the ESI 553

12. North America 554

Canada 554
Structure of the ESI 554
Generation 554
Provincial Organisation 555
Alberta 555
The Restructured Alberta Market 557
British Columbia 558
Market Structure and Regulation 558
Restructuring Initiatives 558
Goals 558
Manitoba 559
Market Structure and Regulation 559
New Brunswick 559
Market Structure and Regulation 560
Goals 560
Newfoundland and Labrador 560
Nunavut 561
Northwest Territories 561
Nova Scotia 561
Market Structure and Regulation 562
Goals 562
Ontario 562
Trade 562
Market Structure and Regulation 562
Distribution 563
Goals 564
Prince Edward Island 564
Goals 564
Quebec 564
Interprovincial Trade 565
International Trade 566
Market Structure and Regulation 566
Goals 566
Saskatchewan 566
Market Structure and Regulation 567
Yukon 567
The Canadian Transmission and Distribution System 568
Market Structure 568
Structure of the ESI 568
Generation 569
Provincial Organisation 569
USA 572
Structure of the ESI 572
Generation 572
Divestiture of Generating Assets 573
Transmission 574
Distribution 576
Market Structure 576
Regulatory Framework 577
RTOs (Regional Transmission Organisations) 577
Standard Market Design and Structure (SMD) 577
Restructuring Status February 2003 578



Tables

Table 3-1: Table ESI characteristics Albania 42
Table 3-2: Access to electricity Albania 44
Table 3-3: Installed capacity MW Albania 44
Table 3-4: Table ESI characteristics Austria 46
Table 3-5: Access to electricity Austria 48
Table 3-6: Installed capacity MW Austria 48
Table 3-7: Table ESI characteristics Belgium 50
Table 3-8: Access to electricity Belgium 52
Table 3-9: Installed capacity MW Belgium 52
Table 3-10: Table ESI characteristics Bosnia Herzogovina 55
Table 3-11: Access to electricity Bosnia Herzogovina 57
Table 3-12: Installed capacity MW Bosnia Herzegovina 57
Table 3-13: Table ESI characteristics Bulgaria 59
Table 3-14: Access to electricity Bulgaria 61
Table 3-15: Installed capacity MW Bulgaria 61
Table 3-16: Table ESI characteristics Croatia 63
Table 3-17: Access to electricity Croatia 65
Table 3-18: Access to electricity Croatia 65
Table 3-19: Installed capacity MW Croatia 65
Table 3-20: Table ESI characteristics Cyprus 67
Table 3-21: Access to electricity Cyprus 68
Table 3-22: Installed capacity MW Cyprus 68
Table 3-23: Table ESI characteristics Czech Republic 71
Table 3-24: Access to electricity Czech Republic 72
Table 3-25: Installed capacity MW Czech Republic 72
Table 3-26: Table ESI characteristics Denmark 76
Table 3-27: Access to electricity Denmark 77
Table 3-28: Installed capacity MW Denmark 77
Table 3-29: Table ESI characteristics Estonia 79
Table 3-30: Access to electricity Estonia 81
Table 3-31: Installed capacity MW Estonia 81
Table 3-32: Table ESI characteristics Finland 84
Table 3-33: Access to electricity Finland 85
Table 3-34: Installed capacity MW Finland 85
Table 3-35: Table ESI characteristics France 88
Table 3-36: Access to electricity France 89
Table 3-37: Installed capacity MW France 89
Table 3-38: Table ESI characteristics Germany 92
Table 3-39: Access to electricity Germany 94
Table 3-40: Installed capacity MW Germany 94
Table 3-41: Table ESI characteristics Greece 97
Table 3-42: Access to electricity Greece 98
Table 3-43: Installed capacity MW Greece 99
Table 3-44: Table ESI characteristics Hungary 102
Table 3-45: Access to electricity Hungary 103
Table 3-46: Installed capacity MW Hungary 103
Table 3-47: Table ESI characteristics Iceland 105
Table 3-48: Access to electricity Iceland 106
Table 3-49: Installed capacity MW Iceland 106
Table 3-50: Table ESI characteristics Ireland 108
Table 3-51: Access to electricity Ireland 109
Table 3-52: Installed capacity MW Ireland 109
Table 3-53: Table ESI characteristics Italy 111
Table 3-54: Access to electricity Italy 113
Table 3-55: Installed capacity MW Italy 113
Table 3-56: Table ESI characteristics Latvia 115
Table 3-57: Access to electricity Latvia 116
Table 3-58: Installed capacity MW Latvia 117
Table 3-59: Table ESI characteristics Lithuania 119
Table 3-60: Access to electricity Lithuania 121
Table 3-61: Installed capacity MW Lithuania 121
Table 3-62: Table ESI characteristics Luxembourg 123
Table 3-63: Access to electricity Luxembourg 124
Table 3-64: Installed capacity MW Luxembourg 124
Table 3-65: Table ESI characteristics Macedonia 126
Table 3-66: Access to electricity Macedonia 127
Table 3-67: Installed capacity MW Macedonia 128
Table 3-68: Table ESI characteristics Malta 130
Table 3-69: Access to electricity Malta 130
Table 3-70: Installed capacity MW Malta 130
Table 3-71: Table ESI characteristics Netherlands 132
Table 3-72: Access to electricity Netherlands 134
Table 3-73: Installed capacity MW Netherlands 134
Table 3-74: Table ESI characteristics Norway 136
Table 3-75: Access to electricity Norway 137
Table 3-76: Installed capacity MW Norway 138
Table 3-77: Table ESI characteristics Poland 140
Table 3-78: Access to electricity Poland 142
Table 3-79: Installed capacity MW Poland 142
Table 3-80: Table ESI characteristics Portugal 145
Table 3-81: Access to electricity Portugal 146
Table 3-82: Installed capacity MW Portugal 146
Table 3-83: Table ESI characteristics Romania 148
Table 3-84: Access to electricity Romania 150
Table 3-85: Installed capacity MW Romania 150
Table 3-86: Table ESI characteristics Serbia 152
Table 3-87: Access to electricity Serbia 154
Table 3-88: Installed capacity MW Serbia 154
Table 3-89: Table ESI characteristics Slovakia 156
Table 3-90: Access to electricity Slovakia 158
Table 3-91: Installed capacity MW Slovakia 158
Table 3-92: Table ESI characteristics Slovenia 160
Table 3-93: Access to electricity Slovenia 162
Table 3-94: Installed capacity MW Slovenia 162
Table 3-95: Table ESI characteristics Spain 165
Table 3-96: Access to electricity Spain 166
Table 3-97: Installed capacity MW Spain 166
Table 3-98: Table ESI characteristics Sweden 169
Table 3-99: Access to electricity Sweden 170
Table 3-100: Installed capacity MW Sweden 171
Table 3-101: Table ESI characteristics Switzerland 174
Table 3-102: Access to electricity Switzerland 175
Table 3-103: Installed capacity MW Switzerland 176
Table 3-104: Table ESI characteristics Turkey 179
Table 3-105: Access to electricity Turkey 180
Table 3-106: Installed capacity MW Turkey 180
Table 3-107: Table ESI characteristics United Kingdom 185
Table 3-108: Access to electricity United Kingdom 186
Table 3-109: Installed capacity MW United Kingdom 186
Table 4-1: Table ESI characteristics Armenia 190
Table 4-2: Access to electricity Armenia 190
Table 4-3: Installed capacity MW Armenia 190
Table 4-4: Table ESI characteristics Azerbaijan 193
Table 4-5: Access to electricity Azerbaijan 194
Table 4-6: Installed capacity MW Azerbaijan 194
Table 4-7: Table ESI characteristics Belarus 196
Table 4-8: Access to electricity Belarus 196
Table 4-9: Installed capacity MW Belarus 196
Table 4-10: Table ESI characteristics Georgia 199
Table 4-11: Access to electricity Georgia 199
Table 4-12: Installed capacity MW Georgia 200
Table 4-13: Table ESI characteristics Kazakhstan 203
Table 4-14: Access to electricity Kazakhstan 203
Table 4-15: Installed capacity MW Kazakhstan 203
Table 4-16: Table ESI characteristics Kyrgyzstan 205
Table 4-17: Access to electricity Kyrgyzstan 206
Table 4-18: Installed capacity MW Kyrgyzstan 206
Table 4-19: Table ESI characteristics Moldova 208
Table 4-20: Access to electricity Moldova 209
Table 4-21: Installed capacity MW Moldova 209
Table 4-22: Table ESI characteristics Russia 213
Table 4-23: Access to electricity Russia 214
Table 4-24: Installed capacity MW Russia 214
Table 4-25: Table ESI characteristics Tajikistan 217
Table 4-26: Access to electricity Tajikistan 217
Table 4-27: Installed capacity MW Tajikistan 217
Table 4-28: Table ESI characteristics Turkmenistan 218
Table 4-29: Access to electricity Turkmenistan 219
Table 4-30: Installed capacity MW Turkmenistan 219
Table 4-31: Table ESI characteristics Ukraine 223
Table 4-32: Access to electricity Ukraine 224
Table 4-33: Installed capacity MW Ukraine 224
Table 4-34: Table ESI characteristics Uzbekistan 226
Table 4-35: Access to electricity Uzbekistan 226
Table 4-36: Installed capacity MW Uzbekistan 227
Table 5-1: Table ESI characteristics Algeria 229
Table 5-2: Access to electricity Algeria 230
Table 5-3: Installed capacity MW Algeria 230
Table 5-4: Table ESI characteristics Egypt 233
Table 5-5: Access to electricity Egypt 234
Table 5-6: Installed capacity MW Egypt 234
Table 5-7: Access to electricity Libya 236
Table 5-8: Installed capacity MW Libya 236
Table 5-9: Access to electricity Mauritania 237
Table 5-10: Installed capacity MW Mauritania 238
Table 5-11: Table ESI characteristics Morocco 241
Table 5-12: Access to electricity Morocco 241
Table 5-13: Installed capacity MW Morocco 242
Table 5-14: Access to electricity Sudan 244
Table 5-15: Installed capacity MW Sudan 244
Table 5-16: Access to electricity Tunisia 245
Table 5-17: Installed capacity MW Tunisia 246
Table 6-1: Access to electricity Angola 248
Table 6-2: Installed capacity MW Angola 248
Table 6-3: Access to electricity Benin 249
Table 6-4: Installed capacity MW Benin 250
Table 6-5: Access to electricity Botswana 251
Table 6-6: Installed capacity MW Botswana 252
Table 6-7: Access to electricity Burkina Faso 253
Table 6-8: Installed capacity MW Burkina Faso 253
Table 6-9: Access to electricity Burundi 255
Table 6-10: Installed capacity MW Burundi 255
Table 6-11: Access to electricity Cameroon 257
Table 6-12: Installed capacity MW Cameroon 257
Table 6-13: Access to electricity Cape Verde 258
Table 6-14: Installed capacity MW Cape Verde 258
Table 6-15: Installed capacity MW Central African Republic 259
Table 6-16: Access to electricity Chad 260
Table 6-17: Installed capacity MW Chad 260
Table 6-18: Installed capacity MW Comoros 261
Table 6-19: Access to electricity Congo DR 263
Table 6-20: Installed capacity MW Congo, DR 263
Table 6-21: Access to electricity Congo, Republic of 264
Table 6-22: Installed capacity MW Congo Republic 265
Table 6-23: Access to electricity Cote d’Ivoire 266
Table 6-24: Installed capacity MW Cote d’Ivoire 267
Table 6-25: Access to electricity Ethiopia 270
Table 6-26: Installed capacity MW Ethiopia 270
Table 6-27: Access to electricity Gabon 272
Table 6-28: Installed capacity MW Gabon 272
Table 6-29: Access to electricity Gambia 273
Table 6-30: Installed capacity MW Gambia 273
Table 6-31: Access to electricity Ghana 276
Table 6-32: Installed capacity MW Ghana 276
Table 6-33: Access to electricity Guinea 278
Table 6-34: Installed capacity MW Guinea 278
Table 6-35: Access to electricity Guinea Bissau 279
Table 6-36: Installed capacity MW Guinea Bissau 279
Table 6-37: Access to electricity Kenya 282
Table 6-38: Installed capacity MW Kenya 282
Table 6-39: Access to electricity Lesotho 284
Table 6-40: Installed capacity MW Lesotho 284
Table 6-41: Access to electricity Liberia 285
Table 6-42: Installed capacity MW Liberia 286
Table 6-43: Access to electricity Madagascar 287
Table 6-44: Installed capacity MW Madagascar 287
Table 6-45: Access to electricity Malawi 289
Table 6-46: Installed capacity MW Malawi 289
Table 6-47: Access to electricity Mali 290
Table 6-48: Installed capacity MW Mali 290
Table 6-49: Access to electricity Mauritius 291
Table 6-50: Installed capacity MW Mauritius 291
Table 6-51: Access to electricity Mozambique 293
Table 6-52: Installed capacity MW Mozambique 293
Table 6-53: Access to electricity Namibia 294
Table 6-54: Inst

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