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Infectious diseases diagnostics for the developing world

This research service focuses on the emerging diagnostic technologies (for TB, HIV, HCV, HPV), the developmental initiatives, corporate developments by market leaders, and the role of international organizations within this market. It enlists end-user demands. The research service discusses the existing healthcare structure within the developing regions and the market impact of key innovations that influence the dynamics of the industry. It identifies the technology roadmap and technology management strategies. The research service also covers some of the key patents within the area.

Scope of Research

According to World Health Organization (WHO) “Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another.” Developing countries continue to experience the greatest impact from infectious diseases due to inadequate health care, malnutrition, poor sanitation and poor water quality.
A handful of deadly infectious diseases takes millions of lives in developing regions. The Sub-Saharan African regionsis the most vulnerable region and accounts for nearly half of the deaths from infectious disease globally. Asia and the Pacific regions are witnessing multidrug resistant TB with the increasing spread of HIV/AIDS in South and East Asia. The uneven economic development in Latin American has contributed to widespread resurgence of TB and HCV. The infectious diseases mentioned form a major socio economic healthcare burden in developing countries. A crucial approach that can relieve this burden is rapid diagnostic procedures.
Technologies for diagnosing infectious agents are used to evaluate the presence or absence of infection, and even to detect surrogate marker of infection. Diagnosing technologies are crucial for effective clinical management and for adopting appropriate disease control management. With access to central laboratory testing often being sparse or even non-existent, particularly in remote regions, POC testing can establish the diagnosis at the point of need and will play a key role in reducing the prevalence of infectious diseases in developing countries.

In this research service (RS), Frost & Sullivan has focused on breakthrough in diagnosing technologies for infectious diseases. This study captures the recent technological developments that have led to the proliferation of new, rapid diagnostic tests that holds promise for the improved management and control of infectious diseases in developing countries. This research service concentrates on four major infectious diseases in the developing countries:
1.Tuberculosis–TB
2.Human Immunodeficiency Virus–HIV/AIDS
3.Hepatitis C Virus–HCV
4.Human Papillomavirus–HPV

This research service focuses on the emerging diagnostic technologies for the above diseases, the developmental initiatives, corporate developments by market leaders, and the role of international organizations within this market. It enlists end-user demands. The research service discusses the existing healthcare structure within the developing regions and the market impact of key innovations that influence the dynamics of the industry. It identifies the technology roadmap and technology management strategies. The research service also covers some of the key patents within the area.

Research Methodology

Primary Research
• Engineers
• CTOs/CEOs/CIOs
• Technical Architects
• Research Heads
• Strategic Decision Makers
• Technology Policy Heads

Secondary Research
• Technology Journals
• Periodicals
• Market Research Reports
• Technology Policy Information Sites
• Internal Databases
• Thought Leader Briefings

Step 1: To provide a thorough analysis of each topic, Technical Insights’ analysts perform a review of patents to become familiar with the major developers and commercial participants and their processes.
Step 2: Building on the patent search, the analysts review abstracts to identify key scientific and technical papers that provide insights into key industry participants and the technical processes, on which they work.
Step 3: The analysts then create a detailed questionnaire with content created to address the research objectives of the study, which functions as a guide during the interview process. While the analysts use structured questionnaires to guarantee coverage of all the desired issues, they also conduct interviews in a conversational style. This approach results in a more thorough exchange of views with the respondents, and offers greater insight into the relevant issues than more structured interviews may provide.
Step 4: The analysts conduct primary research with key industry participants and technology developers to obtain the required content. Interviews are completed with sources located throughout the world, in universities, national laboratories, governmental and regulatory bodies, trade associations, and end-user companies, among other key organizations. Our analysts contact the major commercial participants to find out about the advantages and disadvantages of processes and the drivers and challenges behind technologies and applications. Our analysts talk to the principal developers, researchers, engineers, business developers, analysts, strategic planners, and marketing experts, among other professionals.
Step 5: The project management and research team reviews and analyzes the research data that are gathered and adds its recommendations to the draft of the final study. Having conducted both published studies and custom proprietary research covering many types of new and emerging technology activities as well as worldwide industry analysis, the management and research team adds its perspective and experience to provide an accurate, timely analysis. The analysts then prepare written final research services for each project and sometimes present key findings in analyst briefings to clients.

Key Findings

1. In developing countries, health care issues are matter of great concern for many actors. The public-government-sector, private practitioners, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), traditional healers, etc. In terms of diagnostic services, a remarkable cross-referral among patients and providers can be observed.
2. Commissioning of private laboratories by the public sector and some use of the public sector by private practitioners and NGOs are frequent. The access to health care services and centers between rural and urban populations evidences important disparities.
3. In addition, the level and quality of care experienced by these populations can vary widely, from primitive clinical attention in rural rooms to large centralized laboratories. Moreover, women and other vulnerable groups in economic or social disadvantage also have reduced access to health care.
4. Similarly, patients not covered by insurance schemes cannot accede to diagnostic tests, which coming from developed countries are rarely free at the point of delivery and often come with significant fees. In most developing countries the public sector is the major provider of primary health care services.
5. Nevertheless, diagnosis is more frequently associated with the nongovernmental sector. Influenced by the accessibility and perceived quality of local services, the pattern of health care behavior presents important variations among different countries.
In developing countries, health care issues are matter of great concern for many actors. The public-government-sector, private practitioners, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), traditional healers, etc. In terms of diagnostic services, a remarkable cross-referral among patients and providers can be observed.
6. Emerging economies such as Brazil (Latin America), India (Asia) and South Africa (Africa) provide established and growing markets for the private health sector, and multinational companies have established a presence in these countries through partnership or by acquisition of local diagnostic companies.
7. A common characteristic in emerging economies such as China and Brazil is related to the increment in the burden of disease according to the rising of living standards and ageing population, which generally results in an increased demand for diagnosis and management.
8. Chronic infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, HCV, and HPV play a preponderant role. Revenue from commercial testing products in these countries has a similar distribution to that in the global market.
9. In less developed countries the establishment of private diagnostic laboratories have been associated with a response to the low level of service available from the public sector, basically aiming to reduce the need to travel abroad for medical care by providing services and products to difficult acceded areas.
10. International initiatives such as UNITAID, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and malaria, or the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), make possible the access of developing countries to diagnostic tests at preferential prices or for free.
11. Such initiatives are generally restricted to specific disease-control programmes, including HIV, TB, HCV, HPV and malaria in the most affected countries.
12. Short-term funding mechanisms are far to be sustainable, so that infectious diseases diagnostics in developing countries still constitute an important concern.

Infectious Disease Overview - TB–Introduction and Epidemiology

Caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Transmitted via droplets from the throat and lungs of infected people. Symptoms are coughing, sputum or blood, chest pains, tiredness, weight loss, fever or night sweats .Second to HIV/AIDS as the greatest killer globally from a single infectious agent. TB is the leading killer of people having HIV causing one quarter of the total HIV deaths. In 2012, million people were affected by TB and over million died from it. Almost % of TB deaths occur in developing (low and middle income) countries Recent rise of Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) in almost all countries. Several Eastern Europe and Central Asian Countries are seeing increased cases of multi drug of MDR-TB. China and India also have high cases of MDR-TBN reported.

Table Of Contents

Emerging Technologies in Infectious Diseases Diagnostics (Technical Insights)
Table of Contents

Executive Summary 4
Scope of Research and Methodology 5
Key Findings 9
Technology Snapshot and Trends 11
Infectious Diseases Overview 12
Technology Capability 16
Technology Value Chain 36
Impact Assessment and Analysis 40
Market Drivers 41
Market Impact of Key Innovations/Proprietary Technologies 44
Diffusion of Innovation and Needs Assessment 71
Technology Development 72
Technology Adoption 75
Demand Side Requirement 81
Opportunity Evaluation and Road Mapping 82
Scenario Modelling and Emerging Opportunities 83
Product Map 89
Technology Management Strategy 90
Key Patents and Contacts 91
Decision Support Database 101
The Frost and Sullivan Story 111

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