We are in the decade of the hybrid electric vehicle despite the fact that most off road and underwater vehicles are pure electric. That includes most forklifts, golf cars and mobility vehicles for the disabled plus Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and personal submarines. Indeed, most electric aircraft are pure electric as well. The reason is that these are mainly small as are electric two-wheelers, which are also almost all pure electric. Small vehicles rarely need to travel long distances. In addition, these pure electric vehicles are often used where a conventional engine is banned as on lakes and indoors or where it is impracticable as with underwater vehicles. By contrast, half the electric vehicle market value lies in larger road vehicles, notably cars, and here the legal restrictions are weaker or non-existent and range anxiety compels most people to buy hybrids if they go electric at all.

About eight million hybrid cars will be made in 2023, each with a range extender, the additional power source that distinguishes them from pure electric cars. Add to that significant money spent on the same devices in buses, military vehicles, boats and so on and a major new market emerges. This unique report is about range extenders for all these purposes - their evolving technology and market size. Whereas today's range extenders usually consist of little more than off the shelf internal combustion engines, these are rapidly being replaced by second generation range extenders consisting of piston engines designed from scratch for fairly constant load in series hybrids. There are some wild cards like Wankel engines and rotary combustion engines or free piston engines both with integral electricity generation. However, a more radical departure is the third generation micro turbines and fuel cells that work at constant load. The report compares all these. It forecasts the lower power needed over the years given assistance from fast charging and energy harvesting innovations ahead. Every aspect of the new range extenders is covered.

This report profiles key developers, manufactures and integrators of range extenders for land, water and airborne electric vehicles. It gives ten year forecasts of the different types of electric vehicle and of range extenders by number, unit value and market value. Market drivers and the changing requirements for power output are analysed. Will shaftless range extenders with no separate electricity generator take over and when will that be? What fuels will be used and when? What are the pros and cons of each option and who are the leaders? It is all here.

Table Of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1. Range extender market in 2023
1.2. EV Market 2013 and 2023
1.3. Ten year forecast for electric cars, hybrids and their range extenders
1.4. Hybrid and pure electric vehicles compared
1.5. Hybrid market drivers
1.6. What will be required of a range extender 2012-2023
1.7. Three generations of range extender
1.8. Why range extenders need lower power over the years
1.9. Energy harvesting - mostly ally not alternative
1.10. Key trends for range extended vehicles
1.11. Combining Heating and Range-Extension for Electric Vehicles
1.12. Emergency range extenders
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. Types of electric vehicle
2.2. Many fuels
2.3. Born electric
2.4. Pure electric vehicles are improving
2.5. Series vs parallel hybrid
2.6. Modes of operation of hybrids
2.6.1. Plug in hybrids
2.6.2. Charge-depleting mode
2.6.3. Blended mode
2.6.4. Charge-sustaining mode
2.6.5. Mixed mode
2.7. Microhybrid is a misnomer
2.8. Deep hybridisation
2.9. Battery cost and performance are key
2.10. Hybrid price premium
2.11. Progressing the REEV
2.12. What is a range extender?
2.12.1. First generation range extender technology
2.12.2. Second generation range extender technology
2.12.3. Radically new approaches - Hüttlin range extender
2.12.4. Third generation range extender technology
2.13. Market position of fuel cell range extenders
2.14. Energy harvesting on and in electric vehicles
2.15. Tradeoff of energy storage technologies
2.16. Trend to high voltage
2.17. Component choices for energy density/ power density
2.18. Fuel cells rescued by batteries
2.19. PEM fuel cells
2.20. Trend to distributed components
2.21. Trend to flatness then smart skin
3. ELECTRIC VEHICLE MARKET OVERVIEW
3.1. The whole picture
3.1.1. Synergies
3.1.2. What is excluded?
3.2. Largest sectors
3.3. Numbers of manufacturers
3.4. Heavy industrial sector
3.5. Buses
3.6. The light industrial and commercial sector
3.7. Two wheel and allied vehicles
3.8. Cars
3.9. Golf
3.10. Military
3.11. Marine
3.12. Other
3.13. Market for EV components
3.14. Timelines
3.15. Watch Japan, China and Korea
3.16. Vacillation by some governments
3.17. Healthy shakeout of the car industry
3.18. Full circle back to pure EVs
3.19. Winning strategies
4. MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR REEVS
4.1. Range extenders for land craft
4.2. Range Extenders for electric aircraft
4.2.1. Military aircraft
4.3. Comparisons
4.4. Fuel cells in aviation
4.5. Civil aircraft
4.6. Potential for electric airliners
4.7. Range extenders for marine craft
5. RANGE EXTENDER DEVELOPERS AND MANUFACTURERS
5.1. Advanced Magnet Laboratory USA
5.2. AeroVironment / Protonex Technology USA
5.3. Austro Engine Austria
5.4. Bladon Jets UK
5.5. BMW Germany
5.6. Brayton Energy USA
5.7. Capstone Turbine Corporation USA
5.8. Clarian Laboratories USA
5.9. Compound Rotary Engines UK
5.10. Daimler AG inc Mercedes Benz Germany
5.11. DLR German Aerospace Center Germany
5.11.1. Free piston range extenders
5.12. EcoMotors
5.13. Ener1 USA
5.14. ETV Motors Israel
5.15. FEV USA
5.16. Flight Design Germany
5.17. Getrag Germany
5.18. GSE USA
5.19. Intelligent Energy UK
5.20. KSPG Germany
5.21. LiquidPiston USA
5.22. Lotus Engineering UK
5.23. MAHLE Powertrain UK
5.24. Mazda Japan
5.25. Polaris Industries Switzerland
5.26. Powertrain Technologies UK
5.27. Proton Power Systems plc UK/Germany
5.28. Ricardo UK
5.29. Urbee Canada
5.30. Volkswagen Germany
5.31. Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
6. RANGE EXTENDER INTEGRATORS
6.1. ACAL Energy UK
6.2. Altria Controls USA
6.3. Ashok Leyland India
6.4. Audi Germany
6.5. AVL Austria
6.6. Azure Dynamics USA
6.7. BAE Systems UK
6.8. BMW Germany
6.9. Boeing Dreamworks USA
6.10. Chrysler USA
6.11. DesignLine New Zealand
6.12. EADS Germany
6.13. ENFICA-FC Italy
6.14. Ford USA
6.15. Frazer-Nash UK
6.16. General Motors including Opel
6.17. Honda Japan
6.18. Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft Germany
6.19. Hyundai Korea
6.20. Igor Chak Russia
6.21. Jaguar Land Rover UK
6.22. Lange Aviation Germany
6.23. Langford Performance Engineering Ltd UK
6.24. Marion HSPD USA
6.25. Pipistrel Slovenia
6.26. SAIC China
6.27. Skyspark Italy
6.28. Suzuki Japan
6.29. Tata Motors India
6.30. Toyota Japan
6.31. Turtle Airships Spain
6.32. University of Bristol UK
6.33. Universite de Sherbrooke Canada
6.34. University of Stuttgart Germany
6.35. Vision Motor Corporation USA
6.36. Volvo Sweden/ China
6.37. Yo-Avto Russia
7. MARKET DRIVERS AND FORECASTS
7.1. Market drivers and impediments
7.2. Funding as a market driver
7.3. EV Market 2011 and 2021
7.4. Ten year forecast for electric cars, hybrids and their range extenders
7.5. Three generations of range extender
APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY
APPENDIX 2: FUEL CELL 2000 SUMMARY OF FUEL CELL BUS TRIALS TO 2010

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