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  4. > OTC Distribution in Central and Eastern Europe’s Growth Markets 2013 edition - Grasping the Opportunities in Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria

OTC Distribution in Central and Eastern Europe's Growth Markets explores and defines the distribution channels for OTC self-medication and associated products in Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria and shows how they will influence the strategies for companies seeking new growth opportunities from these important expanding markets. This important new strategic study is written by two respected healthcare marketing strategy consultants Susannah M Copland and James W. Dudley.

OTC Distribution in Central and Eastern Europe's Growth Markets provides a wealth of knowledge and insights in competitive and changing marketing channel structures serving 255 million inhabitants who consume €14.6 billion worth of OTC consumer healthcare products each year.

OTC Distribution in Central and Eastern Europe's Growth Markets is an in-depth strategic analysis that shows that demand for consumer healthcare is increasing faster in the Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria than elsewhere in Europe and explains how leading players along supply chain are helping shape the channels of distribution to meet this demand.

OTC Distribution in Central and Eastern Europe's Growth Markets provides insights and understanding of the strategies adopted by leading international and national pharmaceutical distributors and shows why distributors are diversifying into production and retailing. This market report shows how pharmaceutical wholesalers are building wholly owned retail pharmacy chains and forming virtual chains as well as developing mail order pharmacies and e-commerce.

This in depth study also shows how mass market operators in Russia, Ukraine and Poland are integrating pharmacies into their retail strategies to capture healthcare consumer demand in their hypermarkets and supermarkets. Furthermore it shows the challenge to pharmacies from competing channels including supermarkets especially in Poland and Ukraine.

OTC Distribution in Central and Eastern Europe's Growth Markets is a study of the factors driving change and presenting challenges and opportunities to manufacturers who are already operating in Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria or are looking to enter Europe's fastest growing consumer healthcare markets.

OTC Distribution in Central and Eastern Europe's Growth Markets includes analysis and discussion of national statutory and regulatory developments; healthcare supply chain economics; evolving formal and informal channel structures; distribution channel retail competitors' and pharmaceutical distributors as well as their linkages and groupings.

OTC Distribution in Central and Eastern Europe's Growth Markets is an exploration of manufacturer, retail customer and shopper needs and the unfolding strategies required by healthcare companies to lead in the rapidly growing self-medication markets of Central and Eastern Europe.

OTC Distribution in Central and Eastern Europe's Growth Markets provides up-to-date statistics, insights, discussion and opinions regarding the historic, present and future challenges and opportunities for companies in the channels serving the consumer healthcare markets in Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria together with consumer insights, market sizes, sales trends and distributor market shares

'OTC Distribution in Central and Eastern Europe's Growth Markets - the 2013 edition – Grasping the Opportunities in Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria is a brand new strategic market study written by two respected healthcare marketing strategy consultants Susannah M Copland and James W. Dudley

This is a strategic market report that presents an in-depth analysis of market channels in the five growth markets under study, which between them represent 255 million inhabitants who consume €14.6 billion worth of OTC consumer healthcare products a year.

It explores a number of important factors coming into play which will influence the major growth opportunities for healthcare companies in Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria. Not least of which is the increasing role for consumer healthcare in countries where public medical services lag behind those in many Western States. Furthermore, there is a growing awareness among pharmacy channels for the need to develop retail opportunities for goods and services in health and personal care sectors which are not financed by the State. Consumer healthcare is thus an ideal target for this development.

Among the issues that will influence supplier strategies are:

• Changes to the nature and structure of the pharmaceutical supply chains in Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria in response to intensifying competition
• The consolidation of wholesale pharmaceutical distributors to maximise efficiencies and improve competitiveness
• The growing buying power of retail pharmacy chains in all five East European countries
• Developments in new retail pharmacy formats including the growth of discounts chains and online pharmacy
• Mass market retailers' ambitions to capture a share of the pharmacy market through products licensed for sale in non-pharmacy outlets and the integration of pharmacies into their hypermarkets and supermarkets
• The economics of pharmacies and the importance of non-prescription OTC healthcare and personal care products as a share of their business by category
• Impact of new tax reforms on groups of Russian pharmacies
• The expansion of international retailers into Eastern Europe's consumer health and beauty markets
• New distributor strategies shaping the healthcare supply chains in Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria

Examples of findings of this new 5 country study from James Dudley are:

• Pharmacies are the dominant channel for consumer healthcare distribution in the five countries under study in Russia, Ukraine and Bulgaria
• Non-prescription OTC medicines and personal care categories represent over 50% of pharmacy turnover in Russia, Ukraine and Bulgaria and over a third in Poland and Romania
• One in four Russian pharmacies is branch of a national or regional pharmacy chain
• Nearly 60% of the intermediary pharmaceutical wholesale market is controlled by a handful of players

Table Of Contents

OTC Distribution in Central and Eastern Europe’s Growth Markets 2013 edition - Grasping the Opportunities in Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria
Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to OTC Distribution in Europe's Growth Markets15

Forward to the 2013 Study of the Distribution of OTC Medicines in Europe's growth
markets of Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria 15
Table1.1: Populations of Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria 15
Graph1.1: IMF GDP Growth Estimates Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria16
Health of the Populations of Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria 17
Graph1.2: Average Life Expectancy Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria 18
Europe's Top Growth Markets for Non-Prescription Medicines and Self-care 18
Graph1.3: Annualised Consumer Purchases Non-prescription Medicines Market in Russia,
Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria 2007 to 2015 (estimated) €millions 19
Graph 1.4 Annualised Growths of European Non-prescription Medicines Markets Russia, Poland,
Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria 20
Graph 1.5 Combined Value Sales of Non-prescription Medicines Market Russia, Poland, Ukraine,
Romania and Bulgaria compared to the European Total 2008 to 2015 (€millions at consumer
prices) 21
Graph 1.6 Share of Total European Sales of Non-prescription Medicines Market by Russia,
Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria 2007 to 2015.22
Retail Distribution of Non-prescription Medicines in Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania
and Bulgaria 22
Table 1.2: Pharmacy and Non-Pharmacy Channels for Non-Prescription Medicines in Russia,
Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria23
Pharmacy Density in Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria 23
Table 1.3: The Number of Pharmacies and the average Number of Citizens they serve in Russia,
Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria23
Table 1.4: Average Pharmacy Turnover by Category for Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and
Bulgaria 24
Pharmacy Chains in Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria 24
Pharmaceutical Distributors in Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria 25
Consolidation and Concentration of Market Share of Pharmaceutical Distributors in
Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria 26
Table 1.5: Market Shares of the Leading Pharmaceutical Distributors in Russia, Poland, Ukraine,
Romania and Bulgaria 26
Diversification of Pharmaceutical Distributors in Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and
Bulgaria into different Sectors within the Supply Chain. 27
International Pharmaceutical Distributors Expansion across Borders into Russia, Poland,
Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria 28

Chapter 2 OTC Distribution in the Russian Federation 29

Russia Overview. 29
Graph 2. 1: IMF Forecasts of GDP for Russia to 2015 30
The Russian Healthcare Environment. 30
Graph2. 2: Life Expectancy of Russians compared to Citizens of top 5 EU States and USA 2012.31
The Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication Market in the Russian
Federation 2012 32
Graph 2.4: Russia Total Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication Market at
Consumer Prices €millions 2007 - 2015(forecast).32
Share of the Russia Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication Market by
Category 2012 33
Table 2.1.: Russia - Non-prescription Medicines € Millions Consumer Purchases by Therapeutic
Category 2008 - 2012 est.33
The Regulatory Environment for Non-prescription and OTC Self-medication Medicines in
Russia. 33
Classification of Medicines in Russia 33
Herbal medicines 33
Homeopathic products and homeopathic combinations 34
Vitamins and minerals 34
Marketing Authorization for Non-prescription and OTC Medicines in Russia 34
Regulations Governing Marketing and Distribution Channels for OTC Medicines in Russia
. 35
Controls on Pricing and Margins of OTC Medicines in Russia 35
Advertising Non-prescription Medicines in Russia 36
Pharmaceutical Supply Chain in the Russian Federation 37
Figure 2.1: Pharmaceutical Supply Chain in Russia37
The Retail Pharmacy Environment for OTC Self-medication in Russia 38
Growth of Retail Pharmacy Chains in Russia 38
Graph 2. 5.: Market Share of Top Pharmacy chains in Russia 39
Graph 2. 6: Growth in the Number of Pharmacies of Top 10 Chains 2006 - 2011 39
Graph 2. 7: Market Shares of Top 10 Pharmacy Chains in Russia 2003 - 2011.40
Table 2.2: Main Retail Pharmacy Chains in Russia 2011 41
Major Retail Drugstore Chains in Russia. 41
Rigla 41
Apteke 36.6 42
Table 2.3: % Share of Pharmacy Chain 36.6 Turnover by Category - Russia.43
A5. 43
Pharmacor 44
Implozia 44
Farmaimpex 44
Raduga 44
Oriola KD 45
Samson-Pharma. 45
Doctor Stoletov 46
Voluntary Pharmacy Groupings and Virtual Chains in Russia. 46
Alphega 46
United Marketing Group (UMG 46
Asna 46
Pharmacy Economics in Russia. 46
Graph 2.8: Russia - Breakdown of Pharmacy Turnover by Category 47
Main Pharmaceutical Wholesalers Supplying Pharmacies in Russia. 48
Graph 2.9: Market Shares - Leading Pharmaceutical Wholesalers in the Russian Federation 48
Protek 48
Graph 2. 10: Protek Source of Business 201249
SIA International ZAO. 50
Katren NPK ZAO 51
Rosta ZAO 51
Alliance Healthcare ZAO. 52
Oriola (Moron OOO) 52
R-Pharm 53
Russian Wholesalers Emerging Strategies - Vertical Integration along the Supply Chain53
Russian Pharmaceutical Distributors Vertical Integration into Manufacture 53
Russian Pharmaceutical Distributors Pre-wholesaling and Import Management Services
. 54
Russian Pharmaceutical Distributors Vertical Integration into Retailing 55
The Future for Healthcare Distribution in Russia 55
Graph 2.11: Russia - Forecast Non-prescription Medicine Consumption to 2015 € Millions
(Consumer Purchase Prices) 55

Chapter 3 OTC Distribution in Ukraine57

Table 3.1: Ukraine Largest City Populations57
Ukraine Economic Background. 57
Graph 3. 1: Ukraine GDP Growth Estimates 2010-2015 - Compared to Germany, Japan and the
US58
Table 3.2: Ukraine Total Pharmacy Expenditures 2009-2012.59
Table 3.3: Ukraine Pharmacy % Turnover by Category60
Graph 3.2: % Value Share of Prescription and Non-prescription/OTC Medicine of Total Sales:
Jan-June 2010-2012 61
Graph 3.3: % Share of Prescription and Non-prescription/OTC Medicine of Total Volume: Jan-
June 2010-2012 61
Ukraine's Pharmaceutical Market: Consumer Preference 62
The Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication Market in Ukraine to 2015 62
Graph 3.4: Ukraine Total Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication Market at
Consumer Prices €millions 2007 - 2015 63
The Regulatory Environment for Non-prescription and OTC Self-medication Medicines in
Ukraine 63
Definition of Medicinal Products in Ukraine 63
Classification of Medicines in Ukraine 63
Marketing Authorization for Non-prescription and OTC Medicines in Ukraine 63
Advertising Non-prescription and OTC Medicines in Ukraine. 65
Prior Approval for Advertising Non-prescription and OTC Medicines 66
Regulations Governing Marketing and Distribution Channels for OTC Medicines in
Ukraine 66
Online Trade and Mail Services of Pharmacy Medicines in Ukraine. 67
Controls on Pricing and Margins of Medicines in Ukraine 67
Table 3.4: Ukraine Regulated Retail Mark-up by Cost of Medicine 68
Retail Pharmacy Licensing Conditions in Ukraine. 68
Possible Introduction of VAT on Drug Imports to Ukraine 69
Introduction of Reference Pricing Programs in Ukraine 69
Pharmaceutical Supply Chain in Ukraine 69
Main Pharmaceutical Manufactures Operating in Ukraine 69
The Retail Pharmacy Environment for OTC Self-medication in Ukraine 70
Pharmacy and Non-Pharmacy Retail Channels for Non-prescription and OTC Medicines
in Ukraine. 70
Regional Distribution of Pharmacy and Non-Pharmacy Retail Outlets and for Nonprescription
and OTC Medicines in Ukraine 70
Table 3.5: Ukraine Distribution of Retail Outlets by Region 2012 71
Figure 3.1: Ukraine Proportion of Retail Pharmacy Revenue by Regional Centre and District 2012
72
Ukraine - Average Sales per Pharmacy by Region 72
Graph 3.5: Ukraine Average Sales per Pharmacy by Region 2011 - Euros 73
Table 3.6: Number of Outlets and % Market Share of Top-10 Pharmacy Chains in Ukraine74
Top 5 Retail Pharmacy Chains in Ukraine -Company Profiles 74
Med-Services Group. 74
Table 3.7: Med-Services Group: Number of Pharmacy Outlets by Region75
Arnica. 76
Pharmastore 76
Bazhaemo Health (Good Health) 77
Pharmacy OKP 77
Ukrainian Pharmacy Holding Company 77
Ukraine Retail Pharmacies: Emergence of Pharmacy Supermarkets 79
Vitalux 79
Apteka TAS. 79
Ukraine Retail Pharmacies: Emergence of Pharmacies within Supermarket Chains. 80
Spar-Tsentr. 80
Velika Apteka 81
Bila romanshka and Bud Zdorovy. 81
Ukraine Retail Pharmacies: Growth of Foreign Investment 81
A.S. Watson Group. 81
Main Pharmaceutical Wholesalers Supplying Pharmacies in Ukraine 82
The Role of Pharmaceutical Distributors in Ukraine. 82
Table 3. 8: % Market Share of Top-5 Pharmaceutical Wholesalers in Ukraine: 2009-2011 83
BaDM Ltd 83
Optima-Pharm 84
Alba Ukraine 84
Fra-M 85
Ukraine Wholesalers: Other Players' Vertical Integration along the Supply Chain -
Company Profiles 86
Ukraine - A Growing Market in a Challenging Environment: Conclusion 87

Chapter 4 OTC Distribution in Poland 89

Poland Overview 89
Table 4.1: Populations in Main Metropolitan Areas in Poland.90
Graph 4.1: Poland GDP Growth Estimates 2010-2015 - Compared to Germany, Japan and the US
91
Poland's Health Profile: 91
The Polish Healthcare Market 93
Graph 4.2: Poland - Pharmaceutical Market 2006 to 2012 at Retail (RSP) and Manufacturers'
Prices (MSP) Zloty Millions.93
Graph 4.3: Poland Pharmaceutical Market at Retail Prices - Euros Millions 2006 - 2014.94
The Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication Market in Poland 94
Graph 4.4: Poland Total Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication Market at
Consumer Prices €millions 2006 - 2014 (forecast)95
Share of the Polish Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication Market by
Category 2011 95
Table 4.2: Poland - Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication Market Share and
Growth by Therapeutic Category95
2008 - 2012 est. 95
Non-pharmacy and Mass Market Channels for Non-prescription OTC Medicines and
Supplements in Poland 96
The Regulatory Environment for Non-prescription and OTC Self-medication Medicines in
Poland 96
Classification of Medicines in Poland 96
Marketing Authorization for Non-prescription and OTC Medicines in Poland 97
Pharmacy and Non-pharmacy Retail Channels for Non-prescription and OTC Medicines
in Poland 98
Pharmacy Ownership in Poland 98
Self-Service. 98
Ban on Pharmacy Advertising New Rules 2012 98
Regulations Covering Internet and Mail Order Pharmacies in Poland 98
Controls on Pricing and Margins of OTC Medicines in Poland 99
Advertising and Promotion of OTC Medicines in Poland 99
The Impact of the New Reimbursement Act on OTC Medicine Advertising in Poland 100
Changing Environment for Non-prescription OTC Self-medication Medicines in Poland
. 101
The Retail Pharmacy Channels for OTC Self-medication in Poland. 101
Retail Pharmacy Market in Poland 101
Table 4.3: The Retail Pharmacy Market in Poland 2007 - 2012 est. € Billions RSP101
Analysis of Retail Pharmacy Turnover in Poland 102
Graph 4.5: Poland % Share of Pharmacy Turnover by Category.102
The Number of Pharmacies in Poland 103
Graph 4.6: % Pharmacies by Ownership in Poland104
Pharmacy Chain Dbam o Zdrowie 104
Pharmacy Chain Mediq Apteka 105
Independent Retail Pharmacy Multiples in Poland 105
Table 4.4: The largest Independent Retail Pharmacy Chains in Poland 2012106
Pharmacy Chain Dr. Max 106
Pharmacy Chain Euro Apeteka 106
Retail Pharmacy Developments by Supermarket Chains in Poland 107
Buying Groups, Virtual Pharmacy Chains, Franchised Outlets and Wholesaler Marketing
Concepts in Poland. 107
Pharmacy Buying Groups in Poland 107
Table 4.5: Pharmacy Buying Groups in Poland 107
Voluntary Groups and Virtual Pharmacy Chains in Poland. 107
Table 4.6: Virtual Pharmacy Chains in Poland 108
Mail Order and Internet Pharmacies targeting Patients and OTC Self-medication
Consumers in Poland 108
Reduction in Number of Online Pharmacies in Response to Polish Reimbursement Act
. 109
Graph 4.7: Internet Pharmacy Channel Share by Category in Poland.110
Growth of Online Pharmacies in Poland. 111
Table 4.7: Leading Internet Pharmacies in Poland.111
“Clicks and bricks” Online Pharmacy Networks in Poland 111
Consumer Sources of Purchase of Non-prescription OTC Medicines for Self-medication
in Poland 112
Graph 4.8: Consumer Sources of Purchase - Medicines in Poland.112
Role of Pharmaceutical Wholesalers in Poland 113
Main Pharmaceutical Wholesalers Supplying Pharmacies in Poland 114
Table 4.8: Analysis Leading National Polish Pharmaceutical Wholesalers 114
Market Share 2011 114
Neuca (Torfarm) the Leading Pharmaceutical Wholesaler in Poland 114
Farmacol a Leading Pharmaceutical Wholesaler in Poland 115
Pelion - (PGF) 115
ACP Pharma - Dutch Pharmaceutical Wholesaler in Poland 116
CF Cefarm - State Owned Pharmaceutical Wholesaler in Poland 117
CEFARM Pharmaceutical SA 117
PHOENIX Pharma Polska's Operations 117
OPDF SA - Organization of Polish Pharmaceutical Distributors 117
Future of OTC Distribution in Poland 118
Graph 4.9: Forecast Poland Non- Prescription Pharmaceutical Market at Retail Sales Prices to
2015 Euros Millions119

Chapter 5 OTC Distribution in Romania 2013 120

Romania an Overview 121
Table 5.1 Population in Major Cities in Romania.121
Graph 5.1: IMF Forecasts of GDP for Romania to 2015 123
The Romanian Healthcare Environment. 123
Health of the Romanian Population. 124
Graph 5.2: Romania Leading Health Risk Factors and their % Share of Death 124
Graph 5.3: Romania Pharmaceutical Sales through Pharmacies 2008 - 2014 - Euros Millions at
Consumer Prices125
The Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication Market in Romania. 126
Graph 5.4: Romania Total OTC Self-medication Market 2008 - 2014 est. Euros Millions at
Consumer Prices127
Share of the Romanian OTC Self-medication Market by Category 2012. 127
Table 5.2: Romania - Self-Medication Market Share and Growth by Therapeutic Category2008 -
2011 est.128
The Regulatory Environment for OTC Self-medication Medicines in Romania. 128
Classification of Medicines in Romania 128
Regulations for Distribution of Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication in
Romania. 130
Pharmacy Ownership Rules in Romania. 130
Regulations covering Pharmacy Numbers in Romania 130
Regulations covering Pricing of Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication in
Romania. 130
Margins / VAT on Pharmacy Medicines on Prescription Medicines in Romania. 131
Table 5.3: Average Wholesaler and Pharmacy Margins in Romania 2011 131
Table 5.4: Permitted Pharmacy Margins based on Wholesaler Prices - Prescription Medicines in
Romania 131
Regulations on Advertising OTC Medicines in Romania 131
The Distribution Environment for Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication
in Romania. 132
Retail Pharmacies - Developments in Romania 2007 - 2011 132
Pharmacy Turnover in Romania 133
Graph 5.5: Estimated Average Split of Pharmacy Turnover in Romania by Category133
Pharmacy Chains in Romania 134
Graph 5.4: Leading Pharmacy Chains in Romania - 2012.134
Sensiblu 135
Table 5.5: The Development of the Sensiblu Pharmacy Chain in Romania 2005 - 2012135
Catena 135
Table 5.6: The Development of the Catena Pharmacy Chain in Romania 2005 - 2011136
Farmaciile Dona 136
5.7: The Development of the Farmaciile Dona Pharmacy Chain in Romania 2006 - 2011 136
Farmacia Richter 136
Help Net 136
Table 5.8: The Development of the Help Net Pharmacy Chain in Romania 2007 - 2011 137
Centrofarm. 137
Mail Order and Internet Pharmacy in Romania 137
Pharmaceutical Distributors in Romania 138
Graph 5.6: Leading Pharmaceutical Distributors in Romania.138
Pharmaceutical Distributors Investments in Pharmacy Chains in Romania 138
Leading Pharmaceutical Distributors in Romania. 139
Mediplus - Leading Pharmacy Wholesale Distributor in Romania 139
Farmexpert - Alliance Boots in Romania 139
Farmexim 139
Fildas Trading 139
The Future of OTC Distribution in Romania 140
Graph 5.7: Forecast Non-prescription Medicine Sales in Romania to 2015 - €Millions at
Consumer Prices140

Chapter 6 OTC Distribution in Bulgaria 2013.141

Bulgaria an Overview 141
Table 6.1: Bulgaria - Populations in Main Cities 142
Graph 6.1: IMF GDP Growth Estimates 2010 to 2015143
Health of Bulgarians. 143
The Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication Market in Bulgaria 144
Graph 6.2: Bulgaria Total Self-medication Market €millions 2007 - 2015 est. 145
Share of the Bulgarian OTC Self-medication Market by Category 2012 145
Table 6.2: Bulgaria - Self-Medication Market Share and Growth by Therapeutic Category 2008 -
2012 est.145
The Regulatory Environment for OTC Self-medication Medicines in Bulgaria 146
Classification of Medicines in Bulgaria 146
Marketing Authorization of Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication in
Bulgaria 147
New Regulations for Distribution of Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Selfmedication
in Bulgaria 147
Regulations covering Pricing of Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication in
Bulgaria 148
Regulations on Advertising OTC Medicines in Bulgaria 148
Trade Margins / VAT on Pharmacy Medicines in Bulgaria 149
Table 6.3: Average Wholesaler and Pharmacy Margins in Bulgaria 2011 149
The Distribution Environment for Non-prescription Medicines and OTC Self-medication
in Bulgaria 149
Retail Pharmacies - Developments in Bulgaria 2007 - 2011 149
Table 6.4: The Number of Pharmacies by Type in Bulgaria 2007 - 2012.149
Pharmacy Turnover in Bulgaria 150
Graph 6.3: Estimated Average Split of Pharmacy Turnover in Bulgaria by Category.151
Mail Order and Internet Pharmacy in Bulgaria. 151
Pharmaceutical Wholesalers in Bulgaria 151
Graph 6.4: Leading Pharmaceutical Distributors in Bulgaria152
Pharmaceutical Distributor Turnover in Bulgaria 152
Table 6. 5: Estimated % Share of Turnover - Typical Leading Pharmaceutical Distributor in
Bulgaria 152
Sopharma Trading 153
Higia/ PharmNet 153
Libra SA 153
Sting 153
The Future for OTC Distribution in Bulgaria 153
Graph 6.5: Forecast of Non-prescription Consumer Purchases 2012 to 2015 € Millions at
Retail Selling Prices 154

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