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Analyzing China’s Biofuel Industry

  • January 2015
  • -
  • Aruvian's R'search
  • -
  • 325 pages

Although biofuels are mainly used to replace or supplement the traditional petroleum-based transportation fuels, they can also be deployed to generate heat and electricity. Being an alternative to fossils, biofuels can be applied to existing vehicles with little or no engine modification. Although they release CO2 when burned in internal combustion engines, they differ from fossil fuels partly because their use reduces the net emission of carbon dioxide and other gases associated with global climate change and partly because they are biodegradable.

Biofuels have had a long history of use in the transport sector. This began in the 1970s and early 1980s when a substantial increase in biofuels production and use in many countries resulted from high oil prices. But biofuels became less competitive vis-à-vis fossil fuels after the collapse of oil prices in the mid-1980s, and global interest in biofuels for transport waned considerably in the 1990s and the first years of the 21st century.

The recent sustained increase in international oil prices has once again highlighted the potential for biofuels to contribute to transport fuel demand, particularly in countries that import the bulk of fossil fuel supplies. Global concerns about the effects of fossil fuel use on the environment, as well as recognition of the benefits of energy supply diversification also support increasing biofuels production and use.

There is a lot happening in the field of biofuels in China, and to capture these, Aruvian's R'search brings you the complete guide to the Chinese Biofuels Industry – Analyzing China’s Biofuels Industry.

The report begins with an analysis of the basic know-hows one needs to be familiar with before starting on the fascinating journey of discovering the biofuels industry in China. The economics of biofuels, issues facing the industry, regulatory barriers as well as incentives, technologies involved, major types of biofuels, and many other topics are discussed in depth at the starting of the report.

Divided into eleven sections, Aruvian’s report then moves on to Section 2, which analyzes the Chinese Energy Industry. From looking at the energy challenges facing the country to the macroeconomic drivers in China, and the rising demand for energy in the transportation sector, the section also takes a look at the various sectors of the energy industry such as oil, natural gas, electricity, coal, amongst others.

Section 3 is focused on the Chinese Biofuels Industry. History of the industry’s development through the years, the biofuel diffusion policy in China, position of the biofuel policy in the Chinese renewable energy plan, the strategic implementation of the biofuel policy, and the dominating role of the Chinese government in the biofuels industry is analyzed in details in the report.

Section 4 is a complete analysis of the biodiesel industry in China. Market overview, statistics, R&D profile, production, and end-use technologies are just some of the points focused on in this section. A comprehensive analysis is carried out on the availability of biomass for biodiesel production and the potential use of these biomass sources in agriculture and forestry. Biomass sources such as Jatropha Curcas, Pistacia chinensis Bunge, Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge, and many others are discussed in this section. Seedcake and Glycerin are analyzed as the by-products. Markets and cost analysis of the by-products of biodiesel are something to watch out for in the report.

The economics, prices and competitiveness of biodiesel in China is touched upon, along with the benefits of biodiesel and the barriers facing the development of biodiesel in China.

The future of biodiesel till 2020 in terms of biodiesel demand and production potential is also included.

Section 5 moves on to analyzing the bioethanol industry in China. Market overview, statistics, end-use technologies, biomass such as sweet sorghum, cassava, sugarcane, etc., are analyzed in the section. By products, economics of bioethanol along with prices and competitiveness is also focused upon. Benefits of bioethanol in China and barriers facing the development of the bioethanol industry in China is also analyzed. A study of the use of cellulose ethanol in China is also explored in-depth.

Section 6 analyzes the potential of biomass to liquids in China. Availability of BTL in the country, potential of BTL, by-products, the economics, prices and competitiveness of BTL is analyzed in the section.

China’s biofuel industry and the national energy policy is researched, along with the policy framework on liquid biofuels. China’s energy scenario and the role of biofuels is another point researched in section 7.

Section 8 and 9 analyzes China’s biodiesel and bioethanol industries in a SWOT Framework Analysis, while section 10 analyzes the leading industry contributors such as Anhui Fengyuan Petrochemical, Biolux, Henan Tianguan Group, etc. The section profiles ten industry players, thus concluding the report.

Grab a copy of this report and get up-to-date on A to Z of the Chinese Biofuels Industry.

Table Of Contents

Analyzing China’s Biofuel Industry
Executive Summary

Section 1: Understanding Biofuels

A. What are Biofuels?
A.1 History of Biofuels
A.2 Major Biofuels
A.3 Uses of Biofuels
A.4 What are Direct Biofuels?
A.5 Looking at Biobutanol
A.6 Looking at Ethanol and Biodiesel
A.6.1 Ethanol
A.6.2 Biodiesel
A.7 Pros and Cons of Biofuels
A.8 Future of Biofuels

B. Economics of Biofuels
B.1 Feedstock Costs
B.2 Processing Costs
B.3 Cost of Sales and Use
B.4 Overall Cost
B.5 Retail Cost and Tax Incentives

C. Impact of Biofuels
C.1 Policy Impact on Biofuels
C.1 Environmental and Economic Impact of Biofuels
C.1 Impact on Engines
C.1 Impact on Rural Development

D. Metamorphosis of the Energy Industry and Biofuels

Section 2: Looking at China's Energy Industry

A. Looking at the Energy Challenges Facing China

B. Looking at Some Facts
B.1 Macroeconomic Drivers in China
B.2 Rising Demand for Energy in the Transportation Sector

C. Introduction to China's Energy Industry
C.1 Overview of the Chinese Energy Industry
C.2 China's Oil Industry
C.2.1 Market Overview
C.2.2 Exploration and Production
C.2.3 Network of Pipelines
C.2.4 Downstream/Refining
C.3 China's Natural Gas Industry
C.3.1 Market Overview
C.3.2 Exploration and Production
C.3.3 Network of Pipelines
C.3.4 Liquefied Natural Gas in China
C.4 China's Coal Industry
C.5 China's Electricity Industry
C.5.1 Market Overview
C.5.2 Conventional Thermal Sources
C.5.3 Hydroelectricity

Section 3: China's Biofuels Industry

A. Historical Background of China's Biofuels Development

B. Analyzing the Biofuel Diffusion Policy
B.1 Position of Biofuel Policy in Renewable Energy Plan
B.2 Looking at the Strategic Implementation of the Biofuel Policy
B.3 Interim Law for Financial Support for the Development of Renewable Energy
B.4 Challenges for the Future
B.4.1 Enhancing the Production Capacity
B.4.2 Concerns with Technology Developments and Costs
B.4.3 Introducing International Cooperation related to Ethanol Fuel B.4.4 Role of CNPC and Sinopec in the Development of Ethanol
B.5 Conclusion

C. Role of Government Domination in the Biofuels Industry
C.1 Overview
C.2 Government Dominating Production and Policy
C.3 Development of Ethanol Preferred over Biodiesel
C.4 Increase in Crude Oil Consumption
C.5 Corn Inputs for Ethanol
C.6 Developing Alternatives for Biofuels
C.7 Biodiesel Production Failing to Meet Demand
C.8 Very Limited Trade of Biofuels

Section 4: Analyzing Biodiesel in China

D. Analyzing Biodiesel in China
D.1 Overview
D.2 Major Actors Involved in the Industry
D.3 RandD in Biodiesel
D.4 Biodiesel Production and End-use Technologies

E. Availability of Biomass and Potential Use in Agriculture and Forestry
E.1 Overview
E.2 Jatropha Curcas L.
E.2.1 Overview of Jatropha Curcas L.
E.2.2 Uses of Jatropha Curcas L. Oil
E.2.3 Regions of Production
E.2.4 Major Actors
E.2.5 Financial Feasibility of Jatropha Curcas L.
E.2.6 Land Availability
E.2.7 Assessing the Overall Production Potential of Jatropha Curcas L.
E.3 Pistacia chinensis Bunge
E.3.1 Overview of Pistacia chinensis Bunge
E.3.2 Uses of Pistacia chinensis Bunge
E.3.3 Regions of Production
E.3.4 Major Actors
E.3.5 Financial Feasibility of Pistacia chinensis Bunge
E.3.6 Land Availability
E.3.7 Assessing the Overall Production Potential of Pistacia chinensis Bunge
E.4 Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge
E.4.1 Overview of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge
E.4.2 Uses of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge
E.4.3 Regions of Production
E.4.4 Land Availability
E.4.5 Assessing the Overall Production Potential of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge
E.5 Cornus wilsoniana
E.5.1 Overview of Cornus wilsoniana
E.5.2 Uses of Cornus wilsoniana
E.5.3 Regions of Production
E.5.4 Land Availability
E.5.5 Assessing the Overall Production Potential of Cornus wilsoniana
E.6 Other Crops
E.6.1 Rape, Brassica napus
E.6.2 Soybean, Glycine max
E.6.3 Peanut, Arachis hypogaea
E.6.4 Sunflower, Helianthus annuus
E.6.5 Chinese Dwarf Cherry Seed, Cerasus humilis
E.6.6 Willow, Salix viminalis
E.6.7 Castor-oil plant, Ricinus communis L.
E.6.8 Tung tree, Aleuorites
E.6.9 Rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis
E.6.10 Oil Palm, Elaeis guineensis
E.6.11 Happy Tree, Euphorbia timcalli
E.6.12 Sepetir, Sindora maritima Pierre
E.6.13 Algae
E.7 Analysis of Other Feedstock
E.7.1 Agricultural Residues from the Cotton Industry
E.7.2 Waste Grease and Low-Grade Oils

F. Analyzing the By-Products
F.1 Seedcake
F.1.1 Overview
F.1.2 Major Actors Involved
F.1.3 Markets and Cost Analysis
F.2 Glycerin
F.2.1 Overview
F.2.2 Major Actors Involved
F.2.3 Markets and Cost Analysis

G. Analyzing the Economics, Prices and Competitiveness of Biodiesel in China

H. Analyzing the Benefits of Biodiesel in China
H.1 Energy Benefits
H.2 Environmental Benefits
H.3 Social and Economic Benefits

I. Barriers to the Development of Biodiesel in China
I.1 Restrictions on the Availability of Raw Materials
I.2 Issues with Transportation and Collection of Feedstock
I.2.1 Problems with Processing Technology
I.2.2 Marketing of Biodiesel
I.2.3 Lack of Overview for Grease Trap Waste Management

J. Case Study: Usage of Plant Oil

K. Future Perspective
K.1 Biodiesel Demand Scenario: 2020
K.2 Production Potential of Biodiesel: 2020

Section 5: Analyzing Bioethanol in China

A. Analyzing Bioethanol in China
A.1 Overview
A.2 Major Forces in the Industry
A.3 Bioethanol Production and End-use Technologies

B. Availability of Biomass and Potential Use in Agriculture and Forestry
B.1 Overview
B.2 Sweet Sorghum
B.2.1 Overview of Sweet Sorghum
B.2.2 Uses of Sweet Sorghum
B.2.3 Regions of Production
B.2.4 Major Actors Involved
B.2.5 Financial Feasibility of Sweet Sorghum
B.2.6 Benefits of Sweet Sorghum
B.2.7 Land Availability
B.2.8 Challenges in the Production of Sweet Sorghum and Uses in Bioethanol Processing
B.2.9 Assessing the Overall Production Potential of Sweet Sorghum
B.3 Cassava
B.3.1 Overview of Cassava
B.3.2 Uses of Cassava
B.3.3 Regions of Production
B.3.4 Major Actors Involved
B.3.5 Financial Feasibility of Cassava
B.3.6 Benefits of Cassava
B.3.7 Land Availability
B.3.8 Challenges in the Production of Cassava and Uses in Bioethanol Processing
B.3.9 Assessing the Overall Production Potential of Cassava
B.4 Sugarcane
B.4.1 Overview of Sugarcane
B.4.2 Uses of Sugarcane
B.4.3 Regions of Production
B.4.4 Major Actors Involved
B.4.5 Financial Feasibility of Sugarcane
B.4.6 Benefits of Sugarcane
B.4.7 Land Availability
B.4.8 Challenges in the Production of Sugarcane and Uses in Bioethanol Processing
B.4.9 Assessing the Overall Production Potential of Sugarcane
B.5 Other Agricultural Crops
B.5.1 Corn
B.5.2 Sweet Potato
B.5.3 Agricultural Waste

F. Analyzing the By-Products
F.1 Overview of the By-Products
F.2 Major Actors Involved
F.3 Markets and Cost Analysis

G. Analyzing the Economics, Prices and Competitiveness of Bioethanol in China

H. Analyzing the Benefits of Bioethanol in China
H.1 Energy Benefits
H.2 Environmental and Health Benefits
H.3 Social and Economic Benefits

I. Barriers to the Development of Biodiesel in China
I.1 Restrictions on the Availability of Raw Materials and Planting Technology
I.2 Issues Related to Availability of Manpower and Land
I.3 Problems with Processing Technology
I.4 Issues with Infrastructure
I.5 Marketing of Bioethanol
I.6 Cost Related Challenges and Competence of Bioethanol

J. Case Study: Usage of Bioethanol as a Fuel for Transport or as Stationary Fuel

K. Factors Driving the Development of Fuel Ethanol Production

L. Analyzing Cellulose Ethanol in China
L.1 The Appeal of Cellulose Ethanol
L.2 Cellulosic Resources for Ethanol in China
L.3 Case Study: Henan Province
L.4 Looking at the Economics of Cellulose Ethanol
L.5 Conclusion

M. Future Perspective
M.1 Bioethanol Demand Scenario: 2020
M.2 Production Potential of Bioethanol: 2020

Section 6: Analyzing the Potential of Biomass to Liquids (BTL) in China

A. What is BTL?

B. Major Actors Involved in the Process

C. Availability and Potential of Biomass

D. By-Products of BTL

E. Analyzing the Economics, Prices and Competitiveness of BTL

F. Viewpoint of BTL

Section 7: The Chinese Biofuel Industry in Perspective of…

A. Chinese Biofuel Industry and the National Energy Policy

B. Policy Framework on Liquid Biofuels

C. Sustainability Targets for Biofuels
C.1 Overview
C.2 Looking at Food Security
C.3 Looking at Energy Supply

D. China's Energy Scenario and Role of Biofuels

E. Impact of Liquid Biofuel on the Environment

F. Macroeconomic Impact and Biofuels

G. International Liquid Biofuel Trade

H. Impact of Biofuels on China's International trade

Section 8: SWOT Framework Analysis of Chinese Biodiesel Industry

A. Strengths to Build Upon

B. Weaknesses to Overcome

C. Opportunities to Exploit

D. Threats to Overcome

Section 9: SWOT Framework Analysis of Chinese Bioethanol Industry

A. Strengths to Build Upon

B. Weaknesses to Overcome

C. Opportunities to Exploit

D. Threats to Overcome

Section 10: Analyzing the Leading Industry Contributors

A. Anhui Fengyuan Petrochemical Ltd
B. Biolux
C. D1Energy Plc
D. Daimler Chrysler
E. Handan Gushan Olea Chemical Ltd
F. Henan Tianguan Group
G. Jilin Fuel Alcohol Company Ltd
H. Sichuan Gushan Oil and Fat Chemical Ltd
I. Wuxi Huahong Biofuel CO. Ltd
J. Zhenghe Bio-Energy Ltd

Section 11: Conclusion

A. Appendix

B. Glossary of Terms

List of Figures

Figure 1: Background Prices of Gasoline and Diesel
Figure 2: Oil Situation in China
Figure 3: Oil Production and Consumption in China, 1993-2015
Figure 4: Crude Oil Imports by Source, China, (%), 2013
Figure 5: Natural Gas Consumption and Production in China (in Trillion Cubic Feet), 2000-2012
Figure 6: Natural Gas Pipelines in China
Figure 7: Major Oil and Gas Pipelines in China
Figure 8: LNG Import Sources of China (%), 2012
Figure 9: Coal Consumption and Production in China (in billion short tons), 2000-2012
Figure 10: Installed Electricity Capacity by Fuel Type in China (%), 2012
Figure 11: Installed Electricity Capacity by Fuel Type in China (%), 2040
Figure 12: Introduction and Production of E10 Ethanol-mixed Gasoline in China
Figure 13: Ethanol Production Cost by Material
Figure 14: Configuration for Producing Ethanol from Grain Process
Figure 15: Flowchart for By-Products from Sorghum bicolor (L.) Cultivation for Bioethanol
Figure 16: Energy Balance of Bioethanol Production from Different Feedstock
Figure 17: Comparative Raw Exhaust Emission
Figure 18: Lifecycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Related to Different Types of Ethanol Feedstock
Figure 19: Authorized Fuel-Ethanol Plants in China
Figure 20: Compatibility of Existing Vehicles with Bioethanol-Gasoline Blend
Figure 21: Comparison of Yields of Different Biofuel
Figure 22: The World's Largest Producers of Ethanol (%), 2013
Figure 23: Biofuels: A Subset of Renewable Energy
Figure 24: Global Ethanol Production (%), 2013
Figure 25: Chinese Government-Designated Fuel Ethanol Production Plants
Figure 26: Regional Biofuels Drivers
Figure 27: Biofuels Immediate Value Chain
Figure 28: Relative Global Production Economics for Ethanol
Figure 29: Map of China's Provinces

List of Tables

Table 1: Biofuel Cost in 2012 in US$ per Liter
Table 2: EU Taxation Policy for Ethanol
Table 3: Estimates and Projections of Liquid Fuel Needs for China in 2030
Table 4: Oil Consumption in China (in Million Barrels), 2008-2013
Table 5: Refinery Projects in China
Table 6: Major LNG Import Terminals in China - Proposed and Current
Table 7: China's Medium to Long-Term Renewable Energy Development Plan
Table 8: Institutions Involved in RandD Related to Biodiesel
Table 9: Technologies for Biodiesel Production
Table 10: Comparing Fossil Diesel Oil to Jatropha curcas L Oil
Table 11: Distribution of Jatropha curcas L
Table 12: Distribution of Pistachia chinensis Bunge
Table 13: Distribution of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge
Table 14: Distribution of Cornus wilsoniana
Table 15: Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok Seed's Fuel Properties
Table 16: Cost Comparison of Biodiesel Made from Different Raw Material
Table 17: Stationary Use of Fuels for Power Generation, Cooking and Heating
Table 18: Growth Scenario in Demand of Diesel as Transportation Fuel Through 2020
Table 19: Land Resources for Raw Material Plantation for Biodiesel Production
Table 20: Minimum Potential for Biodiesel from Main Oil Plants in 2020
Table 21: Total Potential for Biodiesel in 2020
Table 22: Institutions Involved in RandD Related to bioethanol
Table 23: China's Main Feedstock for Bioethanol Production
Table 24: Distribution of Sorghum bicolor
Table 25: Financial Feasibility Analysis for Sweet Sorghum
Table 26: Distribution of Cassava
Table 27: Cost-Benefit Analysis for Cassava Production
Table 28: Distribution of Sugarcane
Table 29: Economic Comparison between Crop and Crop Destination
Table 30: By-Products from Bioethanol Production
Table 31: Processing Costs of 100% Bioethanol Per Ton, Without Feedstock Purchase
Table 32: Cost Comparison of 95% Alc. Vol. Ethanol made from Different Raw Materials
Table 33: Cost Comparison for Stationary Use of Bioethanol for Power Generation, Cooking and Heating
Table 34: Estimated Annual Potential Production of Biomass for Energy in China by 2030, EJ/y
Table 35: Comparison of Conversion Yields of Corn Stover in China and US
Table 36: Major Differences between NREL and Mature Models
Table 37: Comparison of Process Economics in China and US
Table 38: Growth Scenarios in Demand of Gasoline as Transportation Fuel through 2020
Table 39: Land Resources of Energy Crops for Bioethanol Production (2020)
Table 40: Institutions Involved in BTL Research
Table 41: Summarized Facts on BTL
Table 42: Policies on the Development of Renewable Energies
Table 43: Major Policies on the First Level
Table 44: Major Policies on the Second Level
Table 45: Major Policies on the Third Level
Table 46: Characteristics of Environmental Policies and Regulations
Table 47: Energy and the Millennium Development Goals
Table 48: China's Oil Consumption Development and Forecast
Table 49: Energy Balance from a Case Study in Guangxi: Production of Sugarcane Biomass
Table 50: Energy Balance of Conversion
Table 51: Relative Contribution of Different Crops to Environmental Impacts on Soil and Water
Table 52: Forecasts for World Ethanol Market 2013
Table 53: Summary on Biodiesel Use in China - Present-day and 2020
Table 54: Summary on Bioethanol Use in China - Present-day and 2020

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