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  4. > Analyzing the Technology of Hybrid Power Systems Utilizing Renewable Energies

Hybrid power systems are combinations of two or more energy conversion devices, or two or more fuels for the same device, that when integrated, overcome limitations that may be inherent in either.

The most common examples of hybrid power systems include:

• Wind generation combined with diesel generation
• Photovoltaic generation combined with battery storage or diesel generation
• Fuel cell generation combined with microturbine generation.

The system efficiencies of hybrid power systems are generally greater than that of the individual technologies used separately, and higher reliability can be accomplished with redundant technologies and/or energy storage.

Aruvian's R'search presents its research report on hybrid power systems which utilize renewable energy such as wind energy or solar photovoltaics. Analyzing the Technology of Hybrid Power Systems Utilizing Renewable Energies covers the various types of hybrid power systems using renewable energy, such as wind-diesel hybrid power systems, fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid systems, and of course, the more common solar PV hybrid power systems.

The report covers the basics of a hybrid power system, such as what the technology involves, understanding the workings of a hybrid power station, energy storage options in such types of systems, and much more.

The report covers the leading manufacturers of hybrid power systems using renewable energy such as 1stPower, Advanced Energy Systems Inc, BluWav Systems LLC, Direct Power and Water Corporation, Eaton Corporation, among others, and also researches various case studies that have successfully incorporated such hybrid power systems along with renewable energy.

Table Of Contents

Analyzing the Technology of Hybrid Power Systems Utilizing Renewable Energies
A. Executive Summary

B. Introduction to Hybrid Power Systems
B.1 What are Hybrid Power Systems?
B.2 Penetration Levels
B.3 Hybrid System Architectures
B.4 Dispatchable Power Options
B.5 Energy Storage Options
B.6 Benefits of Hybrid Power Systems
B.6.1 Efficient Use of Energy Resources
B.6.2 Favorable Siting of Generation
B.6.3 Lowering of Pollution
B.6.4 High Quality of Power
B.6.5 Flexibility of Fuel
B.6.6 Other Benefits
B.7 Cost, Performance and Associated Risk

C. Introduction to Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power Systems
C.1 Historical Overview
C.2 Overview of Wind-Diesel Power Systems
C.3 Technology behind Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power Systems
C.4 Wind Power System Modeling
C.5 Brief Look at Wind-Hydrogen Hybrid Power Systems

D. Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems
D.1 Introduction
D.2 Hybrid Systems
D.3 Technical Options
D.4 MTG-SOFC: Distributed Power Generation
D.5 MTG-SOFC: Central Power Generation
D.6 Summing Up

E. Hybrid Power Plants in Geothermal Uses

F. Solar PV Hybrid Systems
F.1 Introduction
F.2 Popularity of Solar PV Systems
F.3 Integrating the Energy Systems
F.4 Following the Load Pattern
F.5 Calculating the Power and Energy
F.6 Ideal Configuration
F.6.1 Configuration A
F.6.2 Configuration B
F.6.3 Configuration C
F.7 Conclusion

G. Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

H. Case Study: Using Hybrid Mini-Grids for Electrification
H.1 Introduction
H.2 What is a Hybrid Mini Grid?
H.3 Why Use a Hybrid Mini Grid?
H.4 Difference between Hybrid Power Systems and Other Power Systems
H.5 Design of Hybrid Mini Grids
H.6 Mini Grid Configuration
H.7 Cost Comparison
H.8 Role of Natural Conditions
H.9 Impact of Diesel Fuel Price
H.10 Different Models for Mini Grids in Rural Areas
H.11 Impacts on Using Hybrid Mini Grids
H.11.1 OandM Issues
H.11.2 Access to Financing
H.11.3 Tariffs and Subsidies
H.12 Hybrid Technologies and System Design Issues
H.12.1 Batteries
H.12.2 Diesel Generators
H.12.3 Micro-hydro Turbines
H.12.4 Small Wind
H.12.5 Solar Photovoltaic (PV)
H.13 Conclusion

I. Case Study: Analysis of a Hydro-PV-Diesel Hybrid System in Greece
I.1 Introduction
I.2 Overview of the Installation
I.3 Understanding the Energy Balance of the System
I.4 Conclusion

J. Case Study: Wind-PV-Diesel Hybrid Power Systems in Fiji and Hawaii
J.1 Introduction
J.2 Nabouwalu (Fiji) Wind-PV Hybrid System
J.3 Kahua Ranch (Hawaii) Hybrid System
J.4 Cost of Electricity Production

K. Case Study: Wind-Hybrid Power System for New England Islands
K.1 Introduction
K.2 Cataloging and Classification of Islands
K.3 Offshore Renewable Energy Resources
K.3.1 Wind Energy
K.3.2 Solar Energy
K.4 Understanding the Options for Power Systems
K.4.1 Present-day Energy Status
K.4.2 Power System Choices
K.4.2.1 Grid Connected Turbines
K.5 Modeling Potential Power Systems
K.6 Case Studies
K.6.1 Fox Islands
K.6.2 Monhegan Island
K.7 Conclusion

L. Case Study: Cape Lookout PV Hybrid Power System
L.1 Introduction
L.2 Site Characteristics
L.3 Analysis of the PV Hybrid Power System
L.3.1 System Operation
L.3.2 PV Array
L.3.3 PV Modules
L.3.4 Inverters
L.3.5 Propane Generator
L.3.6 Battery Bank of Lead Acid Batteries
L.3.7 Electrical Metering System
L.4 Overall Reduction in Consumption of Liquefied Propane Fuel

M. Case Study: Mt Morgan Solar Hybrid Power System
M.1 Introduction
M.2 Technology Used
M.3 Energy Purchase and Supply
M.4 Impact on the Environment
M.5 Conclusion

N. Case Study: PV Diesel Hybrid System in Malaysia
N.1 Introduction
N.2 Makeup of the Hybrid System
N.3 Operational Concepts
N.4 Performance of the System at Langkawi
N.5 Conclusion

O. Case Study: Hybrid Wind-Solar Power Plant in Texas
O.1 Introduction
O.2 System Design
O.3 Issues Facing the Concept
O.4 Basic Components for a Wind-Solar Hybrid Power System
O.5 Energy Storage
O.6 Conclusion

P. Other Hybrid Power Case Studies
P.1 Termosolar Borges Hybrid Power Plant (Hybrid Biomass-Solar CSP)
P.2 Enel Green Power Stillwater Hybrid Power Plant
P.3 Apple Maiden iCloud Data Center Hybrid c-Si Solar PV-Biogas Fuel Cell Generation
P.4 Zhangbei National Wind and PV Energy Storage and Transmission Project
P.5 Pacific Wind-Catalina Solar Project
P.6 Grand Ridge Energy Center
P.7 Gorona del Viento El Hierro Project
P.8 Bonaire Island Water en Energie Bedrijf Bonaire Biodiesel Wind Power Plant Project
P.9 FPL Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center
P.10 Kogan Creek Solar Boost Project

Q. Leading Industry Contributors
Q.1 1stPower
Q.2 Abantia Group
Q.3 Advanced Energy Systems Inc.
Q.4 Areva SA
Q.5 BluWav Systems, LLC
Q.6 CS Energy
Q.7 Direct Power and Water Corporation
Q.8 Eaton Corporation
Q.9 EDF Renewable Energy (formerly enXco, Inc.)
Q.10 Eneco Holding NV
Q.11 Enel Green Power SpA
Q.13 Enerex LLC
Q.14 General Electric Company
Q.15 Invenergy LLC
Q.16 ISE Corporation
Q.17 Kyocera Solar
Q.18 NEST Energy Systems
Q.19 Northern Power Systems
Q.20 Onsite Power Systems
Q.21 PitchWind Systems AB
Q.22 Polar Power Inc.
Q.23 Rocky Mountain Technologies
Q.24 Saft Groupe SA
Q.25 Solar Electrics
Q.26 State Grid Corporation of China
Q.27 Windward Energy Company

R. Appendix

S. Glossary of Terms

List of Figures

Figure 1: Power Generation Efficiency- DFC/T® System uses Less Fuel per Unit of Electricity than Other Power Generators
Figure 2: CO2 Emissions by Technology
Figure 3: DFC/T® Has Low NOx Emissions as Compared to Other Technologies
Figure 4: Hybrid Power System
Figure 5: Power Coefficient vs. Tip Speed Ratio
Figure 6: Basics for Wind Hydrogen System for an Off-Grid Community
Figure 7: Fuel Cell
Figure 8: MTG-SOFC Hybrid Configuration
Figure 9: MCFC Configuration
Figure 10: MTG-SOFC 220 kW Demonstration at the NFCRC
Figure 11: GTE-SOFC 300MW Central Generation Cycle
Figure 12: Biogas Power Plant (Schmack Biogas)
Figure 13: Geothermal Power Plant Detail
Figure 14: Geothermal Power Plant Husavik, Iceland
Figure 15: Representation of Integration of Solar PV with DG Set
Figure 16: Integrated Energy System
Figure 17: Load Pattern of a Typical Day
Figure 18: Variation of Average Daily Load
Figure 19: Power Supplied by SPV, DG Set and Battery Bank for Configuration A
Figure 20: Energy Generation and Share of SPV for Configuration A
Figure 21: Power Supplied by SPV, DG Set and Battery Bank for Configuration B
Figure 22: Energy Generation and Share of SPV for Configuration B
Figure 23: Power Supplied by SPV, DG Set and Battery Bank for Configuration C
Figure 24: Energy Generation and Share of SPV for Configuration C
Figure 25: Electricity Generation Coupled at DC Bus Bars
Figure 26: Electricity Generation Coupled at AC Bus Bars
Figure 27: Electricity Generation Coupled at AC/DC Bus Bars
Figure 28: Total Cost of the System during the Lifetime of the Project
Figure 29: Optimal System Type at Different Natural Conditions with Fixed Oil Price (USD0.70/L)
Figure 30: Optimal System Type at Different Natural Conditions with Fixed Oil Price (USD1.30/L)
Figure 31: Costs Comparison at Different Oil Prices
Figure 32: Management Mechanism of Ownership in China at Village Level (%)
Figure 33: Risk and Return Evaluation of Projects
Figure 34: Monastery of Simonos Petras
Figure 35: Daily Energy Demand of the Remote Consumer
Figure 36: Small Hydro Turbine of the Monastery
Figure 37: Photovoltaic Installation of the Monastery
Figure 38: Existing Hybrid Installation for the Simonos Petras Monastery
Figure 39: Analytical Energy Management Plan of the Remote Hybrid Installation
Figure 40: Energy Production Analysis on Monthly Basis
Figure 41: Energy Production Analysis on an Annual Basis
Figure 42: RES-based Electricity Production Analysis on Monthly Basis
Figure 43: PV Electricity Generation Evaluation on a Monthly Basis
Figure 44: New England Islands Acreage Distribution
Figure 45: Cuttyhunk Island Yearly Electrical Load
Figure 46: Population Distribution of Energy Demanding Islands
Figure 47: NOAA C-MAN and Buoys in Northeast
Figure 48: Map of Fox Islands in Penobscot Bay, Maine
Figure 49: Fox Islands Electric Load
Figure 50: Mount Desert Rock Hourly Average Wind Speeds
Figure 51: Annual Electric Load and Wind Energy Production vs. Number of Wind Turbines
Figure 52: Net Annual Energy Flow from the Grid vs. Number of Turbines
Figure 53: Net Cost of Energy vs Electricity Cost from Mainland and Choice of WTG
Figure 54: Map of Monhegan Island, Maine
Figure 55: Yearly Electric Load on Monhegan Island
Figure 56: Matinicus Rock Hourly Average Wind Speed
Figure 57: Levelized Cost of Energy as a Function of Heating Load
Figure 58: PV Array on Power Building
Figure 59: Hybrid System Operation during Daytime
Figure 60: Hybrid System Operation during Nighttime
Figure 61: Hybrid System Operation during Shortfall
Figure 62: Langkawi Cable Car Solar Hybrid System - Middle and Top Station
Figure 63: System Performance at Langkawi
Figure 64: Hybrid Wind-Solar Dispatchable Power System
Figure 65: Load Duration Curve with Baseload and Wind Capacities
Figure 66: Profile of Typical Wind Plant Output and ERCOT Load
Figure 67: ERCOT Peak Day Load and Solar Generation Profile
Figure 68: Les Borges Blanques Power Plant
Figure 69: Enel Green Power Stillwater Hybrid Power Plant
Figure 70: Image from Apple Maiden iCloud Data Center
Figure 71: Zhangbei National Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project
Figure 72: Pacific Wind-Catalina Solar Project
Figure 73: Grand Ridge Energy Center
Figure 74: Schematic of the Gorona del Viento El Hierro Project
Figure 75: Bonaire Island WEB Biodiesel Wind Power Plant Project
Figure 76: FPL Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center
Figure 77: Kogan Creek Solar Boost Project
Figure 78: Examples of Hybrid Power Systems Used in Communications
Figure 79: Wind/PV Home Systems in Inner Mongolia
Figure 80: Energy Flow for all Renewable Hybrid
Figure 81: Micro Grid System Architecture
Figure 82: Energy Flow for Small Hybrid
Figure 83: Parallel System - Smaller Diesel
Figure 84: Switched System - Larger Diesel

List of Tables

Table 1: Characteristics of Wind/Solar Energy Components versus Diesel Components
Table 2: GTE-HTFC Application Regimes
Table 3: Immediate Requirements for Hybrid Systems
Table 4: Load Data of a Typical Site
Table 5: Variation of Rating and Energy Supplied by Energy Sources
Table 6: Electricity Access by the End of 2010
Table 7: Costs of Grid Extension in Selected Countries (in USD per kilometer)
Table 8: Component Costs
Table 9: Cost of Electricity Production with Diesel Generator in Hawaii
Table 10: Hybrid COE with Wind/Solar Energy in Hawaii
Table 11: COE with Diesel Generator and Renewable Energy Resources as Function of Loan Terms and Diesel Price
Table 12: Average Wind Speeds at NOAA C-Man Stations and Buoys
Table 13: Rated Power and Cost Assumptions of Three Mid-sized Wind Turbines
Table 14: Economic and Performance Parameters for Different Wind/Diesel Systems
Table 15: Performance and Economic Parameters for Hybrid Systems
Table 16: Station Capacity at Langkawi

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