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Analyzing the Biofuel Industry in Australia

  • January 2015
  • -
  • Aruvian's R'search
  • -
  • 260 pages

Although biofuels are mainly used to replace or supplement the traditional petroleum-based transportation fuels, they can also be deployed to generate heat and electricity. Being an alternative to fossils, biofuels can be applied to existing vehicles with little or no engine modification. Although they release CO2 when burned in internal combustion engines, they differ from fossil fuels partly because their use reduces the net emission of carbon dioxide and other gases associated with global climate change and partly because they are biodegradable.

The recent sustained increase in international oil prices has once again highlighted the potential for biofuels to contribute to transport fuel demand, particularly in countries that import the bulk of fossil fuel supplies. Global concerns about the effects of fossil fuel use on the environment, as well as recognition of the benefits of energy supply diversification also support increasing biofuels production and use.

There are currently three commercial producers of fuel ethanol in Australia, all on the East Coast. CSR's Sarina distillery and the Rocky Point distillery are located in Queensland and produce ethanol from molasses feedstock. The Manildra Group also produces fuel ethanol from waste starch and grain at a facility near Nowra, New South Wales. The combined capacity of these three producers has been estimated at less than 150 million liters per annum. A number of other prospective producers have projects at various stages of development.

Australian biofuels companies are benefiting from the increasing demand for alternative fuels as a source of energy for transportation and electrical generation. No doubt you already know that demand is being driven by a combination of factors such as climate change, high oil prices, market and government incentives or subsidies and increasing oil imports.

Federal Government support for fuel ethanol includes a voluntary industry biofuels target (encompassing ethanol, biodiesel, and other biofuels) of 350 million liters per annum by 2010, capital grants to current and prospective producers, fuel excise relief, and an effective tariff on imported ethanol until July 1, 2011.

There is a lot happening in the field of biofuels in Australia, and to capture these, Aruvian's R'search brings you the complete guide to the Australian Biofuels Industry – Analyzing the Biofuel Industry in Australia.

The report begins with an analysis of the basic know-hows one needs to be familiar with before starting on the fascinating journey of discovering the biofuels industry in Australia. The economics of biofuels, issues facing the industry, regulatory barriers as well as incentives, technologies involved, major types of biofuels, and many other topics are discussed in depth at the starting of the report.

Divided into four sections, Aruvian’s report then moves on to Section 2, which analyzes the Australian Energy Industry. From looking at the energy challenges facing the country to the rising demand for energy in the country, and the renewable energy certificates act in the country, the section also takes a look at the various sectors of the energy industry such as oil, natural gas, electricity, coal, amongst others.

Section 3 is focused on the Australian Biofuels Industry. History of the industry’s development through the years, the biofuel policy in Australia, position of the biofuel policy in the Australian renewable energy plan, the strategic implementation of the biofuel policy, and much more is discussed in the report.

Section 3 is also a complete analysis of the biodiesel and ethanol industry in Australia. Market overview, statistics, R&D profile, production, and end-use technologies are just some of the points focused on in the section. A comprehensive analysis is carried out on the availability of biomass for biodiesel and ethanol production and the potential use of these biomass sources in agriculture and forestry. Markets and cost analysis of the by-products of biodiesel and ethanol are something to watch out for in the report.

The economics, prices and competitiveness of biodiesel and ethanol in Australia is also touched upon, along with the benefits of biodiesel and ethanol and the barriers facing the development of biofuels in Australia.

The future of biodiesel and ethanol in terms of demand and production potential is also included.

Section 3 also profiles the leading industry players, thus concluding the report.

Grab a copy of this report and get up-to-date on A to Z of the Australian Biofuels Industry.

Table Of Contents

Analyzing the Biofuel Industry in Australia
Executive Summary

Section 1: Understanding Biofuels

A. What are Biofuels?
A.1 History of Biofuels
A.2 Major Biofuels
A.3 Uses of Biofuels
A.4 What are Direct Biofuels?
A.5 Looking at Biobutanol
A.6 Looking at Ethanol and Biodiesel
A.6.1 Ethanol
A.6.2 Biodiesel
A.7 Pros and Cons of Biofuels
A.8 Future of Biofuels

B. Economics of Biofuels
B.1 Feedstock Costs
B.2 Processing Costs
B.3 Cost of Sales and Use
B.4 Overall Cost
B.5 Retail Cost and Tax Incentives

C. Impact of Biofuels
C.1 Policy Impact on Biofuels
C.1 Environmental and Economic Impact of Biofuels
C.1 Impact on Engines
C.1 Impact on Rural Development

D. Metamorphosis of the Energy Industry and Biofuels

Section 2: Looking at Australia's Energy Industry

A. Overview of Australia's Energy Industry
A.1 Introduction and Overview
A.2 Energy Production and Trade
A.3 Energy Use in Australia
A.4 Renewable Energy Uptake
A.5 Role of Nuclear Energy in Australia

B. Role of the Energy Industry in Improving Australia's Productivity

C. Analyzing the Oil Market in Australia
C.1 Market Profile
C.2 Market Structure
C.3 Oil Exploration and Production
C.4 Pipeline Network
C.5 Oil Refining Industry

D. Analyzing the Natural Gas Market in Australia
D.1 Market Profile
D.2 Market Structure
D.3 Natural Gas Exploration and Production
D.4 LNG Developments
D.5 Pipeline Network

E. Analyzing the Coal Market in Australia
E.1 Market Profile
E.2 Market Structure
E.3 Coal Production Statistics
E.4 Coal Export Statistics

F. Analyzing Australia's Electricity Market
F.1 Market Profile
F.2 Market Structure
F.3 Producing Electricity from Renewable Energy

G. Analyzing Australia's Renewable Energy Certificate System
G.1 Overview and Historical Background
G.2 Primary Objective of the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target (MRET)
G.3 Understanding the Legal Framework
G.4 Role of Renewable Energy Certificates
G.5 Investment in the Act
G.6 Market Trading
G.7 Conclusion

Section 3: Analyzing Australia's Biofuel Industry

A. Industry Overview
A.1 Industry Profile
A.2 Comparing International Oil Prices and Australian Fuel Prices
A.3 Analyzing the Threshold Prices for Biofuels
A.4 Production Scenario
A.5 Biofuel Production Costs
A.5.1 Operating and Fixed Costs
A.5.2 Cost of Feedstock
A.6 Tax Laws
A.7 Government Support
A.8 Marketing of Biofuels
A.9 Current and Planned Capacity of Biofuels in Australia
A.9.1 Overview
A.9.2 Ethanol
A.9.3 Biodiesel
A.10 Major Issues Facing the Industry
A.11 How are Biofuels Produced in Australia
A.12 Future of Biofuels in Australia
A.12.1 Overview
A.12.2 First Generation Biofuel Production
A.12.3 Second Generation Biofuel Production

B. Comparison of Global and Australian Production Levels of Biofuels

C. Comparison of First and Second Generation Biofuels

D. Analyzing the Ethanol and Biodiesel Industry in Australia
D.1 Ethanol
D.1.1 Production Capacity
D.1.2 Blending and Distribution
D.2 Biodiesel
D.2.1 Production Capacity
D.2.2 Blending and Distribution

E. Analyzing Production Costs and Revenues from Ethanol By-Products
E.1 Overview
E.2 Summary of Costs
E.3 Feedstock Costs
E.3.1 Grain Feedstock
E.3.2 Molasses Feedstock
E.4 Capital Costs
E.5 By-Product Revenues
E.6 Other Costs

F. Analyzing Production Costs and Revenues from Biodiesel By-Products
F.1 Overview
F.2 Factory Return
F.3 By-Product Revenues
F.4 Capital Costs
F.5 Other Costs

G. Factors Driving Growth of the Australian Biofuel Industry
G.1 Climate Change and GHG Emissions
G.2 Effect of Biofuels on Land and Water Supply
G.3 Securing the Fuel Future of Australia
G.4 Health Benefits of Biofuels
G.5 Opportunities in Agriculture and for Rural Regions

H. Analyzing the Available Feedstocks for Biofuels
H.1 Overview
H.2 Present Production Base for Feedstock
H.3 Using Non-Utilized Land for Crops

I. Analyzing the Regulatory Framework
I.1 Subsidies to Fossil Fuel Use
I.2 Biofuel Policies and their Impact on the Industry
I.3 Comparing Australian Policies to Global Regulations
I.4 A Look at National-level Policies
I.4.1 Queensland
I.4.2 New South Wales
I.4.3 Australian Capital Territory
I.4.4 Victoria
I.4.5 South Australia
I.4.6 Northern Territory
I.4.7 Western Australia
I.4.8 Tasmania
I.5 Policies Supporting the Production and Use of Biofuels
I.6 Import Regimes for Biofuels
I.7 A Look at the History of Regulatory Support for Biofuels
I.7.1 Historical Background
I.7.2 Fuel Taxation Inquiry of 2001-2002
I.7.3 Biofuels Capital Grants Programs
I.7.4 Biofuels Taskforce
I.7.5 Fuel Tax Act of 2006
I.8 Maintaining Biofuel Quality Standards

J. Regulatory Support for the Ethanol Industry
J.1 Support under Renewable Energy Programs (1999 to 2003)
J.2 Support under Biofuels Capital Grants Program (2003-2004)
J.3 Support under Programs for the Sugar Industry (2002-2006)
J.4 Support under Greenhouse Gas Abatement Program (2002-2006)
J.5 Support for Ethanol Vehicles
J.6 Support for the Consumption of Ethanol
J.7 Funding for Research and Development

K. Regulatory Support for the Biodiesel Industry
K.1 Tariffs for Biodiesel
K.2 Reduced Rates for Excise Taxes
K.3 Support under the Renewable Energy Equity Fund (2003-2006)
K.4 Support under the Biofuels Capital Grants Program (2003-2004)
K.5 Support under the Dairy Regional Assistance Program
K.6 Support for Land used for Biodiesel Plants
K.7 Support for Distribution and Consumption
K.8 Support for Biodiesel Vehicles
K.9 Support for the Consumption of Biodiesel
K.10 Funding for Research and Development

L. Analyzing the Trade Barriers to the Australian Biofuel Industry

M. Analyzing the Competition for Crops in Alternative Markets
M.1 Looking at the Global Scenario
M.2 Analyzing the Scenario in Australia

N. Impact of the Biofuel Industry on Regional Australia
N.1 Introduction and Overview
N.2 Economic Impact of Biofuels on Australia's Regions
N.3 Analyzing the Opportunities for Biodiesel in Regional Australia
N.4 Analyzing the Bioproducts from Sugar and Ethanol
N.5 Role of Lignocellulosic Biomass

O. Impact of Biofuels on the Feedgrain Market

P. Analyzing the Biofuel Infrastructure in Australia
P.1 Present and Future Biofuel Production Facilities
P.2 Challenges Facing Transition from First to Second Generation Production
P.2.1 Overview
P.2.2 Biofuel Production Facilities
P.2.3 Issues with Harvesting and Transportation
P.2.4 Blending and Distribution Infrastructure
P.2.5 Potential for Future Installations

Q. Leading Industry Contributors
Q.1 Australian Biodiesel Group
Q.2 Australian Ethanol
Q.3 Australian Renewable Fuels
Q.4 Axiom Energy
Q.5 Biodiesel Industries Australia
Q.6 Biodiesel Producers Australia
Q.7 Biodiesel Producers Limited
Q.8 BP Australia
Q.9 CSR Distilleries
Q.10 Dalby Biorefinery
Q.11 Eco-Tech Biodiesel
Q.12 Energetix Biodiesel
Q.13 Future Fuels
Q.14 Manildra Group
Q.15 Natural Fuels Australia
Q.16 Primary Energy
Q.17 Riverina Biofuels
Q.18 Rocky Point Sugar Mill
Q.19 Smorgon Fuels Pty Ltd
Q.20 South Australian Farmers Fuel

Section 4: Conclusion

A. Appendix

B. Glossary of Terms

List of Figures

Figure 1: Background Prices of Gasoline and Diesel
Figure 2: Energy Consumption in Australia by Fuel Type (%), 2012
Figure 3: Production and Consumption of Petroleum and Other Liquids in Australia (in Thousand Barrels per Day), 1992-2015
Figure 4: Consumption of Petroleum in Australia by Product (%), 2013
Figure 5: Leading Asia-Pacific Proven Natural Gas Reserve Holders, 2013
Figure 6: Production and Consumption of Natural Gas in Australia (in Billion Cubic Feet), 1992-2013
Figure 7: LNG Exports by Australia by Destination Countries (%), 2013
Figure 8: Coal Production and Consumption in Australia (in Million Short Tons), 1992-2012
Figure 9: Leading Global Coal Exporters by Weight (in Million Short Tons), 2011
Figure 10: Electricity Generation in Australia, by Source (%), 2013
Figure 11: RECs Created by Year by Renewable Energy Source (Historical Data)
Figure 12: Real Oil and Petrol Prices, 1990-2008
Figure 13: Full Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions per km for Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends in a Rigid Truck Compared to Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) diesel (Sulfur Content Figure 14: An LCA of Ethanol from Wheat
Figure 15: Potential for Tree Crops across Areas across Australia on Cleared Land with High Salinity Hazard
Figure 16: Amount of Biofuels that could be produced by Australian Domestic Feedstocks
Figure 17: Life-Cycle Particulate Matter (PM10) Emissions from Low Sulfur Diesel (LSD) and Use of Biodiesel from Various Feedstocks per km for Articulated Trucks
Figure 18: Comparison of Final Actual Excise Duty Rates with Energy-Adjusted Rates for Selected Transport Fuels in Australia
Figure 19: Indicative Production Costs in Australia, Showing Capital Costs, Operating Costs, Feedstock Costs
Figure 20: Community EnterpriseTM Biofuel Production Model
Figure 21: The World's Largest Producers of Ethanol (%), 2013
Figure 22: Biofuels: A Subset of Renewable Energy
Figure 23: Global Ethanol Production (%), 2013
Figure 24: Biofuels Immediate Value Chain
Figure 25: Relative Global Production Economics for Ethanol

List of Tables

Table 1: Biofuel Cost in 2012 in US$ per Liter
Table 2: EU Taxation Policy for Ethanol
Table 3: Existing and Planned Export Liquefaction Terminals in Australia
Table 4: Renewable Power Percentages from 2001 to 2006
Table 5: Annual Additional Renewable Energy Targets for Electricity Supplies Renewable Energy Target (MWh)
Table 6: Accredited Power Stations by Eligible Renewable Energy Source
Table 7: Annual Numbers of Transactions and Number of RECs Traded
Table 8: Threshold Ethanol and Biodiesel Prices
Table 9: Biofuel Feedstock Costs and By-Product Revenues
Table 10: Estimated Rate of Return for a Grain-based Ethanol Plant
Table 11: Estimated Rate of Return for a C Molasses Based Ethanol Plant
Table 12: Estimated Rate of Return for a Waste Oil Based Biodiesel Planta
Table 13: Existing and Planned Fuel-Ethanol Plants in Australia
Table 14: Existing and Planned Biodiesel Plants in Australia
Table 16: Scheme for Assessing Feedstocks for Biofuels and Bioenergy
Table 16: Key Subsidies and Other Policy Instruments in the Global Context
Table 17: Excise Transition Paths for Fuels Entering the Excise Net (Australian Cents/Liter)
Table 18: Selected Fuel Excise Rates to Apply at the End of the Phase-In Period
Table 19: CVC REEF Investments and Government Contributions
Table 20: Energy Grants (Credit) Scheme Payments, 2002 to 2010
Table 21: Effective Fuel-Tax Rates for Biodiesel in Australia, 2002 to 2015
Table 22: CVC REEF Investments and Government Contributions for Biodiesel Plants
Table 23: Some Barriers Affecting the Demand for Ethanol
Table 24: Some Barriers Affecting the Demand for Biodiesel
Table 25: Factors to Consider when Assessing Regional Opportunities for the Biofuels Industry
Table 26: Ethanol Production Capacity in Australia: Current and Proposed
Table 27: Biodiesel Production Capacity in Australia: Current and Proposed
Table 28: Forecasts for World Ethanol Market, 2013

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