Critical Materials in Global Nanotechnology Markets

  • January 2014
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 143 pages

INTRODUCTION

A raw material is labeled “critical” when the risks of a supply shortage and the resulting impacts on the economy are higher than those of other raw materials. Basic availability is not the only factor affecting a critical material’s overall supply risk. Other factors include political or regulatory risks in countries that are major producers of critical materials, lack of diversity in producers, and demand from competing technologies.

STUDY BACKGROUND

The United States and other advanced economies depend on the continued availability of various critical materials to ensure their economic prosperity and in some cases their national security. Strategies for ensuring the continued availability of these critical materials include stockpiling, developing new domestic supplies or substitution.
Critical materials potentially affect the nanotechnology market in at least three ways:
• Some nanotechnology applications may become less attractive because they use materials in short supply, at risk of shortage or subject to price increases.
• Other nanotechnologies may become more attractive because they use smaller quantities of critical materials than macroscale applications or use no critical materials at all.
• It may be possible to nanoengineer certain noncritical materials so they become replacements for critical materials.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The overall goal of this report is to analyze the interrelationships between critical materials and nanotechnology. Specific objectives include:
• Identifying current nanotechnology applications of critical materials, whose economics or even feasibility are negatively affected by potential shortages of those materials.
• Identifying nanotechnology applications that can help to alleviate or avoid shortages of critical materials.
• Analyzing and quantifying the resulting impacts on the nanotechnology market.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

The report is intended for entrepreneurs, investors, venture capitalists and other readers concerned with future trends in the nanotechnology market. Other readers who should find the report particularly valuable include executives of companies that are consumers of critical materials and officials of government agencies concerned with ensuring the continued supply of these materials. In the United States, these agencies include the Departments of Defense, Energy and Homeland Security, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the U.S. Trade Representative. The report’s findings and conclusions should also be of interest to the broader nanotechnology community.

SCOPE OF REPORT

“Critical materials” is a relative term. The list of critical materials varies among countries and industries, depending on their specific circumstances. In selecting the materials to be covered in this report, BCC Research drew from a number of sources, including reports published by the U.S. Department of Energy, the European Union, the British Geological Survey and the German Institut für Zukunftstudien und Technologie-bewertung.
Not all of the critical materials identified in these reports have implications for the nanotechnology market. This study focuses on those critical materials that have potential nanotechnology applications or for which nanotechnology-based substitutes exist:
• Antimony.
• Barium.
• Gallium.
• Indium.
• Magnesium.
• Niobium
• Platinum group metals (PGMs).
• Rare earths (e.g., yttrium, dysprosium, erbium, terbium, thulium, scandium).
• Rhenium.
• Tantalum.
• Tellurium.
• Tungsten.

For each of these materials, the report contains an assessment of:
• Critical material supply/demand situation, price trends and risk of disruption.
• Applications in which nanotechnology can contribute to reducing/avoiding consumption of critical materials.
• Technology assessment/market leaders.
• Impact on the market for various nanotechnologies.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

BCC Research performed a two-stage analysis in the preparation of this report. At least 40 raw or semimanufactured materials are designated as “critical materials” by various sources. Not all of them are equally critical, that is, vulnerable to highly disruptive supply interruptions, and not all of them offer equal opportunities for enhancing supply security through the application of nanotechnology.
BCC Research, therefore, started by performing a preliminary analysis, in which it compiled as comprehensive as possible a list of critical materials then ranked them according to their economic importance and supply risk to identify the “most critical” materials. BCC Research then identified those “most critical” materials for which nanotechnology-based substitutes or enhancement are available or in advanced development. The resulting list of critical materials forms the basis for this report.
In the second, detailed phase of the report preparation, BCC Research analyzed the potential impact of nanotechnology on demand for and supply of the selected critical materials, and related impacts on the demand for the nanotechnologies themselves. The assumptions and methodologies used in making these projections are described in detail in the report.
All financial and economic projections are in 2012 U.S. dollars.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

Andrew McWilliams, the author of this report, is a partner in the Boston-based international technology and marketing consulting firm 43rd Parallel, LLC. He is the author of numerous other BCC Research nanotechnology studies, including Nanotechnology: A Realistic Market Assessment (NAN031E); Global Medical Markets for Nanoscale Materials and Devices (HLC058A); Nanostructured Materials for the Biomedical, Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Markets (NAN017D); Nanostructured Materials for Energy, Catalysis and Structural Applications (NAN017E);Nanostructured Materials: Electronic/Magnetic/Optoelectronic (NAN017F); Nanotechnology in Energy Applications(NAN044B); Advanced Ceramics and Nanoceramic Powders (NAN015F); Global Markets for Nanocomposites, Nanoparticles, Nanoclays and Nanotubes (NAN021E); Nanopatterning (NAN041A); Nanotechnology in Life Sciences Applications (NAN038A); Nanotechnology for Consumer Products (NAN037A); Nanotechnology for Photonics: Global Markets (NAN036B); Nanocatalysts (NAN028A); Nanosensors (NAN035A); and Graphene: Technologies, Applications and Markets (AVM075C).

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

The market for existing nanotechnology applications of critical materials was worth nearly $6.5 billion in 2012. This market is expected to reach nearly $6.9 billion in 2013 and nearly $9.4 billion in 2018, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.5% for the five-year period, 2013 to 2018.
This report provides:
• A market overview of the critical materials used in global nanotechnology industries.
• Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2012, estimates for 2013, and projections of CAGRs for the period 2013 and 2018.
• Coverage of those critical materials whose shortages can be alleviated or avoided through the application of various nanotechnologies.
• Quantification of the potential reductions in critical materials consumption and the net economic cost to achieve them.
• Comprehensive company profiles of major players in the industries covered.

Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

STUDY BACKGROUND 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 5
BCC RESEARCH ONLINE SERVICES 6
DISCLAIMER 6

CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 8

SUMMARY TABLE CRITICAL MATERIALS WITH THE GREATEST IMPACT ON EXISTING
NANOTECHNOLOGY MARKETS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE MARKET IMPACTS VS. OPPORTUNITIES CREATED BY CRITICAL
MATERIALS, 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 8

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 11

DEFINITIONS 11
CRITICAL MATERIALS 11
TABLE 1 SUMMARY OF MATERIALS IDENTIFIED AS BEING AT RISK OF SUPPLY
DISRUPTIONS 11
NANOTECHNOLOGY 12
TABLE 2 MAJOR CATEGORIES OF NANOMATERIALS 13
CRITICAL MATERIALS COVERED IN THIS REPORT 14
TABLE 3 CRITICAL MATERIALS, THEIR IMPACTS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE
NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY 14
ANTIMONY 15
Existing Nanotechnology Applications 15
Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes 15
Fire Retardants 16
Batteries 16
Transparent Conductive Coatings 16
BARIUM 16
Existing Nanotechnology Applications 16
Capacitors 16
Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes 17
Capacitors 17
GALLIUM 17
Existing Nanotechnology Applications 17
Photovoltaics 17
Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes 17
Photovoltaics 17
Light-Emitting Diodes 17
INDIUM 18
Existing Nanotechnology Applications 18
Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes 18
Conducting Thin Films 18
Photovoltaics 18
MAGNESIUM 18
Existing Nanotechnology Applications 18
Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles 18
Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes 19
Nanocomposite Fire Retardants 19
Refractory Ceramic Nanocomposites 19
NIOBIUM 19
Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes 19
Superalloys 19
Superconductors 19
PLATINUM GROUP METALS 20
Existing Nanotechnology Applications 20
Environmental Catalysts 20
Fuel Cell Catalysts 20
Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes 20
Environmental Catalysts 20
Fuel Cells 20
RARE EARTHS 20
Existing Nanotechnology Applications 21
Biomedical Markers 21
LEDs 21
Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes 21
Permanent Magnets 21
Optical Amplifiers 21
Rechargeable Batteries 22
Lighting 22
RHENIUM 22
Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes 22
Rhenium Nanoalloy 22
TANTALUM 23
Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes 23
Capacitors 23
TELLURIUM 23
Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes 23
Photovoltaics 23
TUNGSTEN 24
Existing Nanotechnology Applications 24
Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes 24
MARKET IMPACTS 24
EXISTING NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS POTENTIALLY AFFECTED 24
TABLE 4 CONSUMPTION OF CRITICAL MATERIALS IN EXISTING NANOTECHNOLOGY
APPLICATIONS,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 25
SUBSTITUTES 25
TABLE 5 MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS THAT REPLACE OR
REDUCE CONSUMPTION OF CRITICAL MATERIALS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 25

CHAPTER 4 ANTIMONY 28

SUMMARY 28
FIGURE 1 ANTIMONY: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 28
DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES 29
PRODUCTION AND DEMAND 29
PRODUCTION 29
FIGURE 2 WORLD MINE PRODUCTION OF ANTIMONY, 2011 (%) 29
DEMAND 30
NANOSCALE ANTIMONY APPLICATIONS 31
ANTIMONY TIN OXIDE CONDUCTIVE COATINGS 31
Description 31
Production 31
TABLE 6 NANOSCALE ANTIMONY TIN OXIDE PRODUCERS 31
Applications 32
Infrared Attenuating Coatings 32
Antistatic Coatings 32
Transparent Electrodes 32
Markets 33
TABLE 7 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOSCALE ANTIMONY USED IN THIN FILM
COATINGS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 33
NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITITES FOR ANTIMONY 33
TABLE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR
ANTIMONY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 34
FIRE RETARDANTS 34
Fire Retardant Nanomaterials 34
Description 34
EVA/montmorillonite 35
Polypropylene/Montmorillonite 35
Cotton/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Fibers 35
Markets 35
TABLE 9 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOCOMPOSITE FIRE RETARDANT
MATERIALS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 36
EVA/Clay Nanocomposite 36
Cotton/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites 36
BATTERY MATERIALS 37
Description 37
Market 38
TABLE 10 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOPARTICLES USED IN RECHARGEABLE
LITHIUM ION BATTERIES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 39
TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE COATINGS 39
Description 39
Carbon-Nanotube-Based Coatings 39
Graphene-Based Coatings 39
Market 40
TABLE 11 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOSTRUCTURED REPLACEMENT FOR ANTIMONY
TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 40
Carbon-Nanotube-Based Coatings 40
Graphene-Based Coatings 41
IR ATTENTUATING COATINGS 41
Description 41
Semiconductor Nanomaterial 41
Ceramic Nanocomposite 41
Other Nanomaterials 41
Market 42
TABLE 12 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED ALTERNATIVES
TO ATO IR-ATTENTUATING COATINGS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 42

CHAPTER 5 BARIUM 44

SUMMARY 44
FIGURE 3 BARIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 44
DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES 45
PRODUCTION AND DEMAND 45
PRODUCTION 45
FIGURE 4 WORLD MINE PRODUCTION OF BARITES, 2012 (%) 45
DEMAND 46
NANOSCALE BARIUM APPLICATIONS 47
MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITORS 47
TABLE 13 MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITOR PRODUCERS 47
TABLE 14 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF BARIUM TITANATE NANOPARTICLES IN
MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 47
NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR BARIUM 48
CAPACITORS 48
TABLE 15 POTENTIAL MARKET FOR STRONTIUM TITANATE NANOPARTICLES AS A
SUBSTITUTE FOR BARIUM TITANATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS)
49

CHAPTER 6 GALLIUM 51

SUMMARY 51
FIGURE 5 GALLIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 51
DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES 52
PRODUCTION AND DEMAND 52
PRODUCTION 52
DEMAND 53
NANOSCALE GALLIUM APPLICATIONS 53
PHOTOVOLTAICS 53
TABLE 16 MANUFACTURERS OF CIGS THIN FILM PVS 54
TABLE 17 MARKET FOR GALLIUM NANOPARTICLES/PRECURSORS USED IN CIGS PV
FABRICATION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 54
NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR GALLIUM 55
TABLE 18 POTENTIAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED GALLIUM
SUBSTITUTES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 55
DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS 55
TABLE 19 COMPANIES MANUFACTURING OR DEVELOPING DSSC PVS 56
TABLE 20 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES IN
PHOTOVOLTAICS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 56
LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES 57
Organic Light-Emitting Diodes 58
TABLE 21 GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF OLED LIGHTING MATERIALS FOR BACKLIGHITNG
APPLICATIONS ($ MILLIONS) 59
Carbon Nanotube LEDs 59

CHAPTER 7 INDIUM 62

SUMMARY 62
FIGURE 6 INDIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY ($ MILLIONS) 62
DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES 63
PRODUCTION AND DEMAND 63
PRODUCTION 63
FIGURE 7 WORLD REFINERY PRODUCTION OF INDIUM, 2012 (%) 63
DEMAND 64
NANOSCALE INDIUM APPLICATIONS 65
PHOTOVOLTAICS 65
TABLE 22 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF INDIUM NANOPARTICLES/PRECURSORS USED
IN CIGS PV FABRICATION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 66
NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITITES FOR INDIUM 66
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR
INDIUM, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 67
TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE COATINGS 67
PHOTOVOLTAICS 67
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR
INDIUM USED IN PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 68
Copper Gallium Selenide PVs 68
TABLE 25 PROJECTED SUBSTITUTION OF GALLIUM NANOPARTICLES/PRECURSORS
FOR INDIUM USED IN CIGS PVS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 68
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 69

CHAPTER 8 MAGNESIUM 71

SUMMARY 71
FIGURE 8 MAGNESIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 71
DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES 72
PRODUCTION AND DEMAND 72
PRODUCTION 72
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MAGNESIUM PRODUCTION, 2012 (% OF TOTAL
PRODUCTION/METRIC TONS) 72
DEMAND 73
NANOSCALE MAGNESIUM APPLICATIONS 74
MAGNESIUM NANOPARTICLES 74
TABLE 26 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF MAGNESIUM AND MAGNESIUM OXIDE
NANOPARTICLES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 74
NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR MAGNESIUM 74
TABLE 27 POTENTIAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR NONMAGNESIUM-CONTAINING
NANOCOMPOSITES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 75
NANOCOMPOSITE FIRE RETARDANTS 75
TABLE 28 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NONMAGNESIUM-CONTAINING FIRE
RETARDANT NANOCOMPOSITES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 75
REFRACTORY CERAMIC NANOCOMPOSITES 76
TABLE 29 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF REFRACTORY NANOCOMPOSITES, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 76

CHAPTER 9 NIOBIUM 78

SUMMARY 78
FIGURE 10 NIOBIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 78
DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES 79
PRODUCTION AND DEMAND 79
PRODUCTION 79
FIGURE 11 WORLD MINE PRODUCTION OF NIOBIUM, 2012 (% TOTAL
PRODUCTION/METRIC TONS PRODUCED) 79
DEMAND 80
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NIOBIUM (% TOTAL CONSUMPTION/METRIC
TONS CONSUMED) 80
NANOSCALE NIOBIUM APPLICATIONS 82
NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR MAGNESIUM 82
TABLE 30 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR
NIOBIUM, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 82
NANOSTRUCTURED STEEL 82
TABLE 31 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOSTRUCTURED STEEL, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 83
SUPERCONDUCTING NANOMATERIALS 83
TABLE 32 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOSTRUCTURED SUPERCONDUCTORS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 84

CHAPTER 10 PLATINUM GROUP METALS 86

SUMMARY 86
FIGURE 13 PLATINUM GROUP METALS: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE
NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 86
DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES 87
PRODUCTION AND DEMAND 87
PRODUCTION 87
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL PGM SUPPLY, 2012 (% OF TOTAL SUPPLY/METRIC TONS) 87
Mine Production 88
FIGURE 15 WORLD MINE PRODUCTION OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS, 2008-2012
(METRIC TONS) 88
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MINE PRODUCTION OF PGMS, 2012 (METRIC TONS/ % OF TOTAL
MINE PRODUCTION) 90
Recycling 91
DEMAND 91
FIGURE 16 GROSS DEMAND FOR PGMS BY SECTOR, 2012 (% OF TOTAL DEMAND) 91
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL LIGHT-VEHICLE ASSEMBLIES, 2007-2018 (MILLION UNITS) 92
NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS 94
TABLE 34 MARKET FOR PGM NANOPARTICLES IN EXISTING APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 94
CATALYTIC CONVERTERS 94
TABLE 35 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOSCALE THIN FILM MATERIALS IN
CATALYTIC CONVERTERS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 96
FUEL CELLS 96
TABLE 36 GLOBAL SALES OF FUEL CELLS THAT USE PLATINUM NANOCATALYSTS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 37 FUEL CELL CONSUMPTION OF PLATINUM THIN FILM CATALYSTS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS/%) 98
NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS 98
SUBSTITUTES FOR PLATINUM NANOCATALYSTS 98
Vehicle Exhaust Remediation Catalysts 98
Fuel Cell Catalysts 98
Refinery and Petrochemical Catalysts 100

CHAPTER 11 RARE EARTHS 102

SUMMARY 102
FIGURE 18 RARE EARTHS: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE
NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 102
DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES 103
TABLE 38 RARE EARTH ELEMENTS 103
PRODUCTION AND DEMAND 104
PRODUCTION 104
FIGURE 19 TRENDS IN CHINESE EXPORT QUOTAS FOR RARE EARTH ELEMENTS,
2006-2012 (METRIC TONS) 105
FIGURE 20 INDIVIDUAL REE SHARES OF TOTAL GLOBAL REE PRODUCTION (%) 105
DEMAND 107
FIGURE 21 RARE EARTH ELEMENT USAGE BY APPLICATION (%) 107
TABLE 39 RARE EARTH ELEMENT APPLICATIONS 108
TABLE 40 RARE EARTH ELEMENTS CONSIDERED CRITICAL 109
NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS OF RARE EARTHS 109
RARE EARTH NANOPHOSPHORS 109
TABLE 41 RARE-EARTH-DOPED METAL OXIDE NANOPHOSPHOR MARKET BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 110
NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR RARE EARTHS 110
TABLE 42 MARKET OPPORTUNITIES FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES
FOR RARE EARTH APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 110
PERMANENT MAGNETS 111
TABLE 43 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF MAGNETIC NANOCOMPOSITES FOR
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 112
OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS 112
TABLE 44 COMPANIES INVOLVED IN QUANTUM DOT OPTICAL AMPLIFIER RESEARCH
AND DEVELOPMENT 113
TABLE 45 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF QUANTUM DOTS USED IN OPTICAL
AMPLIFIERS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 113
RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES 113
LIGHTING 114
TABLE 46 GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF OLED LIGHTING MATERIALS FOR
ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 114

CHAPTER 12 RHENIUM 116

SUMMARY 116
FIGURE 22 RHENIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 116
DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES 117
PRODUCTION AND DEMAND 117
PRODUCTION 117
DEMAND 118
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL RHENIUM CONSUMPTION BY APPLICATION, 2012 (%) 118
NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR RHENIUM 119
NANORHENIUM COMPOSITE ALLOY 119
TABLE 47 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF NANOSCALE RHENIUM IN JET AND
ROCKET PROPULSION SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 119

CHAPTER 13 TANTALUM 121

SUMMARY 121
FIGURE 24 TANTALUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 121
DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES 122
PRODUCTION AND DEMAND 122
PRODUCTION 122
FIGURE 25 TANTALUM PRODUCTION BY SOURCE, 2011 (%) 123
FIGURE 26 PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF TANTALUM BY COUNTRY/REGION, 2010 (%) 123
DEMAND 124
FIGURE 27 WORLDWIDE CONSUMPTION OF TANTALUM, 2000-2011 (METRIC TONS
PER YEAR) 125
NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR TANTALUM 125
TABLE 48 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF NANOMATERIALS USED IN CAPACITIVE
ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 126
CAPACITORS 126
Carbon-Nanotube-Based Ultracapacitors 126
TABLE 49 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF CARBON NANOTUBES USED IN
ULTRACAPACITORS, THROUGH 2018 (METRIC TONS/$ MILLIONS) 127
Aerogel Capacitors 127
TABLE 50 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF CARBON AEROGELS USED IN
SUPERCAPACITORS, THROUGH 2018 (METRIC TONS/$ MILLIONS) 128
Other Technologies 128

CHAPTER 14 TELLURIUM 130

SUMMARY 130
FIGURE 28 TELLURIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 130
DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES 131
PRODUCTION AND DEMAND 131
PRODUCTION 131
FIGURE 29 WORLD REFINERY PRODUCTION OF TELLURIUM BY COUNTRY, 2012 (%) 131
DEMAND 132
FIGURE 30 TELLURIUM APPLICATIONS, 2012 (% OF DEMAND) 132
NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES FOR TELLURIUM 133
PHOTOVOLTAICS 133

CHAPTER 15 TUNGSTEN 135

SUMMARY 135
FIGURE 31 TUNGSTEN CARBIDE: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE
NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 135
DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES 135
PRODUCTION AND DEMAND 136
PRODUCTION 136
FIGURE 32 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF TUNGSTEN CONCENTRATE (% OF TOTAL
PRODUCTION/METRIC TONS) 136
DEMAND 137
NANOSCALE TUNGSTEN APPLICATIONS 138
TUNGSTEN CARBIDE NANOCOMPOSITES 138
TABLE 51 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOCOMPOSITES IN TUNGSTEN CARBIDE
TOOLS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 138
NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR TUNGSTEN 139
NEW HARDMETAL 139
TABLE 52 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOADDITIVES USED IN TUNGSTEN
CARBIDE SUBSTITUTES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 139

CHAPTER 16 COMPANY PROFILES 141

ANTIMONY 141
NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES 141
A123 Systems Inc. 141
Advanced Glazings Ltd. 141
Altair Nanotechnologies Inc. 142
Elementis Specialties 142
Kabelwerk Eupen AG 142
Nanocor Inc. 142
NEI Corp. 143
Southern Clay Products Inc. 143
Sud-Chemie AG 143
Unidym 144
BARIUM 144
NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS 144
TPL Inc. 144
NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES 145
Cooper Bussman 145
FastCAP Systems Corp. 145
GALLIUM 145
NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS 145
Miasole 145
Nanosolar Inc. 146
NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES 146
Cyrium Technologies Inc. 146
G24 Innovations Ltd. 146
General Electric Global Research 147
Lumiotec 147
Merck OLED Materials GMBH 148
Novaled AG 148
Osram Opto Semiconductors GMBH 149
Philips Lumileds Lighting Company 149
Solaronix SA 149
INDIUM 149
MAGNESIUM 150
NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS 150
Bayer AG 150
NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES 150
NIOBIUM 150
NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS 150
Bayer AG 150
NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES 151
NanoSteel Co. Inc. 151
Sandvik Materials Technology AB 151
Single Quantum B.V. 151
PLATINUM GROUP METALS 152
NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS 152
Johnson Matthey plc 152
Mazda Motor Corp. 152
Rhodia SA 152
NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES 153
Clean Diesel Technologies Inc. 153
Evonik Degussa GmbH 153
Headwaters Nanokinetix Inc. 154
Nanostellar 155
NexTech Materials Ltd. 155
QuantumSphere Inc. 156
RARE EARTHS, APPLICATIONS AND SUBSTITUTES 156
NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS 156
Alps Electric Co. Ltd. 156
Forge Europa Ltd. 157
NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES 157
Evident Technologies 157
RHENIUM 158
THE BOEING COMPANY 158
TANTALUM 158
NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES 158
Dais Analytic Corp. 158
TELLURIUM 158
NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES 158
TUNGSTEN 159
NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES 159
Exote Oy 159



LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE CRITICAL MATERIALS WITH THE GREATEST IMPACT ON EXISTING
NANOTECHNOLOGY MARKETS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 8
TABLE 1 SUMMARY OF MATERIALS IDENTIFIED AS BEING AT RISK OF SUPPLY
DISRUPTIONS 11
TABLE 2 MAJOR CATEGORIES OF NANOMATERIALS 13
TABLE 3 CRITICAL MATERIALS, THEIR IMPACTS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE
NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY 14
TABLE 4 CONSUMPTION OF CRITICAL MATERIALS IN EXISTING NANOTECHNOLOGY
APPLICATIONS,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 25
TABLE 5 MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS THAT REPLACE OR
REDUCE CONSUMPTION OF CRITICAL MATERIALS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 25
TABLE 6 NANOSCALE ANTIMONY TIN OXIDE PRODUCERS 31
TABLE 7 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOSCALE ANTIMONY USED IN THIN FILM
COATINGS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 33
TABLE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR
ANTIMONY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 34
TABLE 9 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOCOMPOSITE FIRE RETARDANT MATERIALS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 36
TABLE 10 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOPARTICLES USED IN RECHARGEABLE
LITHIUM ION BATTERIES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 39
TABLE 11 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOSTRUCTURED REPLACEMENT FOR ANTIMONY
TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 40
TABLE 12 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED ALTERNATIVES TO
ATO IR-ATTENTUATING COATINGS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 42
TABLE 13 MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITOR PRODUCERS 47
TABLE 14 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF BARIUM TITANATE NANOPARTICLES IN
MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 47
TABLE 15 POTENTIAL MARKET FOR STRONTIUM TITANATE NANOPARTICLES AS A
SUBSTITUTE FOR BARIUM TITANATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS)
49
TABLE 16 MANUFACTURERS OF CIGS THIN FILM PVS 54
TABLE 17 MARKET FOR GALLIUM NANOPARTICLES/PRECURSORS USED IN CIGS PV
FABRICATION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 54
TABLE 18 POTENTIAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED GALLIUM
SUBSTITUTES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 55
TABLE 19 COMPANIES MANUFACTURING OR DEVELOPING DSSC PVS 56
TABLE 20 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES IN
PHOTOVOLTAICS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 56
TABLE 21 GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF OLED LIGHTING MATERIALS FOR BACKLIGHITNG
APPLICATIONS ($ MILLIONS) 59
TABLE 22 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF INDIUM NANOPARTICLES/PRECURSORS USED
IN CIGS PV FABRICATION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 66
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR
INDIUM, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 67
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR
INDIUM USED IN PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 68
TABLE 25 PROJECTED SUBSTITUTION OF GALLIUM NANOPARTICLES/PRECURSORS
FOR INDIUM USED IN CIGS PVS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 68
TABLE 26 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF MAGNESIUM AND MAGNESIUM OXIDE
NANOPARTICLES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 27 POTENTIAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR NONMAGNESIUM-CONTAINING
NANOCOMPOSITES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 28 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NONMAGNESIUM-CONTAINING FIRE
RETARDANT NANOCOMPOSITES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 29 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF REFRACTORY NANOCOMPOSITES, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 76
TABLE 30 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR
NIOBIUM, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 82
TABLE 31 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOSTRUCTURED STEEL, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 83
TABLE 32 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOSTRUCTURED SUPERCONDUCTORS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 84
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MINE PRODUCTION OF PGMS, 2012 (METRIC TONS/ % OF TOTAL
MINE PRODUCTION) 90
TABLE 34 MARKET FOR PGM NANOPARTICLES IN EXISTING APPLICATIONS, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 94
TABLE 35 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOSCALE THIN FILM MATERIALS IN
CATALYTIC CONVERTERS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 96
TABLE 36 GLOBAL SALES OF FUEL CELLS THAT USE PLATINUM NANOCATALYSTS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 37 FUEL CELL CONSUMPTION OF PLATINUM THIN FILM CATALYSTS, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS/%) 98
TABLE 38 RARE EARTH ELEMENTS 103
TABLE 39 RARE EARTH ELEMENT APPLICATIONS 108
TABLE 40 RARE EARTH ELEMENTS CONSIDERED CRITICAL 109
TABLE 41 RARE-EARTH-DOPED METAL OXIDE NANOPHOSPHOR MARKET BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 110
TABLE 42 MARKET OPPORTUNITIES FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES
FOR RARE EARTH APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 110
TABLE 43 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF MAGNETIC NANOCOMPOSITES FOR
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 112
TABLE 44 COMPANIES INVOLVED IN QUANTUM DOT OPTICAL AMPLIFIER RESEARCH
AND DEVELOPMENT 113
TABLE 45 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF QUANTUM DOTS USED IN OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 113
TABLE 46 GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF OLED LIGHTING MATERIALS FOR ARCHITECTURAL
LIGHTING APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 114
TABLE 47 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF NANOSCALE RHENIUM IN JET AND ROCKET
PROPULSION SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 119
TABLE 48 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF NANOMATERIALS USED IN CAPACITIVE
ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 126
TABLE 49 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF CARBON NANOTUBES USED IN
ULTRACAPACITORS, THROUGH 2018 (METRIC TONS/$ MILLIONS) 127
TABLE 50 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF CARBON AEROGELS USED IN
SUPERCAPACITORS, THROUGH 2018 (METRIC TONS/$ MILLIONS) 128
TABLE 51 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOCOMPOSITES IN TUNGSTEN CARBIDE
TOOLS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 138
TABLE 52 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOADDITIVES USED IN TUNGSTEN CARBIDE
SUBSTITUTES, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 139



LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE MARKET IMPACTS VS. OPPORTUNITIES CREATED BY CRITICAL
MATERIALS, 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 8
FIGURE 1 ANTIMONY: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 28
FIGURE 2 WORLD MINE PRODUCTION OF ANTIMONY, 2011 (%) 29
FIGURE 3 BARIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 44
FIGURE 4 WORLD MINE PRODUCTION OF BARITES, 2012 (%) 45
FIGURE 5 GALLIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 51
FIGURE 6 INDIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY ($ MILLIONS) 62
FIGURE 7 WORLD REFINERY PRODUCTION OF INDIUM, 2012 (%) 63
FIGURE 8 MAGNESIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 71
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MAGNESIUM PRODUCTION, 2012 (% OF TOTAL
PRODUCTION/METRIC TONS) 72
FIGURE 10 NIOBIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 78
FIGURE 11 WORLD MINE PRODUCTION OF NIOBIUM, 2012 (% TOTAL
PRODUCTION/METRIC TONS PRODUCED) 79
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NIOBIUM (% TOTAL CONSUMPTION/METRIC
TONS CONSUMED) 80
FIGURE 13 PLATINUM GROUP METALS: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE
NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 86
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL PGM SUPPLY, 2012 (% OF TOTAL SUPPLY/METRIC TONS) 87
FIGURE 15 WORLD MINE PRODUCTION OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS, 2008-2012
(METRIC TONS) 88
FIGURE 16 GROSS DEMAND FOR PGMS BY SECTOR, 2012 (% OF TOTAL DEMAND) 91
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL LIGHT-VEHICLE ASSEMBLIES, 2007-2018 (MILLION UNITS) 92
FIGURE 18 RARE EARTHS: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 102
FIGURE 19 TRENDS IN CHINESE EXPORT QUOTAS FOR RARE EARTH ELEMENTS,
2006-2012 (METRIC TONS) 105
FIGURE 20 INDIVIDUAL REE SHARES OF TOTAL GLOBAL REE PRODUCTION (%) 105
FIGURE 21 RARE EARTH ELEMENT USAGE BY APPLICATION (%) 107
FIGURE 22 RHENIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 116
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL RHENIUM CONSUMPTION BY APPLICATION, 2012 (%) 118
FIGURE 24 TANTALUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 121
FIGURE 25 TANTALUM PRODUCTION BY SOURCE, 2011 (%) 123
FIGURE 26 PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF TANTALUM BY COUNTRY/REGION, 2010 (%) 123
FIGURE 27 WORLDWIDE CONSUMPTION OF TANTALUM, 2000-2011 (METRIC TONS
PER YEAR) 125
FIGURE 28 TELLURIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 130
FIGURE 29 WORLD REFINERY PRODUCTION OF TELLURIUM BY COUNTRY, 2012 (%) 131
FIGURE 30 TELLURIUM APPLICATIONS, 2012 (% OF DEMAND) 132
FIGURE 31 TUNGSTEN CARBIDE: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE
NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 135
FIGURE 32 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF TUNGSTEN CONCENTRATE (% OF TOTAL
PRODUCTION/METRIC TONS) 136

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