Global LNG Market

  • February 2013
  • -
  • Aruvian's R'search
  • -
  • 330 pages

Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been processed to remove either valuable components e.g. helium, or those impurities that could cause difficulty downstream. LNG offers an energy density comparable to petrol and diesel fuels and produces less pollution, but its relatively high cost of production and the need to store it in expensive cryogenic tanks have prevented its widespread use in commercial applications.

According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the U.S. could face a gap in supply of natural gas of about five trillion cubic feet (Tcf) by 2020. Consequently, increased imports of natural gas will be required to meet future shortfalls. Canada may not be able to sustain increasing volumes of exports to the U.S. due to Canada’s own increasing demand for natural gas. The EIA expects LNG imports to reach 0.8 Tcf a year by 2020, or about three percent of our total consumption. The demand for LNG is expected to grow. To make LNG available for use in the U.S., energy companies must invest in the LNG value chain, which is a number of different operations that are highly linked and dependent upon one another. Natural gas can be economically produced and delivered to the U.S. as LNG in a price range of about $2.50 - $3.50 per million Btu (MMBtu) at Henry Hub in Louisiana, depending largely on shipping cost.

The emergence of LNG is not only due to its efficiency and eco-friendliness, but also due to economical reasons. LNG is quite competitive vis-à-vis alternative sources such as naphtha, crude and coal and is also competitive vis-à-vis piped gas if transported over distances exceeding 2000 km.

With projected decreases in conventional onshore and offshore natural gas production and the projected decline in natural gas imports through to 2025, growth in U.S. and global natural gas supplies will depend on non-conventional domestic production, natural gas imports, and imports of LNG.

With the rise in commercial activity of LNG, Aruvian Research brings you a report focusing on the Global LNG Market. The report covers basic topics such as what is LNG to more in depth ones such as the economics of LNG, barriers to the growth of LNG, growth drivers, major players, major LNG terminals, etc.

Table Of Contents

Global LNG Market
Table of Contents

A. Executive Summary

B. Introduction to Liquefied Natural Gas
B.1 What is LNG?
B.2 Historical Background
B.3 Does the U.S. Need LNG?
B.4 Uses of LNG
B.5 Is LNG a Competitive Source of Natural Gas?
B.6 LNG, GTL, and CNG
B.7 Impact of Unconventional Gas

C. Global LNG Market
C.1 Industry Overview
C.2 Global Liquefaction Capacity
C.3 Supply and Demand Scenario
C.4 Qatar and the Moratorium on Production
C.5 Iran's Gas Reserves versus Production
C.6 China's Growing Requirement for LNG
C.7 LNG Boom Expected in Australia
C.8 LNG Trade
C.8.1 LNG Exports
C.8.2 LNG Imports
C.8.3 LNG Spot Market
C.9 LNG Prices
C.10 Emerging LNG Markets
C.11 Pipeline Competition
C.12 Industry Forecast

D. Major Technologies for Liquefaction
D.1 Primary Liquefaction Technologies
D.2 Floating Liquefaction

E. Factors Impacting the Industry
E.1 Industry Trends
E.2 Price Trends
E.3 Trends in LNG Contracts
E.4 Trends in Project Financing
E.5 Gas Quality

F. Lifecycle Analysis
F.1 Introduction
F.2 Exploration and Production
F.3 Liquefaction
F.4 Shipping
F.5 Storage
F.6 Distribution

G. Growth Drivers
G.1 Supply-Demand Scenario of Natural Gas
G.2 Economic Drivers
G.3 Environmental Drivers
G.4 Challenges with Reserves
G.5 Industry Globalization
G.6 Emergence of Offshore East Africa as New LNG Market

H. Issues and Challenges
H.1 Doubts on Australian LNG Stall
H.2 Environmental Pressures
H.3 High Associated Costs
H.4 Problems with Shipping
H.5 Lack of Terminal Capacity
H.6 Safety Concerns
H.7 High BTU Content
H.8 Political Unrest, Piracy and Terrorism
H.9 Issues with Strait of Hormuz

I. LNG Receiving Terminals

J. Market for LNG Carriers
J.1 Overview
J.2 LNG Carrier Vessel Types
J.3 Capacity and Age of LNG Carriers
J.4 LNG Charter Market
J.5 Newbuild Vessel Orders

K. Leading Global Players
K.1 Air Products and Chemicals, Inc
K.1.1 Corporate Profile
K.1.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.1.3 SWOT Analysis
K.2 BG Group Plc
K.2.1 Corporate Profile
K.2.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.2.3 SWOT Analysis
K.3 BP Plc
K.3.1 Corporate Profile
K.3.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.3.3 SWOT Analysis
K.4 Cheniere Energy, Inc
K.4.1 Corporate Profile
K.4.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.4.3 SWOT Analysis
K.5 Chevron Corporation
K.5.1 Corporate Profile
K.5.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.5.3 SWOT Analysis
K.6 ConocoPhillips
K.6.1 Corporate Profile
K.6.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.6.3 SWOT Analysis
K.7 Exxon Mobil Corporation
K.7.1 Corporate Profile
K.7.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.7.3 SWOT Analysis
K.8 Gazprom OAO
K.8.1 Corporate Profile
K.8.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.8.3 SWOT Analysis
K.9 Inpex Corporation
K.9.1 Corporate Profile
K.9.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.9.3 SWOT Analysis
K.10 Petronas
K.10.1 Corporate Profile
K.10.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.10.3 SWOT Analysis
K.11 Repsol YPF SA
K.11.1 Corporate Profile
K.11.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.11.3 SWOT Analysis
K.12 Royal Dutch Shell Plc
K.12.1 Corporate Profile
K.12.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.12.3 SWOT Analysis
K.13 Sonatrach SPA
K.13.1 Corporate Profile
K.13.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.13.3 SWOT Analysis
K.14 Total SA
K.14.1 Corporate Profile
K.14.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.14.3 SWOT Analysis
K.15 Woodside Petroleum Limited
K.15.1 Corporate Profile
K.15.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.15.3 SWOT Analysis
K.16 Qatar Petroleum
K.17 Petroleos de Venezuela SA

L. Appendix
L.1 Propane-Air Storage vs. LNG Storage
L.2 Figures and Tables

M. Glossary of Terms

List of Figures

Figure 1: U.S. LNG Facilities as of June 2011
Figure 2: LNG Transportation Costs
Figure 3: US Natural Gas Production
Figure 4: Percentage of Shale Gas Share in US Gas Production
Figure 5: Forecast for US LNG Imports
Figure 6: US LNG Imports vs. US Regasification Capacity
Figure 7: Net Trade of the US with Canada and Mexico
Figure 8: LNG Imports by Mexico
Figure 9: Prices of Natural Gas in US, Japan, UK and Germany
Figure 10: Gas Prices in Europe - Spot Prices vs. Oil-linked
Figure 11: Global Liquefaction Capacity, 1990-2016
Figure 12: Number of Trains Commissioned versus Average Train Capacity
Figure 13: Global Liquefaction Capacity by Country, 2011
Figure 14: Growth in Global Liquefaction Capacity 2006 to 2011
Figure 15: Status of Expected Liquefaction Capacity as of Q1, 2012
Figure 16: Liquefaction Capacity by Basin (in MTPA) in 2006, 2011 and 2016
Figure 17: LNG Development Pipelines in Australia and Papua New Guinea
Figure 18: LNG Trade Volumes
Figure 19: Spot and Short-term LNG Trade Development Since 2000
Figure 20: Spot and Short-Term LNG Trade and Share of Total LNG Trade since 2000
Figure 21: LNG Exports by Country, 2011
Figure 22: LNG Exports by Country, 2006 and 2011
Figure 23: Share of LNG Exports Worldwide by Country, 1991-2011
Figure 24: LNG Exports by Region, 1991-2011
Figure 25: LNG Imports by Country, 2011
Figure 26: LNG Imports by Country, 2006 and 2011
Figure 27: Global LNG Imports by Country by Share, 1990-2011
Figure 28: Spot LNG Trade (by Volume) and Share of Total of LNG Trade, 2000-2011
Figure 29: Number of Spot Cargoes Traded and Exporters and Importers of Spot LNG
Figure 30: Imports of LNG to Emerging Markets
Figure 31: Utilization Rates of LNG Terminals by Country, 2010 and 2011
Figure 32: Future Capacity Growth by Country
Figure 33: LNG Demand in 2025
Figure 34: Global Liquefaction Capacity by Technology Type, 2011
Figure 35: Global Liquefaction Capacity by Technology Types, 2001-2011
Figure 36: Floating Liquefaction Capacity (Proposed and Under Construction), by Country, as of 2011
Figure 37: Sources of LNG to the US 2012 (%)
Figure 38: Upper Limits of WI Ranges in European LNG Importing Countries and Typical WI of LNG by Source
Figure 39: Single Mixed Refrigerant (SMR) Process
Figure 40: Propane Pre-Cooled Mixed-Refrigerant (PPMR) Process
Figure 41: Cascade Process
Figure 42: Flow of U.S. Natural Gas Imports/Exports
Figure 43: Strait of Hormuz - Primary LNG Transport Route
Figure 44: LNG Receiving Terminals Start Ups, 2001-2016
Figure 45: Capacity of Receiving Terminals Worldwide, 2001-2016
Figure 46: LNG Regasification Capacity by Country, 2011
Figure 47: LNG Receiving Terminal Capacity by Country, 2006 and 2011
Figure 48: LNG Regasification Capacity by Region and Percentage Share of Total
Figure 49: LNG Storage Tank Capacity by Country, Q1, 2012
Figure 50: Yearly Send-out Capacity of LNG Terminals, 2006 and 2011
Figure 51: Share of Yearly Send-out Capacity of LNG Terminals, 2006 and 2011
Figure 52: Capacity of the Global LNG Fleet by Number of Carriers and Percentage of Total, 2011
Figure 53: Global LNG Fleet by Age, 2011
Figure 54: LNG Charter Rates and Conventional Newbuild Orders
Figure 55: Order Book for Newbuild Vessels and LNG Fleet, 2011
Figure 56: World Natural Gas Supply, 2011
Figure 57: Global LNG Pricing by Regions, 2011
Figure 58: Pricing of Natural Gas vs LNG
Figure 59: US LNG Facilities
Figure 60: Typical Natural Gas Composition
Figure 61: Typical LNG Composition
Figure 62: LNG Value Chain
Figure 63: LNG Fleet Containment System
Figure 64: Decline in LNG Costs (Does not include Feedstock Prices)
Figure 65: Japan Nuclear Output vs. Asian Spot LNG Price (JKM) vs. UK Spot Price (NBP)
Figure 66: Japan and UK LNG imports by month vs. Japanese Nuclear Capacity
Figure 67: LNG Markets - 2011 vs. 2010
Figure 68: LNG Supply - 2011 vs. 2010
Figure 69: LNG Capacity Under Construction by Country (Cumulative Volume Additions), 2012-2020
Figure 70: LNG Capacity Under Construction by Region (Cumulative Volume Additions), 2012-2020
Figure 71: LNG Demand Supply Balance 2001 - 2030
Figure 72: LNG Trade and Global Natural Gas Consumption

List of Tables

Table 1: Regional Distribution of LNG Storage
Table 2: Top 10 NGV Countries
Table 3: Economic Comparison of GTL and LNG Projects
Table 4: Comparison of CNG and LNG
Table 5: Global Liquefaction Capacity (in MTPA), 2011
Table 6: Global Liquefaction Capacity by Country, 2011
Table 7: Liquefaction Capacity by Basin (in MTPA) in 2006, 2011 and 2016
Table 8: LNG Exports by Country, 2011
Table 9: LNG Imports in 2011
Table 10: LNG Sources of Import, 2011
Table 11: LNG Quantities (in 106T) Received in 2011 by Importing Countries from Exporting Countries
Table 12: LNG Imports by Country, 2011
Table 13: Interregional LNG Trade, 2011 (in MT)
Table 14: LNG Trade Volumes between Countries (in MT), 2010
Table 15: LNG Trade Volumes between Countries (in MT), 2011
Table 16: Comparative LNG Economics for Greenfield Facilities ($/MCF)
Table 17: Representative LNG Shipping Rates to U.S. ($/MMbtu)
Table 18: Regasification Terminals in 2011
Table 19: Regasification Terminals in Asia and Middle East
Table 20: Regasification Terminals in Europe
Table 21: Laid-up Ships in 2011
Table 22: LNG Trends from Different Receiving Terminals, 2011
Table 23: Recently Commissioned Liquefaction Plants
Table 24: Liquefaction Plants Under Construction
Table 25: Recently Commissioned LNG Receiving Terminals
Table 26: LNG Receiving Terminals Under Construction
Table 27: LNG Composition (Mole Percent)
Table 28: Global LNG Trade Variations

Companies Mentioned

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc
BG Group Plc
BP Plc
Cheniere Energy, Inc
Chevron Corporation
Exxon Mobil Corporation
Gazprom OAO
Inpex Corporation
Repsol YPF SA
Royal Dutch Shell Plc
Sonatrach SPA
Total SA
Woodside Petroleum Limited
Qatar Petroleum
Petroleos de Venezuela SA

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